Nvl presentation - rognvaldur

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  • Setja hér inn nýrri gögn um að þetta er enn í gangi úr skýrslu Hagstofunnar.Þegar litið er til síðustu fimm ára blasir nokkuð önnur mynd við. Þá fjölgaði landsmönnumað meðaltali um 1,2% á ári. Suðurnes voru á tímabilinu töluvert fyrir ofanlandsmeðaltal með 3,3% árlega fjölgun. Á höfuðborgarsvæðinu fjölgaði rétt ofanvið landsmeðaltal, 1,5% á ári að meðaltali, en á Suðurlandi fjölgaði um 1,2% á ári.Árleg fjölgun á Vesturlandi síðustu fimm ár var undir landsmeðaltali, eða 0,7%, ená Norðurlandi eystra hefur hún aðeins verið um 0,4%. Undanfarin fimm ár, fráársbyrjun 2006 hefur hins vegar fækkað á Vestfjörðum sem nemur 1,1% árlegrifækkun, á Austurlandi sem nemur 2,1% árlegri fækkun og á Norðurlandi vestrasem nemur 0,3% árlegri fækkun.Íbúaþróun í sveitarfélögumSveitarfélög á Íslandi voru alls 76 hinn 1. janúar 2011 og fækkaði um eitt frá árinuáður. Þau eru misfjölmenn. Reykjavíkurborg var fjölmennasta sveitarfélagið með118.898 íbúa en Árneshreppur á Ströndum var fámennast með 52 íbúa. Alls hafa26 sveitarfélög færri en 500 íbúa, en í aðeins níu sveitarfélögum búa 5.000 íbúareða fleiri (sjá töflu 1).Á árinu 2010 fækkaði íbúum í 45 af 76 sveitarfélögum landsins. Í 26 minnstusveitarfélögunum fækkaði í 16 en fjölgaði í 10. Alls fækkaði fólki í þeim um 100manns. Hlutfallslega fækkaði íbúum mest í Fljótsdalshreppi. Í níu stærstu sveitarfélögummeð 5.000 íbúa eða fleiri fækkaði aðeins í Reykjanesbæ.Þegar litið er til íbúaþróunar síðustu fimm ára var mest árleg fjölgun í stærstusveitarfélögunum, en þar á eftir í sveitarfélögum með 1.000–1.999 íbúa. Árlegfækkun var í öllum sveitarfélögum með færri en 1.000 íbúa, þó einna mest íminnstu sveitarfélögunum. Íbúum fækkaði í 14 minnstu sveitarfélögunum aðmeðaltali um 4,1% á ári frá 1. janúar 2006 til 1. janúar 2011, eða alls um 368 íbúa.Ef Fljótsdalshreppur er ekki talinn með — en þar var íbúaþróun nokkuð sérstök átímabilinu — varð fækkunin í minnstu sveitarfélögunum 0,9% að meðaltali á ári.
  • Nvl presentation - rognvaldur

    1. 1. Research and Education Centres in Rural Icelandlooking back over a decade<br />dr. Rögnvaldur Ólafsson<br />director <br />University of Iceland, Regional Research Centres<br /> NVL Symposium<br />Faroes<br />The Nordic House<br />21 September 2011<br />
    2. 2. Will talk about:<br />Background<br />Iceland<br />Population<br />Demographic changes<br />Local education networks<br />Research centres of The University of Iceland<br />Knowledgecentres<br />
    3. 3. Iceland<br />103.300 Km2<br />
    4. 4. Population is very small<br />318.452<br />Iceland is basically a micro state<br />But a state with an ambition<br />to be an educated, internationally minded society<br />Expensive<br />Demanding on manpower<br />Requires education<br /><ul><li>The long literary tradition helps</li></li></ul><li>The demographic changes<br />The population multiplied<br />during the 20th century<br />
    5. 5. Population of Iceland 1900-2011<br />2X<br />2X<br />From 80 to 300 thousand<br />in 100 years<br />(Statistics Iceland, 2011)<br />
    6. 6. They all went to Reykjavík<br />In the rest of the country the population remained stable<br />Only Akureyri increased its population somewhat<br />
    7. 7. 30. maí 2000<br />Population 1997<br />and changes from 1987 to 1997<br />Stefán Ólafsson: Búseta á Íslandi,<br />Byggðastofnun 1997<br />
    8. 8. Annual average population change by urban nuclei 2006–2011<br />Size of circles shows the population size of urban nuclei. <br />Colour of circles: <br />Red = negative; <br />yellow = positive, below national average; <br />green = positive, above national average.<br />(Statistics Iceland, 2011)<br />
