Cynthia LewisANTH 41015 Feb 2013 Annotated Bibliography Every small child has big dreams. Mine were bigger than most--they were global. I wouldoften stop by the local library and pick up National Geographic magazines for a dime and mytreasures would fall open to expose their lovely crisp pages, with the glossy pictures of worldlyplaces and articles on exotic people, whose lives seemed so greatly different form my own. I toreout the fold-up maps and taped them onto my bedroom walls until my room became a world ofits own. These images were the last things I saw before I fell asleep and my first waking memoryin the morning. I decided at a young age that my goal in life would be to learn everything I couldabout the other cultures with whom I shared my spot in the universe. As I advanced through higher education, my interests narrowed into more specificrealms; instead of everything, I began to focus on the evidence of consumption and consumerismthat permeated every part of my day. When I started to pay my own bills and manage a bankaccount I grew more and more invested in finance, the transaction of money and goods, andinternational trade, which quickly led me to the global economy and eventually to worlddevelopment theory. Being an educated female, I was fascinated with gender differences,especially when it came to the regulations of business and finance between men and women inmany of the world’s cultures. These traditional roles and limitations were more noticeable inpartially-developed and developing countries, like those in Africa, the Middle East, and SouthernAsia. While my major throughout college has been anthropology with a focus in culturalbackgrounds, I managed to take classes on development theory, economics and trade systems,and business law. Meshing these various interests together has created quite an interestingreading
list. University experiences have also exposed me to a broader spectrum of cultures. Thesummer of 2012 was spent in the Belizean jungle as I worked on an archaeological project,uncovering ancient Mayan ruins. A class on women’s microcredit loans in Bangladeshintroduced me to non-governmental organizations like the Grameen Bank and the roles thatforeign aid plays in altering the economies of developing nations. I was also recently introducedto the very sad reality of child mortality that plagues much of Africa, and my mostcomprehensive paper to date is on the solutions that communities, businesses, and the nationalgovernment can employ to decrease the rising rate of mortality in Uganda. While this is aspecific region, the business methods that I researched have proven to be successful allthroughout the developing world. With knowledge in these disparate focuses, my higher education goals have morphed toinclude the possibility of pursuing an accelerated Masters of Business Administration programfollowed by law school. This summer will be spent obtaining a legal secretary certification and Ihope to enter an internship in a local law office in the fall. Anthropology has helped me tounderstand the driving principles behind international business practices and has given me agreater appreciation for the varying values, beliefs, traditions, etc. that affect the ways in whichpeople conduct transactions. This has become a crucial focal point in the globalized era, and myeducation will serve to provide me with a position in which I can affect some measure of changeon international policy and regulation.Development Theory and World EconomyBordo, Michael, and Barry Eichengreen. A Retrospective on the Bretton Woods System: Lessonsfor International Monetary Reform. London: The University of Chicago Press, 1993. Web.This book covers the political origins of the Bretton Woods Conference, the different monetaryregimes involved, and the legacy that still affects the global economy today. The information was
extremely helpful in understanding the foundations of adjustments, inflation, exchange rates, andinterest differentials, and their potential for influencing financial fluctuation.Buckley, Peter, and Niron Hashai. "Formalizing Internationalization in the Eclectic Paradigm."Journal of International Business Studies. Vol. 40, No. 1 (Jan 2009): pp 58-70.The authors provide a model for global equilibrium developed from classic economic literature,which aims to counter the "eclectic paradigm" of competetive advantages: location, ownership,and internalization. The study examines the factors required in international licensing, thedomestic production of exports, and the intake of foreign imports, covering much of the practicesinvolved in global business.Gimenez, Martha E. “Connecting Marx and Feminism in the Era of Globalization: A PreliminaryInvestigation.” Socialism and Democracy. Vol. 18, No. 1 (June 2004): p 85.Gimenez challenges the largely-accepted assumption that the success of the advanced capitalisteconomies can be replicated through modernization theory, claiming that every country follows adifferent path to economic development. She traces the correlation between the advancement ofwomen’s political statuses and the evolution of the management of resources in nations, drawingupon Marxist theories of economic classes and labor division. This