Case Based Problem Based Learning


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Case Based Problem Based Learning

  1. 1. Case-Based and Problem-Based Learning We only think when we are confronted with problems.   John Dewey
  2. 2. Uses of CBL/PBL in consultation <ul><li>Presentations - provide opportunity for participants to apply new information </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Professional development -  enhance knowledge, skills and abilities toward innovation </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Team building - 'mock problem' solving eases defensiveness and increases cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity building - solidifying client skills so work can continue following consultation </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Entree - reduce resistance as participants take alternate perspectives to increase empathy and buy-in </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definition of case <ul><li>  &quot;Cases are narrative descriptions of a specific activity , event , or problem drawn from the real world of professional practice . They incorporate vivid background information and personal perspectives that can elicit empathy and make students more aware of tradeoffs . Cases seek to engage the student in the drama of real situations. They include contigencies, complexities , and other dilemmas to evoke integrative analysis and critical thinking.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Carroll & Rosson, 2006 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Parallels between CBL & PBL <ul><li>Cases </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed in schools of law and medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on people and their circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically experiences and intentions of people in the case are central </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What actions would you take? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed in business management schools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on situational factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically people are considered as human resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  How to use, assign </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  or leverage resources? </li></ul>For the remainder of this presentation, the term, 'problems,' will include both problems and cases unless noted.
  5. 5. Definition of problem-based learning <ul><li>  &quot;Problem-based learning (PBL) is the learning that results from the process of working toward the understanding or resolution of a problem.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Barrows & Tamblyn, 1980 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  6. 6. Participant perspectives
  7. 7. Problem types <ul><li>Quantitative - financial; data analysis; assessment / evaluation; cost-benefit; and resource distribution. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretational - quality; instruction methods; beliefs and values; and ethical dilemmas. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Decision oriented - Solutions; choices; long-term vision / direction; and consequences / ramifications. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Lecturing  - the expert explains the facts and resolution </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Theorizing  - the instructor leads to the relevant </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrating - the tutor guides attention to the salient </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Choreographing - the coach questions and prompts </li></ul>Methods used in PBL
  9. 9. Stages of the PBL process <ul><ul><li>Scenario - indepth understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis - critical facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insights - main conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources - available & additional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision - option generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposal - solution selection </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Collaborative Learning Cycle Adapted from Paul Martney, London South Bank University Groups will engage in the Collaborative Learning Cycle during each stage of PBL process.
  11. 11. Instruction Quality & PBL <ul><li>Quality Indicators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment - before, during and after </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depth versus breadth - generalizability is increased when topics are deeply understood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metacognition - how one organizes, strategizes, and utilizes knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex application - comprehensive trials to use new learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brandsford, et al., 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>PBL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior knowledge will vary among learners in the group. Progress through the PBL will allow learners to self- and peer-assess. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep analysis of the problem is rich to elicit multiple perspective taking. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing one another's problem-solving strategies is thinking about one's own thinking. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PBL can be designed to be time-limited with incomplete background information. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The consultant's necessary skills <ul><li>Problem writing - a well-crafted, ambiguous or conflictual scenario; open to multiple perspective-taking; matched to level of participants' prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitation - lead groups through the process; use multimodal methods; note commonalities & differences </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion - build consensus; articulate the key discussion points relative to the purpose </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Summary - chart or list solutions; emphasize the innovation evident in the solutions </li></ul>
  13. 13. References   Barrows & Tamblyn. (1980). Problem-based learning: An approach to medical education. New York: Springer.   Brandsford, J. D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (Eds.) (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience and school. Expanded edition. Washington, DC:National Academy Press.   Caroll & Rosson. (2006). Case studies as minimalist information. IEEE Transactions of Professional Communication, 49 (4), pp. 297-310.   Problem Based Learning available at
  14. 14. For more information. . . <ul><li>Emic Consultancy </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>David E. Emenheiser </li></ul><ul><li>913 Blue Ridge Drive </li></ul><ul><li>Annapolis, Maryland 21409 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>410 302 6844 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>