    9. 9. IcelandandtheNordicCountries<br />Much fewer people in Iceland<br />Much lower population density<br />Norden i tal 2010<br />
    10. 10. But even more important<br />There is only one densely populated area in Iceland, the capital region around Reykjavík<br />A very large portion of the population lives there<br />Much larger portion than in the other Nordic countries<br />
    11. 11. 3/4<br />
    12. 12. During the last decade or two big changes have occurred in Iceland, not least in rural areas<br />
    13. 13. The situation some decades ago<br />Plenty of jobs in the basic industries that did not require education<br />Plenty of possibilities and plenty of money for hard working, uneducated people<br />Consequently <br />neither need for education<br />nor was it highly regarded<br />This has to be taken with a grain of salt !<br />
    14. 14. The fishing industry....<br />
    15. 15. Huge changes in the last 20 years<br />Fundamental changes in the labour situation<br />A new fishing quota system<br />Mechanization of fish processing<br />The abundance of well paid unskilled jobs disappeared<br />With rationalization the skilled jobs tended to be transferred to the capital region<br />People moved to Reykjavík as never before<br />
    16. 16. ... and farming<br />
    17. 17. The development of some industriesfrom 1991 to 2009<br />Acriculture<br /> Education<br />Fishing industry<br />Other industry<br />Hotels & <br />restaurants<br />(Statistics Iceland, 2010)<br />
    18. 18. The service industry grows<br />Commerce<br />Production<br />Service<br />Heimild: Mikilvægi þjónustugeirans fyrir íslenskan þjóðarbúskap. Skýrsla unnin af viðskiptadeild Háskólans í Reykjavík fyrir SVÞ – Samtök verslunar og þjónustu. Katrín Ólafsdóttir og Vilhjálmur Wiium, Hagfræðisetur Viðskiptadeildar Háskólans í Reykjavík, 2006<br />
    19. 19. But much less in the regions<br />Production<br />Commerce<br />Service<br /> Regions<br />Capital area<br /> Iceland<br />Source: Katrín Ólafsdóttir and Vilhjálmur Wiium, 2006<br />
    20. 20. Great differencein educational level<br />People with university degree:<br />About 25% in the capital region<br />About 15% outside the capital<br />The need for education is recognised<br />Do you need more education?<br />No<br />Yes<br />
    21. 21. In 2000 the question was:<br />How can a sparsely populated<br />country like Iceland<br />ensure the availability of education to all its inhabitants?<br />
    22. 22. A grass root movementwas borne<br />For increasing the availability of education<br />By using the possibilities of the new technologies<br />Internet, ADSL, Video conferencing<br />Local education networks were established in all regions<br />They were outside the official educational system<br />They got special finance through the local parliamentarians<br />
    23. 23. The local education networks<br />The networks were established in 1998 and have grown since<br />They are:<br />now well established in the Icelandic education scene<br />beginning to have an effect on the Icelandic regional politics<br />based on the new technologies<br />http://www.fraedslumidstodvar.is/<br />
    24. 24. Local education networks<br />Independent, self governing<br />Basically networks<br />Participation:<br />Local industry<br />Local authorities<br />Labour unions<br />Secondary schools<br />Universities<br />
    25. 25. The facilities<br />The larger centres have good access to internet <br />through a net set up with the assistance of the Ministry of Education<br />Reading facilities<br />Facilities for group work<br />Student assistance and advice<br />Video conferencing <br />Cooperate with the universities running a video bridge<br />
    26. 26.
