LOGO
What is Logo? <ul><li>computer programming language designed for use by learners </li></ul><ul><li>also powerful and can b...
What is Logo? <ul><li>Logo was based on LISP, a programming language used in artificial intelligence research </li></ul><u...
Usage of Logo <ul><li>widely used in the classrooms of Europe and Japan </li></ul><ul><li>In England, Logo is a mandated p...
How it works? <ul><li>The computer interprets every command separately while the program is running rather than running a ...
Why Use Logo? <ul><li>not limited to any particular topic or subject </li></ul><ul><li>has a natural tendency for the expl...
<ul><li>make the bridge from the concrete to the abstract, particularly with geometry and algebraic thinking </li></ul><ul...
LOGO as a Programming Language for Educational Applications <ul><li>Theories of Jerome Bruner, a great promoter of Piageti...
LOGO as a Programming Language for Educational Applications <ul><li>symbolic  representation is linguistic in nature </li>...
Turtle graphics and Bruner's forms of representation <ul><li>The concept of a geometric figure, say a square, can be trans...
“ Whole-brain learning&quot; <ul><li>The right brain tends to specialize in schematic thinking and detailed visual imagery...
“ Whole-brain learning&quot; <ul><li>allows the left brain to communicate with the right brain </li></ul><ul><li>In order ...
Learning Problem Solving Skills <ul><li>our problem solving activity grows out of our creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Out of ...
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Logo

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Logo

  1. 1. LOGO
  2. 2. What is Logo? <ul><li>computer programming language designed for use by learners </li></ul><ul><li>also powerful and can be effectively used as a mathematical problem-solving tool without limits </li></ul><ul><li>originally developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the 1960's to allow people, even small children, to use computers as a learning tool </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Logo? <ul><li>Logo was based on LISP, a programming language used in artificial intelligence research </li></ul><ul><li>It is the language for learning and is a tool to teach the process of learning and thinking </li></ul>
  4. 4. Usage of Logo <ul><li>widely used in the classrooms of Europe and Japan </li></ul><ul><li>In England, Logo is a mandated part of the national curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Now that most schools have a lab such that each student can have their own computer, using Logo in the mathematics classroom can be even more powerful </li></ul>
  5. 5. How it works? <ul><li>The computer interprets every command separately while the program is running rather than running a program that &quot;compiles&quot; the entire program into machine code. </li></ul><ul><li>a program that is &quot;interpreted&quot; runs more slowly </li></ul><ul><li>is actually a plus if you want to use Logo for education </li></ul><ul><li>Students can try their Logo procedures immediately and make changes and additions to their work easily with immediate results </li></ul>
  6. 6. Why Use Logo? <ul><li>not limited to any particular topic or subject </li></ul><ul><li>has a natural tendency for the exploration of mathematics concepts and for promoting mathematical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>encourages students to explore and to think about the processes involved in developing mathematical ideas </li></ul><ul><li>The creation of a product becomes more important than the finished product itself </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>make the bridge from the concrete to the abstract, particularly with geometry and algebraic thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Turtle graphics - leads to natural investigations of geometry concepts with easy-to-learn commands </li></ul><ul><li>Logo provides an arena where students use algebra, need algebra and enjoy the productivity of algebra </li></ul>Why Use Logo?
  8. 8. LOGO as a Programming Language for Educational Applications <ul><li>Theories of Jerome Bruner, a great promoter of Piagetian theory, clearly frame the significance of Logo as a tool for education. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies in Cognitive Growth - three modes of representing knowledge: enactive, iconic, and symbolic </li></ul><ul><li>enactive representation the significance of a stimulus is in the motor reaction it produces </li></ul><ul><li>Iconic representation is representing external objects with images, either internal or external </li></ul>
  9. 9. LOGO as a Programming Language for Educational Applications <ul><li>symbolic representation is linguistic in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Children start out with primarily the enactive mode and progress through the dominance of the iconic mode to the modal Western adult form of symbolic representation </li></ul>
  10. 10. Turtle graphics and Bruner's forms of representation <ul><li>The concept of a geometric figure, say a square, can be translated into enactive mode </li></ul><ul><li>The child may be instructed to walk forward 10 paces, turn right, walk forward 10 more paces, and so forth, until a square has been described on the floor. A connection can be made between these movements and the symbols FD 10 RT 90 FD 10 in this way, giving a concrete interpretation of a symbolic language. Finally, what the child sees as these commands are executed, is a visual image of a turtle drawing a square on the monitor--the iconic mode. </li></ul>
  11. 11. “ Whole-brain learning&quot; <ul><li>The right brain tends to specialize in schematic thinking and detailed visual imagery </li></ul><ul><li>The left brain, in categorical and linguistic thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols such as FD 50 RT 90 are processed by the left brain </li></ul><ul><li>Images such as a square drawn on the monitor screen are processed by the right brain. </li></ul>
  12. 12. “ Whole-brain learning&quot; <ul><li>allows the left brain to communicate with the right brain </li></ul><ul><li>In order to draw a certain geometric figure, the child can experiment with different strings of symbols until the desired result is achieved. With just a little prompting from the teacher, the child is on his or her own schedule of learning </li></ul>
  13. 13. Learning Problem Solving Skills <ul><li>our problem solving activity grows out of our creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Out of our attempts at goal-achievement grow our problem-solving endeavours </li></ul><ul><li>Learn the importance of being able to document the steps in our approaches to solving problems (a procedural outlook). </li></ul>

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