Intellectual Property & Information Technology Laws News Bulletin Delhi • Mumbai • Gurgaon • Bengaluru Vol. VI, Issue 1, May-June 2011 Celebrating 40 years of professional excellenceFrom the Editor’s Desk... Inside: - Trademark Registration changes in India: Application Fees goes up!!!Dear Readers,Indian IP scenario is changing, so is the Indian IP office is Trade Mark & Patent : Search for free!!!also changing. The office of the Controller, Patents,Designs and Trademarks in India has come up with somepeople-friendly features in its official website. The Check it!!!Trademarks Registry in India has made trademark searchengine officially free. Now, India is at par with many other Do you fall in the category of well knowncountries having well-equipped online trademark searchprocess. Trademarks?In this issue we have focused on a major trade markinfringement case decided by the High Court of Delhi Prohibited Trademarks in India!!!wherein the Court refused to grant injunctions onsubstantially descriptive marks, using the decisions as an Indian IPR Decisionsopportunity to censure such "bad" trademarkregistrations, and discuss the Indian position ondescriptive marks in general. · MARICO LIMITED Vs. AGRO TECH FOODSThe law in regards commercial disparagement is crystal LTD. 174 (2010) DLT 279clear i.e. a trader can puff up his goods in comparison to hiscompetitors goods but he cannot denigrate or disparage · NIPPON STEEL CORPORATION Vs. UNIONthe competitors goods while doing so. This issue also OF INDIA & ORS.analyses n a decision of the Delhi High Court which drawsthe line between harmless puffery and denigration of arival product i.e. Comparative Advertising. Recently, a · GLAXOSMITHKLINE CONSUMERnumber of cases have been filed before various High HEALTHCARE LTD. Vs. HEINZ INDIA (P) LTDCourts of India against denigrating advertisements.Violation of intellectual property rights (IPR) continue toincrease, having reached, in recent years, industrial · THE ACADEMY OF GENERAL EDUCATION,propositions. MANIPAL Vs. SMT. MALINI MALLYAMIPRWe also focus on the changing mindset of the Indian 2008 (1) 0373Judiciary towards curbing the menace of piracy and thechange in the liability of the intermediaries after theAmendment of (Indian) Information Technology Act, Knowledge Bank2000. · INDIAN COURTS STRIKE AT PIRACYWe welcome, as always, your views, comments and input.With Regards. · LIABILITY OF INTERMEDIARIES UNDER THEVijay Pal Dalmia IT AMENDMENT ACT 2008Head IP & IT Divisionvpdalmia@vaishlaw.com For Private Circulation Vaish Associates Advocates …Distinct. By Experience.
Intellectual Property & Information Technology Laws News Bulletin RECENT DEVELOPMENTS means a mark which has become so to the substantial segment of the public which uses such goods or receives such services that Trademark Registration changes in India the use of such mark in relation to other goods or service would Application Fees goes up!!! be likely to be taken as indicating a connection in the course of trade or rendering of services between those goods or services The official fees for filing a trademark and a person using the mark in relation to the first-mentioned application in India in a single class has goods or services. been increased from ` 2,500 to ` 3,500, with effect from December A well known trademark under Section 9 of the (Indian) Trade 29, 2010. Therefore, going forward, Marks Act, 1999, can seek registration as a matter of right. the official fees for filing a trademark Further under Section 11(2) of the (Indian) Trade Marks Act, registration application in a single 1999, a trade mark shall not be registered if the earlier trade mark class will be ` 3,500. is a well-known trade mark in India and the use of the later mark Trademark Search for free!!! without due cause would take unfair advantage of or be detrimental to the distinctive character or repute of the earlier In a public friendly decision, the Ministry well known trade mark. of Commerce and Industry (Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion) has Under Section 11(10) of the (Indian) Trade Marks Act, 1999, a abolished the fee for search including the duty has been casted upon the Registrar to protect a well-known system of Official Search1. Now, any trademark against the identical or similar trademarks. interested person can conduct a search Criteria for determining whether a trademark is a well known from the online data base of the Registrar trademark or not has been provided under Section 11(6) of the of Trademarks free of cost2. According (Indian) Trade Marks Act, 1999 as under:-to this notice, anyone can now access the search facility at the i. Knowledge or recognition of the trademark in the relevantIPO website at zero cost. Now, India is at par with many other section of the public.countries having well-equipped online trademark searchprocess. ii. Knowledge obtained by the public as a result of promotion of trademark. Check it!!! iii. The duration, extent and geographical area of any use of the Is your trademark a “well known” trademark. Trademark? iv. The duration, extent and geographical area of any As per the Website of the Controller of promotion of the trademark. Patents, Trademarks and Designs, India, v. Advertising or publicity and presentation at fairs. following Trademarks are being treated as well known Trademarks, which may enjoy vi. Exhibition of the goods or services. 