    27. 27. Their emphasis<br />The emphasis varies according to local needs and circumstances<br />All levels of education<br />Continuing education<br />Secondary education<br />University education<br />In Iceland the individual pays for his continuing education<br />
    28. 28. The present state<br />Considerable demand for the service<br />Lack of courses from the universities<br />The centres are financed by a yearly fixed contribution from the ministry of education<br />The amount is not related to “output”<br />Decided from year to year<br />
    29. 29. University of IcelandInstitute of Research Centres<br />Research institute<br />Under the senate, not a department<br />The contact point with the regions<br />local councils, institutes, private firms and individuals<br />A collection of small research units<br />independent<br />
    30. 30. Nineresearch centres<br />Rannsóknasetur HÍ<br />Vestfjörðum<br />Bolungarvík og Patreksfirði<br />Rannsóknasetur HÍ<br />Norðausturlandi<br />Húsavík<br />Rannsóknasetur HÍ<br />Norðvesturlandi<br />Skagaströnd<br />Rannsóknasetur HÍ<br />Austurlandi<br />Egilsstöðum<br />Háskólasetur Snæfellsness<br />Stykkishólmi<br />Rannsóknasetur HÍ<br />Suðurlandi, Selfossi og Gunnarsholti<br />Háskólasetrið á Hornafirði<br />Höfn og Kirkjubæjarklaustri<br />Háskólasetur Suðurnesja<br />Sandgerði<br />Rannsóknasetur HÍ<br />Vestmannaeyjum<br />
    31. 31. Staff<br />Selected by same process as other university staff<br />Duties:<br />80% research<br />20% other duties<br />Recently signed contract with the department of Life and Environmental Sciences<br />
    32. 32. Institute of Research Centres<br />2009<br />Turnover around 170 MIKR<br />19 employes<br />Over 20 master and doctor students<br />
    33. 33. Why situate researchin the regions?<br />Some important research is better done outside the capital region<br />Land use and preservation<br />Forestry research<br />The effects of glaciers<br />Research on birds<br />Snow avalance research<br />.........<br />?<br />
    34. 34. Research policy depends on:<br />Local facilities and interest<br />Natural and social<br />Knowhow inside the University<br />Fundamental research<br />Akademic, not applied research<br />
    35. 35. Important:<br />Carefully define field of study<br />Stick to it<br />Ensure quality of:<br />research<br />teaching<br />Form networks:<br />national<br />international<br />
    36. 36. Húsavík<br />North Sailing News<br />February 25th 2011<br />Researches<br />Each year, researches of whales are becoming a bigger part of Skjálfandi Bay <br /> <br />Ever since North Sailing began offering regular whale and nature watching in Skjálfandi Bay the company has striven to assist scholars and researchers, both Icelandic and foreigners, to perform various marine biology studies in the bay.<br />
    37. 37. Vatnajökull National Park<br />
    38. 38. Höfn and Þórbergssetur<br />
    39. 39. The effectof the research centres<br />New job oportunities in new fields<br />Research that otherwise might not have been done<br />Projects connected with culture and new employment<br />Close cooperation with the University<br />Local and foreign researchers and students<br />Impact on local life<br />
    40. 40. Knowledge activitiesin the regions<br />Local Education Centres<br />Research Centres of the University of Iceland<br />Natural history institutes<br />Branch offices of research institutes <br />Marine Research Institute<br />Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories<br />Agricultural service institutes<br />Regional Environmental Research Institutes<br />Business and Regional Development Centres<br />................<br />
    41. 41. This activity forms a few nets<br />Each with their own properties<br />Local educational networks – teaching and training<br />Research centres – mostly academic research<br />Natural history institutes - mostly applied research<br />Regional development agencies - development, employment, innovation <br />
    42. 42. How can this activity<br />support<br />research, education<br />and<br />development<br />in the regions?<br />
    43. 43. Knowledge<br />Centre<br />Continuing<br />education<br />University Teaching<br />Centre<br />Research<br />Distance<br />education<br />Local<br />education<br />
    44. 44. The knowledge centres are centres of cooperation<br />Þekkingarsetur Þingeyinga, Húsavík<br />Þekkingarsetur Vestmannaeyja<br />Þekkingarnet Austurlands, Egilsstöðum<br />Háskólasetur Vestfjarða, Ísafirði<br />Háskólafélag Suðurlands ehf, Selfossi<br />
