Brazilian education and foreign languages teaching facing contemporary challenges
Daniel FerrazDept of Modern Languages-University of Sao PauloFATEC – FACULDADE DETECNOLOGIA DE SÃO PAULO
ABSTRACT In my short presentation to the Language and Literacy Research Group, I will discuss some general information about Brazilian educational systems. Based on Leite (2010) and on MEC – Ministério da Educação e Cultura, I will problemitize some of the challenges we have faced in relation to the tensions between public and private education, Federal and State curricular orientations, traditional and critical literacies
I will then focus on foreign languages education and will present how English departments from some universities in the country have responded to these challenges through a National Project of foreign language teacher education. Key words: Brazilian education, critical education, foreign languages teaching
Demographics Colour/Race (2008) White 49,4% (? – census is done through questions in Brazil) Brown (Multiracial) 43.80% Black 6.84% Yellow 0.58% Amerindian 0.28%- The population of Brazil, as recorded by the 2008 PNAD, was approximately 190 million, Southeast, urban, young.
EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM –Sistema BÁSICO EDUCAÇÃO BÁSICA PUBLIC X PRIVATE
portal.inep.gov.brBASIC EDUCATIONMEDIUM LEVEL: 8,9 million students:PUBLIC X PRIVATE88% 12 %7,8 million students 1 million
General Characteristics More students in PUBLIC education: More dropout % = 30% Usually considered of LOW quality Fewer students in PRIVATE sector Less dropout Usually considered of HIGH quality:
WHAT IS HAPPENING IN PUBLIC BASIC EDUCATION?
EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM –SISTEMA SUPERIOR DE ENSINO EDUCAÇÃO superior
Higher educationwww.inep.gov.br 2,252 institutions( 2,016 –private X 236 – public) 340,000 professors230,000 private; X 110,000-public (70,000 are PhD) 5 million students ( 2,5 % of population) 800,000 conclude
General Characteristics fewer students in PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES: Usually considered of HIGH quality, research institutions MORE students in PRIVATE sector Usually considered of LOW quality, not focused on research
CRITIQUE: Educational paradox PUBLIC BASIC EDUCATION: PRIVATE BASIC EDUCATION: Most students (88%) Fewer students (12%) “inferior” quality Excellent quality PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES: PUBLIC UNIVESITIES: Most students Fewer students Inferior quality Excellent quality Corporate, business Academia, research
Challenge: Educational cycle The fact that many of these university students lack these critical practices but become teachers in elementary and secondary schools indicates the gravity of this situation and how its negative aspects may be multiplied and reinforced in the school system (Monte Mor 2007: 49).
OTHER BIG ISSUES REPRODUCTIVISM (Bourdieu) MEMORIZE = LEARN BANKING EDUCATION EPISTEMOLOGY
Humanities Paradox EPISTEMOLOGIES Alan Liu – The map of human knowledge
HE in Brazil: great challenge Conventional / tradicional = grounded on Illuminism, positivism REPRODUCTIVISM, REPETITION, LINEAR thinking, Pedagogy = authoritarian in many instances,
Pedagogy = FREIRE´S BANKING CONCEPT of education. Students as mugs, teachers as jugsJugandmug...
HE in Brazil: move to … or add… Contemporary epistemologies: dialogism, digital/ multi epistemologies = grounded on post-movements PRODUCTION, CREATION, NET thinking, Pedagogy = negotiation, Pedagogy = critical pedagogy, critical literacies, new literacies
Leite (2010) Anthropofagic HIGHER EDUCATION = at structural level Reproductivist HIGHER EDUCATION = at epistemological level
NATIONAL PROJECT of ForeignLanguages Teacher Education Project initially designed by Lynn Mario Menezes T de Souza and Walkyria Monte Mór (USP) who designes the latest National Curricular Orientations for Medium level Foreign languages Education ( OCEM 2006) 26 Universities around the country ( show LIST)
English departments (some professors of those departments) Portuguese Departments (2 universitites) Who participate: undergrads, graduate students (Master´s and PhDs), professors, teachers of foreign languages (English and Spanish) and Portuguese language areas.
Actions Yearly encounters where we discuss the project and construct it together. In these encounters, there are round-tables for theoretical studies on new literacies, multiliteracies and critical literacies, and also round tables for discussion of the research from each locality. Research in public schools (basic education). Each university develops projects on teacher education and basic education though English courses.
Supervisions: professors supervise dissertations and theses connected to the issues proposed by the Project: in the area of critical education ( Publications – Publications of articles and books related to the researches of the Project.
International partnership – TRANSNATIONAL LITERACIES PROJECT- exchange between scholars who have developed similar projects. They are invited to join our discussions every year ( Partner institutions – University of Manitoba – Dr Diana Brydon, Univ of York Brian Morgan and Dr Ian Martin, University of |Toronto Dr Monica Heller, among many others)
To close... In order to fully embrace a humanizing pedagogy, we must go beyond the technicism in classroom instruction and engage other fundamental knowledges that are seldom taught to us in our preparation as teachers. These knowledges include, according to Freire: the courage to dare, in the full sense of the term, to speak abou tlove without fear of being called a-scientific or anti-scientific. (MACEDO