Action learning and problem-based learning


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Action learning and problem-based learning

  1. 1. Teaching & Learning for high performance academicians<br />Eric Sandelands<br />Director<br />Corporate learning consultants ltd<br /><br />How does action learning and problem-based learning support the development and performance of students?<br />
  2. 2. What will be addressed<br />Implementing effective learning in the classroom based upon the principles of action learning and problem-based learning<br />Small group discussions will follow<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />
  3. 3. Opening thought<br />“We can’t solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them”<br />Albert Einstein<br />(From Marquardt & Teo, forthcoming)<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />
  4. 4. Application of action learning to classroom setting<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />Action learning and experience<br />
  5. 5. Action learning elements<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />
  6. 6. Preparing to learn (Raelin)<br />Experience<br />Classroom<br />Classroom<br />Experience<br />Can These Be Combined?<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />
  7. 7. Action learning in a classroom setting<br />Learning in a classroom environment can feel “sterile”<br />It’s removed from the realities of the workplace and life outside<br />Action learning can bring “life”, interest and meaning<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />
  8. 8. Adapting the action learning cycle (Raelin)<br />Theory<br />Experimentation<br />Experience<br /> R e – T h e o r i z i n g<br />Reflection<br />LEARNING<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />
  9. 9. The Ultimate Goal: To Learn Together<br />(Adapted from Raelin)<br /><ul><li>Develop a social culture in their own right.
  10. 10. Constitute students working on real problems where possible.
  11. 11. Discuss not only the practical dilemmas arising from actions in their work settings, but the applications or misapplications of theories and concepts to these actions.
  12. 12. Afford real-time experience in group dynamics, such as providing and accepting feedback.
  13. 13. Provide a base of support.</li></ul>Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />Learning in teams<br />
  14. 14. A move towards facilitation<br />Opportunity to facilitate rather than direct as the expert<br />Opportunity to instil learning principles rather than subject knowledge<br />Opportunity to help teams maximize learning from their time together<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />
  15. 15. Experiential inquiry<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />Problem-based learning<br />
  16. 16. Problem-based learning<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />
  17. 17. What is problem-based learning?<br />In problem-based learning (PBL), small groups of students are presented with contextual situations and asked to define the problem, decide what skills and resources are necessary to investigate the problem and then pose possible solutions. (Duch, Groh & Allen, 2001) <br />PBL courses start with the problems rather than with exposition of disciplinary knowledge. <br />Students acquire knowledge skills and understanding through a staged sequence of problems presented in sequence.<br />(McCarthy)<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />
  18. 18. Work on problem scenario<br />Lead through the process<br />Students pose questions, “learning issues,” identifying what they need to know<br />rank the learning issues in terms of importance and decide who will investigate which issue<br />identify needed resources and where they might be found<br />gather needed information through individual and group investigation<br />reconvene to integrateinformation<br />generate and evaluate possible solutions<br />make needed decisions or take agreed upon actions<br />communicate results as appropriate for problem resolution<br />debrief on problem solving experience<br />(Howard)<br />Learning is initiated with a problem<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />
  19. 19. Problem <br />Engagement<br />Inquiry and <br />Investigation<br />problem <br />definition<br />Problem <br />Resolution<br />Problem <br />Stepien & Gallagher<br />Debriefing<br />The process of problem-based learning?<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />
  20. 20. A suggested PBL process<br />Small groups of students (&lt;8) work with a PBL tutor or facilitator<br />Groups usually meet twice a week for around 2-3 hours<br />At the first meeting, students are presented with an unfamiliar situation or problem (trigger)<br />Students identify the main issues and formulate questions to work on<br />Following a period of individual study (2-3 days) the group reconvenes<br />They discuss what they have learnt and apply this to the original problem<br />Supporting activities (labs, lectures) are timetabled as ‘fixed resource sessions’ during the period of individual study<br />(McCarthy)<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />
  21. 21. Characteristics of a good PBL facilitator.<br />A knowledge of the PBL process<br />Commitment to student directed learning<br />Ability to generate a non-threatening environment whilst still acting to promote discussion and critical thinking<br />An ability to facilitate and not teach.<br />Willingness to make constructive evaluation of student and group performance.<br />(McCarthy)<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />
  22. 22. Characteristics of a good PBL student<br />Prompt and present for all sessions<br />A knowledge of the PBL process<br />Commitment to self/student directed learning<br />Active participation in discussion and critical thinking whilst contributing to a friendly non-threatening environment<br />Willingness to make constructive evaluation of self, group and tutor<br />(McCarthy)<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />
  23. 23. Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />A worked example<br />
  24. 24. Emerald Publishing Group Ltd Corporate Academy<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />
  25. 25. Emerald Academy structure<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />
  26. 26. Emerald Academy process<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />
  27. 27. Sample workshop agenda (Workshop 2 of 6)<br />Workshop introduction/ learning log reflections<br />Group presentations: Project proposals and next actions<br />Project proposal formal feedback<br />Learning styles<br />Workshop reflections and next actions<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />
  28. 28. Project outcomes (recent groups)<br />Developing Emerald’s “corporate story” (branding)<br />Managing customer transition process<br />Achieving environmental standard ISO 14001<br />Developing publishing products for Executive MBAs<br />Communicating the stakeholder relationships management process<br />Developing academic authors in Africa<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />
  29. 29. Observations on effectiveness of pbl<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />Development & performance of students<br />
  30. 30. Factors that influence PBL<br />Implications on practice<br />“The principles of PBL go can be traced back to medieval times where apprenticeship was an art as well as a science.”<br />“If people do not acknowledge the existence of a prior problem, then learning may not have taken place.” [double-loop learning]<br />“The starting point of action learning is akin to PBL… The team looking into this (problem solving activity) has to consider all aspects of PBL at the conceptualization stage.”<br />“There are many examples of PBL [being utilized] in the workplace…. Educational administrators, training nurses for practice…”<br />(Quotes from a study by Marquardt & Teo)<br />Problems as building blocks for learning<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />
  31. 31. Problem-based learning promotes<br />Intentional learning<br />Relational understanding<br />Critical thinking<br />Creative thinking<br />Effective collaboration<br />Versatile communication<br />(Howard)<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />
  32. 32. Problem-based learning provides<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />
  33. 33. Using action learning and PBL<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br /><ul><li>Share your challenges
  34. 34. We can briefly discuss now
  35. 35. We can revisit them in small groups</li></li></ul><li>Questions or further explanations?<br />Corporate Learning Consultants Ltd.<br />