3 special protection status . vii. Duration and geographical area of any registration. 4As per Section 2(zg) of the (Indian) Trade Marks Act, 1999 , a viii. Record of successful enforcement of the rights in the"well-known trade mark" , in relation to any goods or services, trademark. ix. Recognition of the trademark as a well known trademark by1. http://www.ipindia.nic.in/iponew/publicNotice_13january2011.pdf any Court or Registrar.2. http://www.ipindia.nic.in/iponew/publicNotice_13january2011.pdf3. http://18.104.22.168/tmrpublicsearch/frmwellknownmarks.aspx4. http://ipindia.nic.in/tmr_new/tmr_act_rules/TMRAct_New.pdfMay-June, 2011 Intellectual Property & Information Technology Laws News Bulletin 2
Intellectual Property & Information Technology Laws News Bulletin 7 O CLOCK LETTER T IN A CIRCLE 2, 4, 5-T HETHOXYCHLOR 2, 4, D HHDN AIWA Logo M’ ALDRIN ICS BAJAJ MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA ALLETHRIN INTERPOL BATA MARS ANIZPHOS-METHYL IR BENZ NIRMA ANTU ISI BISLERI ODOMOS ASOKA CHAKRA ISO CARREFOUR ODONIL ATRATON LINDANE CARTIER OMEGA AZINPHOS-ETHYL LORD BUDDHA CATERPILLAR PANADOL BALAJI LORD VENKATESWARA CHARLIEPEPSI BHC MAHATMA GANDHI CHATRAPATI SHIVAJI MAHARAJ MALATHION DR. REDDY PHILIPS CHLORBENSIDE MAZIDOX DUNHILL PIZZA HUT CHLORDANE MCPA ENFIELD BULLET PLAYBOY CHLORFENSON MECARBAM EVIAN Mineral Water REVLON CHLOROBENZILATE MEVIPHOS FEDDERS RED BULL CHLORPROPHAM MIPAFOX GLAXO TACO BELL DAZOMET MORPHOTHION Hamdard TATA DHARMA CHAKRA NATIONAL HAYWARDS 5000 TELCO DIAZINON NCL HOLIDAY INN TOSHIBA DIELDRIN NEHRU HONDA USHA DIMETHOATE NEOD DINEX NPL HORLICKS VICKS DINOPROP PANCHSHEEL Infosys VOLVO DINOSAM PANDIT JAWAHARLAL NEHRU Intel WHIRLPOOL DNC PARAQUAT INTIMATE WOOLWORTH DNOC PARATHION KANGARO Yahoo D-T PP-DDT KIRLOSKAR ENDRIN PROPHAM FENOPROP SCHRADAN Prohibited!!! FENSON SHIVAJI FENTHION SHREE SAI BABA In India, use of certain emblems and names FERBAM SRI RAMKRISHNA is prohibited for any professional or GAMMA-BHC SRI SARDA DEVI commercial purposes under THE GANDHI SWAMI VIVEKANANDA EMBLEMS AND NAMES (PREVENTION GURU AMAR DAS THE BHARAT SCOUTS AND GUIDES OF IMPROPER USE) ACT, 19505. This law GURU ANGAD THE HOLY MOTHER has been enacted by the Government of GURU ARJUN DEV THIRAMIndia for protecting public interest. The prohibited names also GURU GOVIND SINGH TOXAPHENEinclude some generic names of salts and chemicals. GURU HAR KRISHNAN UNESCO GURU HAR RAI UNITED NATIONSRecently, the Controller of Patents, Trademarks and Designs, GURU HARGOBIND UNOIndia, has come up with a list of Trademarks of the words and GURU NANAK VENKATESWARAsymbols registration of which have been prohibited under the GURU RAM DAS WARFARIN(Indian) Trademarks Act, 19996. GURU TEJ BAHADUR WHO HEPTACHLOR WIPO5. http://www.fcamin.nic.in/Events/EventDetails.asp?EventId=1247& ZINEB Section=Acts%20and%20Rules&ParentID=0&Parent=1&check=06. http://22.214.171.124/tmrpublicsearch/frmprohibitedmarks.aspxMay-June, 2011 Intellectual Property & Information Technology Laws News Bulletin 3
Intellectual Property & Information Technology Laws News Bulletin expression … for claiming the same to be an exclusive trademark INDIAN IPR DECISIONS and which descriptive word mark bears an indication to the MARICO LIMITED products kind, quality, use or characteristic etc.” Vs. According to the court, both the trademarks "LOSORB" and "LO- SORB" were a minor variation on the descriptive phrase "LOW AGRO TECH FOODS LTD. ABSORB". The phrase itself was not an unusual juxtaposition of 174 (2010) DLT 279 English words. Losorb Vs. Low-Absorb PATENT Description or Deception? NIPPON STEEL CORPORATION Vs. UNION OF INDIA A “descriptive word” cannot be & ORS. registered as a trademark, the Delhi High W.P (C) 801 of 2011 in the High Court of Delhi . Court held so while dismissing an appeal Amendment of Patent Application after abandonment of filed by FMCG major Marico seeking Patent Application Due to failure to file Request for injunction on the use of word “Low Examination: Consequences absorb” by Agro Tech Foods Ltd., makers of SUNDROP oil. Under Section 11-B(4) of the Indian Patents Act 1970, after filing of the application for grant of patent, an applicant needs to make a Marico, which uses the expressions request to the patent office to examine the patent application losorb and “Lo-sorb” for its product within 48 months of the priority date of the