paper was a boon as it forcedme to rethink the popular blueprints of economic progress.Hartungi, Rusdy. “Could Developing Countries take the Benefit of Globalization?” InternationalJournal of Social Economics. Vol. 33, No. 11 (2006): pp 728-743.This paper is a philosophical approach to the problem of whether or not many developingcountries actually benefit from the rise in the global exchange of views, information, products,ideas, etc. It is a great thinking point for me as I examine the actual impact of global flows onother cultures, and it addresses the fact of integration from an international finance point of view.Kim, Pan Suk. “Building Trust by Improving Governance: Searching for a Feasible Way forDeveloping Countries.” Public Administration Quaterly. Vol. 34, No. 3 (Fall 2010): pp 271-299.Kim argues that each so-called “developing” country should have ownership of its identity whileaccepting aid from donors to assist in physical development such as infrastructure. Manyanthropologists need to understand the main point of this paper: that governance should comefrom within a country and should be built up autonomously without the overwhelming influenceof developed nations. Kim cautions that developing governments should work hardest to earn thetrust of their people instead of wasting resources in pursuit of the most idealistic solutions, whichare not always feasible.Moyo, Dambisa. Dead Aid. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2009. Print.Moyo uses quantitative evidence from African countries to show that aid is not onlyunbeneficial, it is downright malignant to the continent’s developing economies. Billions ofdollars in aid relief is poured into these countries every year, and she clearly connects this influxof money to the spread of corrupt government, the hindering of growth in domestic markets, andthe cessation of government liability both to repay mounting loans and to the people as it is nolonger held accountable to protect civilian needs (since the money funding these governments iscoming duty-free from other countries instead of through taxation). This book forces both myselfand the philanthropic majority to rethink the financial burden of international aid as it proves to
be more trouble than it’s worth.Rapley, John. Understanding Development: Theory and Practice in the Third World. London:Lynne Rienner Publishers Inc, 2007. Print.As a political economist, Rapley focuses on the role of the state in an economy and developmentpractices such as neoliberalization, modernization, statism, post-development, structuraladjustments, trade liberalization, privatization, fiscaul austerity, currency devaluation, infant-industry models, etc, that are aimed at constructing developing economies. He presents severalexamples of the successes and failures of each practice, laying out the foundations foranthropologists and scholars to understand the methods of economic growth used bygovernments and domestic/international markets.Ricardo, David. On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation: Chapter VII, On ForeignTrade. 3rd ed. John Murray, London. 1817. Web.Ricardo’s work details the importance of comparative advantage and the mutual benefitsreceived from international trade, as well as the labor theory of value and views on wages andprofit margins. As an advocate for protectionism of national economies, Ricardo calls for tariffs,quotas, and government regulations to encourage fair competition between imports and domesticgoods. His writing was beneficial when analyzing the subsequent costs of production in allsectors, both apparent and implied, and for understanding the foundational turning points of thecycle of global economy.Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. London: Strahanand Cadell, 1776. Web.Smith’s work has been a jewel for economy theorists since the birth of this country, and containsknowledge that is still very applicable in today’s global economy. The segments of his work aremost helpful for a finance-based anthropologist as they detail division of labor, commodities,free markets, the rise of trade centers, the influence of colonialism, commercial systems andimportation, and the revenue of the commonwealth. His writings have been monumentallyinfluential in the evolution of political economy discourse, and so I use the theories he developedas a starting ground for my research.Consumerism and TradeDouglas, Mary, and Baron Isherwood. The World of Goods: Towards an Anthropology ofConsumption. New York: Routledge, 1996. Web.This book is an overview of the use of goods as an information system, the implications ofconsumerism on social policy, and the circulation of the world economy. The theories in thisbook are largely influenced by the well-known economists Keynes, Weber, and Friedman, andhelp to put their writings into perspective; this clarification of consumerism theory isadvantageous to me as a bourgeoning anthropological scholar in this ever-increasinglyconsumer-driven nation.Gledhill, John. “Resisting the Global Slum: Politics, Religion, and Consumption in theRemaking of Life Worlds in the Twenty-First Century.” Bulletin of Latin American Research,Vol. 25, No. 3 (2006): pp 322-339.