    45. 45. Extensive cooperation<br />The aim is to house in one building all knowledge related activity in the area<br />Create a community of the people working in the so called „information sector“<br />Collective facilities and service<br />Nýheimar, Höfn<br />
    46. 46. Examples<br />Þekkingarnet Þingeyinga<br />http://www.hac.is/<br />Þekkingarnet Austurlands, ÞNA<br />http://tna.is/<br />Háskólafélag Suðurlands, HfSu<br />http://www.hfsu.is/<br />
    47. 47. http://www.hac.is/english/<br />
    48. 48. Lifelong learning<br />a centre for lifelong learning and adult education<br />expand educational offering<br />offer vocational and recreational courses and study programmes<br />be a centre for distance learning in co-operation with schools offering such programmes<br />provide guidance and counselling to students and prospective students<br />work with businesses, municipalities and institutions in shaping their educational policy and provide customized study programmes<br />
    49. 49. Research and development<br />a hub for research and researchers in Þingeyjarsýslur county<br />initiating research in the region<br />provide service to the scientific community; independent researchers, postgraduate students, institutions and organizations<br />facilitate co-operation and increased activity among those who do research in the region<br />take active part in shaping a dynamic environment of innovation in the region<br />facilitating collaboration in research and innovation<br />
    50. 50. University study<br />operate a well equipped study facility in Húsavík and, as needed, elsewhere in the region<br />work with universities to increase the offering in distance learning and local study opportunities in Þingeyjarsýslur<br />work with universities to develop study programmes and courses based on natural and cultural traits unique to the region<br />
    51. 51. Coordination of academic studies and research<br />Strengthen the community in Þingeyjarsýslur by offering dynamic lifelong learning programmes, distance learning programmes and active research<br />coordinate research, academic work, education and development among the parties of interest in this field<br />
    52. 52. Local teaching<br />Distance master courses from the School of Education at the University of Iceland<br />Two courses <br />Quantative Research Methods (5 ECTS)<br />Qualitative Research Methods (5 ECTS)<br />Local groups of students<br />Local assistant lecturers<br />Meet once a week for tutorial and assistance<br />
    53. 53. Supportinglocaltourism<br />Weak easterly part<br />Analysed the situation<br />Strengthen the tourism industry<br />Lengthen the tourist season<br /><ul><li>Establish a geopark
    54. 54. Networking local operators
    55. 55. Courses in geotourism and local geography for local guides
    56. 56. Master courses with foreign students in cooperation with the University of Iceland</li></li></ul><li>Katla Geopark – GeologicalMap of Area<br />
    57. 57. Katla JarðvangurorKatla Geopark<br />Admitted into European Geopark Network and Global Geopark Network last Friday<br />
    58. 58. Effect of knowledge centres on employment and innovation<br />Considerable in some places<br />Nýheimar Höfn<br />Átaksverkefni Háskólafélags Suðurlands<br />The tendency goes this way<br />In most places better cooperation and contact has still to be built up<br />
    59. 59. From Erla Björk Örnólfsdóttir, Sjávarrannsóknasetrinu Vör, Ólafsvík<br />
    60. 60. Evaluation<br />Too limited<br />General lack of research on regional development in Iceland<br />In 2010 a study on the number and turnover of regional activities in the field of:<br />Education and training<br />Research and development<br />Culture<br />Service and consulting<br />http://www.menntamalaraduneyti.is/frettir/Frettatilkynningar/nr/5550<br />
    61. 61. Regional employment<br />Áfangaskýrsla um þekkingarsetur á Íslandi.<br /> Ministry of Education and Culture Oct. 2010<br />
    62. 62. Some results<br />Total turnover: 5.052.234.000 IKR<br />
    63. 63. In 2011 the question is:<br />How can a small and sparsely populated country<br />as Iceland<br />ensure jobs for educated people in all regions?<br />
    64. 64. The communities need<br />Similar diversity as big places<br />in employment <br />socially<br />Young, educated people<br />A better self image<br />
    65. 65. Rural development<br />A clear policy is needed<br />The solutions need to be local, not imported from Reykjavík or abroad<br />dr. Rögnvaldur Ólafsson<br />Institute of Research Centres<br />University of Iceland<br />Sæmundargötu 2, 101 Reykjavík<br />rol@hi.is<br />

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