application. Saffola and Sweekar respectively, had Otherwise, the application will be deemed to have been filed an injunction application against withdrawn. Agro Tech Foods Ltd. claiming that the use of the expression “LOW-ABSORB” An interesting question of law involving the interpretation of in the product Sundrop oil, by “Agro Section 11-B (1) and (4) of the Patents Act, 1970 (Act) and Rule Tech” was deceptively similar to 24 B of the Patents Rules 2003 (Rules) arose in the writ petition Maricos registered trademark Losorb filed by Nippon Corporation before the High Court of Delhi. and Lo-sorb. They also claimed that On February 9, 2007, the Petitioner herein filed an application use of the expression “LOW ABSORB TECHNOLOGY” in being under the Patent Cooperative Treaty (”PCT”) that relation to its edible oil product amounts to passing off the goods designates India as a member. The said application claimed of Marico. priority date of February 9, 2006 from a Japanese Patent Dealing with the contention of Marico regarding trademark application No. 2006-031911. infringement, the court held that the word “LOW ABSORB” was Due to an accidental docketing error in the computer in the a common descriptive expression, and while rejecting the appeal, attorneys office, the deadline for filing the RFE in India was the Court held that the expression “LOW ABSORB” is not a inadvertently missed by over 8 months. When it came to the coined word and at best it is a combination of two popular English knowledge of the petitioners attorney, steps were immediately words which are descriptive of the nature of the product. taken to rectify the said error by filing an application for In a caustic comment on the trend of claiming trademark amendment of the priority date of the application under Section monopoly over descriptive words, the court said: 57 (5) of the Indian Patents Act, 1970. “It is high time that those persons who are first of the blocks in The amendment sought was to disregard the Japanese priority using a trade mark which is … purely descriptive [of the] product date of February 9, 2006 and to change the applications priority ought to be discouraged from appropriating [such] a descriptive date to the international filing date of the PCT application i.e.May-June, 2011 Intellectual Property & Information Technology Laws News Bulletin 4
Intellectual Property & Information Technology Laws News BulletinFebruary 9, 2007. The idea was that by making this amendment, Deciding in favour of GlaxoSmithKline (Horlicks), the courtthe deadline for filing the RFE would stand extended to four years recognised the powerful and lasting impact that audio visual(48 months) from February 9, 2007 and would expire on images have on viewers. Court held that unlike the printed word,February 9, 2011. which is processed analyzed, and assimilated uniquely by each individual, an advertisement in the electronic media, particularly,The Indian Patent Office refused to entertain the request for has a different impact. The Court further observed that it is foramendment, pointing out that the request had become time- this reason that the disparaging advertising by Complan wasbarred, since the application had ceased to exist. The petitioner looked upon with more severity than the print advertisement bypreferred a writ petition before the High Court of Delhi, Horlicks. Advertisers therefore will have to tread much morehowever, when the matter reached court, the patent applicant carefully when creating comparative advertisements forargued, inter alia, that while there may be a time limit for television.submitting an RFE, a request for amending the priority date couldbe taken on record at any time. The law in regards commercial disparagement is crystal clear i.e. aJustice S Muralidhar of the Delhi High Court, in a decision crafted trader can puff up his goods inwith immense clarity, held that a request for amendment could comparison to his competitorsbe made “only in relation to an application that exists in law”. The goods but he cannot denigrate orapplicants writ petition was dismissed without merit, and the disparage the competitors goodsIPOs decision to reject the request for amendment was upheld. while doing so. Therefore while it DISPARAGEMENT may be permissible to state that Product A is better than Product B it is not permissible to state that Product B is worse than GLAXOSMITHKLINE CONSUMER HEALTHCARE LTD. Product A. There is a plethora of Indian case-law laying down the Vs. criteria for puffing. HEINZ INDIA (P) LTD. COPYRIGHT The Nutrition Brand Wars Continue! THE ACADEMY OF GENERAL EDUCATION, MANIPAL Harmless puffery Vs.Denigration of a rival product Vs. The Horlicks-Complan Saga reached new SMT. MALINI MALLYA heights with GlaxoSmithKline (Horlicks) MIPR 2008 (1) 0373 filing two suits against Heinz (Complan) for disparaging their product as cheap and a