This paper analyzes the perceived “neoliberalization” of everyday life in Latin America and thede-politicalization of the Chilean public. Gledhill argues that the Chilean military has encouragedthe people to be consumers rather than citizens in an attempt to “mediatize” political elections.Collective values that would benefit the whole are quickly being replaced by consumerist trendsin a growing public indifference to political regimes; this paper eerily echoes the trends of manyWestern societies and can be used anthropologically as a basis to understanding this commonscenario.Jayashankar, Priyanka, and Goedegebuure, Robert V. “Marketing Strategies in the MicrofinanceSector: A Case Study on Hand in Hand Microfinance.” IUP Journal of Marketing Management.Vol 11, No. 3, Aug 2012: pp 64-78.This qualitative study appraises the success of the marketing techniques used by NGOs andmicrofinance institutions in India in the face of the recent microfinance crisis in Pradesh. Insteadof replicating the Bangladeshi Grameen Bank, Hand in Hand NGOs have devised ways todisburse loans at lower interest rates with lengthier repaying periods and state governmentsupport. As a finance anthropologist, this study was helpful in analyzing the various tactics oflending institutions and the ways in which the public can benefit from non-governmentalorganizations during times of financial trouble.*Mullins, Paul R. “The Archaeology of Consumption.” Annual Review of Anthropology. Oct2011, Vol 40, p133-144.This article examines the ways in which archaeology can be used to provide evidence ofeveryday material use in societies, helping anthropologists to reflect on the ways that consumersuse goods to define themselves, and also how people negotiate or resist the demands of materialmeanings. Mullins uses the material evidence uncovered through archaeological practices totrace consumption patterns throughout the evolution of cultures. The paper argues foranthropologists such as myselft to adopt consumption as an applied conceptual framework whenengaged in academic archaeology.Scott, James. “Developing Countries in the ITO and GATT Negotiations.” Journal ofInternational Trade Law and Policy. Vol. 9, No. 1 (2010): pp 5-24.Scott’s paper is geared towards clarifying the motives of underdeveloped countries in theirnegative attitudes to post-WWII trade discussions. The paper examines the historical accounts ofthe negotiations, drawing from GATT documents and the legacy of colonialism. These findingsare important to me as an anthropologist if I intend to study international trade agreements at anyperiod in the last seventy years.Swagler, Roger. “Evolution and Applications of the Term Consumerism: Theme and Variations.”The Journal of Consumer Affairs. Vol. 28, No. 2 (Winter 1994): pp 347.This paper documents the history of the term “consumerism” through its various meanings overthe last few decades, and the negative connotations it has recently gained. Swagler attempts tomake concise the evolution of the broad opinion of the consumer from the producer’s view in thebusiness world to the general public’s media-saturated understanding. The doctrine ofconsumerism (going by Swagler’s semantics) is one of the most guiding principles in modernbusiness today, and as a business-minded anthropologist I am reminded that I cannot discreditthe term and all it represents to various people.
Trentmann, Frank. “Beyond Consumerism: New Historical Perspectives on Consumption.”Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 39, No. 3 (July 2004): pp 373-401.This article views consumption as the driving force behind modern capitalism and socialstructure, using the constructs of consumerism as the unit of enquiry for historical research.Trentmann traces the birth of the modern-day consumer society to discover how developedeconomies have entered into the ever-expanding system of goods, needs, and desires. This workhelped me to understand the acquired demand for commodities and novelties within theevolution of cultural civilization.Whitman, James Q. “Consumerism Versus Producerism: A Study in Comparative Law.” The YaleLaw Journal. Vol. 117, No. 3 (Dec 2007): pp 340-406.This paper contrives to revive the once-common distinction between consumerism andproducerism in order to understand the persistent differences between American consumptionand that of most continental European countries with which we have commerce. Whitmandescribes the increase in “consumer welfare law” and its political implications. This is a criticalcomponent of our economy and I find that understanding the power play between producers andconsumers is of crucial importance.Finance and Non-Governmental OrganizationsBennett, Lynn, and Carlos Cuevas. "Sustainable Banking with the Poor." Journal ofInternational Development. Vol. 8, No. 2 (1996): pp 145-152.This paper is part of a collection from the Conference on Finance against Poverty held in 1996,stressing ways to build sustainable financial systems for poor classes, recognizing the