Literary works vs. dramatic works compromise. This particular ad-war took a In the above case, the famous rather ugly turn with the competitors calling Kannada writer Dr. Karanath, byeach others product cheap. a registered Will bequeathedThe first suit pertains to two advertisements by Complan (Heinz) Copyrights of his literary worksagainst Horlicks wherein the Complan Mother tells the to SMT. MALINI MALLYA (The“Horlicks Mother” that shes compromising her childs health by Respondent). The allegation ofbuying a product made of cheap ingredients. the respondent in the original suit was that the Appellant tried to copy a distinctive DANCE FORM,The second suit pertains to a print advertisement comparing the which was developed by Lt. Dr. Karanath, resulting iningredients of Complan and Horlicks with specific emphasis on infringement of Copyright over the said dance form. The Trialthe fact that some of the ingredients in Horlicks are cheap and Court decided the case in favour of the Respondent, hence thehow a Childs growth would be compromised by Horlicks.May-June, 2011 Intellectual Property & Information Technology Laws News Bulletin 5
Intellectual Property & Information Technology Laws News Bulletin The respect for copyright regime would greatlypresent Appeal was filed by the Appellant, The Academy of increase as in recent cases the Courts haveGeneral Education, Manipal. come down heavily on lawbreakers. It isIn the Appeal, one of the basic contention of the Appellant was astounding to note that Microsoft has filed almostthat literary works are different from dramatic works, hence, around 300 cases in Delhi High Court itself in thethere was no infringement of the Copyright. Another contention last 3 years. Delhi High Court continues toof the Appellant was Lt. Dr. Karanath had bequeathed copyrights remain tough on the issues of software piracy in the country.of his literary works only, which does not include the dramatic Since 2005, the Courts in India having original jurisdiction haveworks. seen a deluge of IP cases and have also begun awarding punitive and compensatory damages in such matters.Deciding the above controversy, the Court held that Section In a landmark judgment against software13(1)(a) of the Copyright Act, 1957 classifies the works into four infringement in the year 2009, which came as acategories namely, original sigh of relief for the two plaintiffs, Microsoft • Literary; and Adobe, the Delhi High Court has awarded ` 10,00,000/- as compensatory and punitive • Dramatic; damages against the infringing company for • Musical; and using pirated software for commercial purposes without • Artistic works. adequate and genuine licences7. The Court expressed the view that counterfeiting and use of duplicate software by thein which copyright subsists, and that does not give room to take Defendant not only violates the legal rights of the Plaintiffs andthe view that a literary work has nothing to do with a dramatic cause financial damages, but also causes deception to the publicwork and vice versa. It was also held that dramatic work is also a as well. The Court also expressed concern for the huge losses ofform of literature. revenue, which the government suffers as such counterfeiters neither maintains any account books nor pays any taxes. KNOWLEDGE BANK While passing the above judgment, the Court heavily relied on INDIAN COURTS STRIKE AT PIRACY the famous judgment of Time Incorporated v/s Lokesh Srivastava8, wherein it was held that: "Courts dealing with actionsIn a spate of recent judgments, the Indian for infringement of trademarks, copyrights, patents etc, shouldjudiciary has shown zero tolerance for not only grant compensatory damages but award punitivecopyright infringement and has been damages also with a view to discourage and dishearten lawprompt in providing interim remedies to breakers, who indulge in violations with impunity out of lust forsoftware owners. The judicial activism money so that they realise that in case they are caught, theyhas provided a fillip to anti piracy would be liable not only to reimburse the aggrieved party, butcampaign even as software businesses step up the fight against would be liable to pay punitive damages also, which may spellpiracy in an attempt to plug losses running into thousands of financial disaster for them.”crores of rupees every year. The Court has sent a strong message through this judgment, that According to Sixth Annual BSA (Business Software piracy of software not only harms the copyright owner, but also Alliance) - IDC (International Data Corporation) affects the national economy as a whole and is a deterrent to Global Software Piracy Study released in May 2009 economic growth. This recent trend demonstrated by the Indian the piracy losses in India was nearly $2.7 billion. judiciary is particularly noticeable, as it is a significant step in (http://www.bsa.org/idcstudy.aspx) creating extremely healthy precedents in the IPR regime in India.While the laws to enforce copyright regime in India were always 7. Adobe Systems, Inc and Anr. v Mr. P.Bhooominathan and Anr. , 2009 (39)present, their enforcement remained tardy. Presently pirated PTC 658 (Del)CDs are freely available in the markets and the fear of law 8. 2005 (30) PTC 3 (Del)enforcement is nearly non-existent.May-June, 2011 Intellectual Property & Information Technology Laws News Bulletin 6
Intellectual Property & Information Technology Laws News BulletinCourts are becoming sensitive to the growing menace of piracy. In order to avoid getting directly or indirectlyThey have started granting punitive damages even in cases where implicated legal actions for software piracy,the exact sale figures of the defendant are not known. which is punishable with imprisonment upto 3 years and fine upto ` 2,00,000/-10 besides In the matter of Microsoft Corporation v. incurring Civil liability in the form of Deepak Raval9, wherein the Court while injunction, damages and compensation, it is advisable to get an granting damages of ` 5,00,000/- , heavily immediate internal audit carried out of your Information relied on the principle that while awarding Technology Infrastructure and Computer Network through a punitive damages for wilful, intentional law firm or Conduct a self-audit of the software licenses and and flagrant violation of the plaintiffs acquire any license needed for full compliance. It is also equallycopyright, the Court should take into consideration conduct of important to have Information Technology and Intellectualwrong doer. Property Usage Policy in your organization.Apart from the judicial activism and enhanced judicial process of LIABILITY OF INTERMEDIARIES UNDER THE ITprotection of IPRs by the Indian Courts, the Indian Government AMENDMENT ACT 2008has also set up a Copyright Enforcement Advisory Council toreview the progress of enforcement of the Copyright Act that After the notification of Information Technologyprohibits the sale of any unauthorized copy of the computer Amendment Act, 2008 in the official gazette, itprogramme. The Council also reviews the progress of came into force on October 27, 200911. Underenforcement of the Copyright Act and also advises on measures, the Information Technology Act, 200012 (oldboth on the policy front as well as on the implementation front for Act), intermediary was defined as any person,its better enforcement. Special cells for monitoring the who on behalf of another person, receives,enforcement of copyright have been set at police headquarters in stores or transmits that message or provides any service withthe States and Union Territories of India. Also, a police officer of respect to that message. However, the Information Technologythe rank of sub-inspector is empowered to seize infringing Amendment Act, 2008 1 3 has clarified the definitioncopies, duplicating and other equipments used for making “Intermediary” by specifically including the telecom servicesinfringing copies, without a warrant. providers, network providers, internet service providers, web-It is to be noted that IPR law firms are playing a crucial role in hosting service providers in the definition of intermediariescurbing the menace of piracy and trademark violation. thereby removing any doubts. Furthermore, search engines,Increasingly, a large number of corporate houses, movie, Music online payment sites, online-auction sites, online market placesand software companies are hiring the IPR lawyers to seek legal and cyber cafés are also included in the definition of therecourse. The IPR lawyers help in collecting evidence against intermediary.copyright and trademark violation, coordinate with the local Section 79 deals with the immunitypolice authorities in conducting raids and also seek effective and of the intermediaries. Section 79 ofimmediate remedy in the Courts by seeking injunction orders. the old Act (IT Act 2000) wasKeeping in mind the stringent software laws and their vaguely drafted and wasenforcement, it is imperative for companies to be legally considered harsh on the intermediaries. One such example is thecompliant with all the rules and regulations. There are several case of Baazee.com (now renamed as ebay.in), an auction portalgood ways to keep track of licenses and users, like using available which is owned by the American auction giants Ebay.com.software asset management systems, audit tools, and otherresources to ensure software compliance. It is also particularly 10. Section 63B of the Copyright Act, 1957; http://copyright.gov.in/Documents/CopyrightRules1957.pdfimportant to educate the staff on the licensing requirements of 11. http://www.mit.gov.in/sites/upload_files/dit/files/downloads/itact2000/ act301009.pdfsoftware purchases. 12. http://www.mit.gov.in/sites/upload_files/dit/files/downloads/itact2000 /itbill2000.pdf 13. http://www.mit.gov.in/sites/upload_files/dit/files/downloads/itact2000/9. MANU/DE/3700/2006 in CS (OS) No. 529 of 2003 it_amendment_act2008.pdfMay-June, 2011 Intellectual Property & Information Technology Laws News Bulletin 7
Intellectual Property & Information Technology Laws News BulletinIn this case, the CEO of the company was arrested14 for allowing an commit an unlawful act and it fails to expeditiously remove orauction of a pornographic video clip involving two students on his disable access to that material.website. Under the old Act, intermediaries were exempted only tothe extent if they proved that they had no knowledge of the Even though the intermediaries are giveninfringement or they had exercised all due diligence to prevent such immunity under Section 79, they could still beinfringement or offence. This kind of approach made websites held liable under Section 72A for disclosure ofliable if constructive knowledge was proved or it lacked sufficient personal information of any person wheremeasures to prevent such infringement. It is virtually impossible for such disclosure is without consent and is withany website, having medium traffic, to monitor its contents and intent to cause wrongful loss or wrongful gain or in breach of ainvolves cost implications as well. lawful contract. The punishment for such disclosure is imprisonment extending upto three years or fine extending to fiveThis draconian approach led to the amendment of the Information lakh rupees or both. This provision introduced under ITTechnology Act 2000. Under the Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008, is aimed at protection of privacy andAmendment Act, 2008, Section 79 has been modified to the effect personal information of a person.that an intermediary shall not be liable for any third partyinformation data or communication link made available or hosted The most controversial portion of the IT Amendment Act 2008 isby him. This is however subject to following conditions: the proviso that has been added to Section 81 which states that the provisions of the Act shall have overriding effect. The proviso states• the function of the intermediary is limited to providing access that nothing contained in the Act shall restrict any person from to a communication system over which information made exercising any right conferred under the Copyright Act, 1957 and available by third parties is transmitted or temporarily stored the Patents Act, 1970. This provision has created a lot of confusion or hosted; as to the extent of liability provided under section 79.• the intermediary does not initiate the transmission or select Section 79 under IT Amendment Act, is the receiver of the transmission and select or modify the purported to be a safe harbour provision information contained in the transmission; modelled on the EU Directive 2000/31.• the intermediary observes due diligence while discharging his However, Information Technology duties. Amendment Act 2008 left a lot to be desired. Both EU and USA provide specific exclusion to internet service providers under theAs a result of this provision, social respective Copyright legislations. In order to clarify the issue andnetworking sites like Facebook, Twitter, put the controversy to rest, Indian legislators need to insert aOrkut etc. would be immune from liability similar provision proving immunity to ISP in the Copyright Act,as long as they satisfy the conditions 1957.provided under the section. Similarly, Internet Service Providers(ISP), blogging sites, etc. would also be exempt from liability. It is interesting to note that even auction sites, search engines and cyberHowever, an intermediary would loose the immunity, if the café s fall within definition ofintermediary has conspired or abetted or aided or induced intermediaries. There is no parallelwhether by threats or promise or otherwise in the commission of legislation in the world which provides immunity to such a widethe unlawful act. range of intermediaries. This can be reason behind addition ofSections 79 also introduced the concept of proviso to Section 81. Nevertheless, Information Technology“notice and take down” provision as prevalent in Amendment Act 2008 makes a genuine effort to provide immunitymany foreign jurisdictions. It provides that an to the intermediaries but has failed to achieve its objective due tointermediary would lose its immunity if upon loose drafting of few provisions. Indian Legislators need to plug inreceiving actual knowledge or on being notified these gaps and provide indispensable immunity to the ISPs tothat any information, data or communication link residing in or enable them to operate in India without any fear and inhibitions.connected to a computer resource controlled by it is being used toMay-June, 2011 Intellectual Property & Information Technology Laws News Bulletin 8