limitationsplaced on developing countries by foreign policy and regulation. Importance is placed onbuilding up efficient financial institutions that lend to low-income families. This is a lesson that Itake to heart and believe should be applied to all policy making since those in poverty often getdisregarded in monetary matters, and yet make up a majority of the worlds population.Cali, B. Human Rights Discourse and Domestic Rights NGOs. Uuniversity College LondonEprints, 2007. Web.Cali portrays the highly politicized history of the committment that the Republic of Turkey hasmade to human rights since the 1920s, driven by the European Convention on Human Rights andFundamental Freedoms. The book recounts the many struggles that NGOs have encountered onthe road to establishing equality--such as military regime, authoritarian governments, economiccrises, and the merging of international politics with globalization. This recounting may serve asa guide for the policies of other developing countries facing similar struggles in the global pushfor human equality.Handy, Femida, et al. "To Profit or Not to Profit: Women Entrepreneurs in India." NonprofitManagement and Leadership. Vol. 17, No. 4 (2007): pp 383-401.The authors analyze the recent challenge in traditional gender roles by women in India as morefemales enter into the small business sector. This study looks at the motivating factors of profitand non-profit organizations in community work, and the publics views on the increasingactivity of women in these areas. The results of the study show that family background and
support play a large role in the success of women entrepreneurs, which can contribute greatly toan anthropological perspective of modern Indian business practices.Islam, Naznin, and Nahid Sultana. "NGOs in Bangladesh: Are They Successful in IncreasingAwareness Among Vulnerable Women?" Indian Journal of Gender Studies. Vol. 16, No. 1 (Jan2009): pp 77-98.As microcredit loans have become mores accessible to women in Bangladesh with the turn of thetwenty-first century, more women are falling into serious debt and financial traps. Centuries ofgender-based oppression in monetary matters have left the majority of women largelyunprepared for autonomous financial responsibilities, and some banks and NGOs have takenadvantage of this while others strive to educate rural women as they extend loans. As afinancially-independent woman, this article raises concerns for me to critically analyze theinfluence of NGOs as I empathized with the women of Bangladesh in their bid for financialfreedom.Karim, Lamia. Microfinance and Its Discontents: Women in Debt in Bangladesh. Minneapolis:University of Minneapolis Press, 2011. Print.This ethnography of women in Bangladesh is comprehensive, showing all sides of the battlesurrounding gender and microfinance in this region of the world. The author thoroughlyexamines the roles of NGOs such as the Grameen Bank in the lives of the villages and the cultureof shame that permeates the process of loan extension to females. This book presents a very in-depth picture of the reality of microfinance and gender differences in traditional societies, usingseveral testimonies and personal interviews as evidence for her thesis that the people should takecontrol over their financial future instead of living under the weighty influence of oppressiveNGO strictures.Morais, Neavis, and Makbul Ahmad. "NGO-led Microfinance: Potentials and Challenges inConflict Areas." Journal of International Development. Vol. 23, No. 5 (July 2011): pp 629-640.The authors explore how microfinance institutions led by NGOs affect community managementstrategies, looking at hierarchical power structures in Sri Lanka. The paper argues for moreemphasis to be placed on factors of government and community organization levels thatnegatively affect finance initiatives in the less stable conflict-prone areas. This argument bringsto focus the fact that finance is easily impacted by external variants such as political unrest.Sarkar, Debnarayan. "Indian Microfinance: Lessons from Bangladesh." Economic and PoliticalWeekly. Vol. 43, No. 1 (Jan 2008): pp 18-20.The article documents the trends of microcredit loans since 2004, tracing the differences betweentraditional Indian microfinance institutions and vast growth of the Grameen Bank, and itswidening (and not always beneficial) influence. The author describes how self-help group banksare being shut off from additional funding each year and the pressure on individuals to repayinstallments has sky-rocketed, providing further insight for me by contradicting the public mediaimage of the Grameen Bank outreach.Child Health in Rural AfricaBbaale, Edward, and Faisal Buyinza. "Micro-analysis of Mothers Education and Child
Mortality:Evidence from Uganda." Journal of International Development, Vol. 24 (Jan 2011): pp.138-158.Mothers who are well-educated are more apt to know and appreciate the importance of healthypractices in child-rearing. The authors use a persuasive argument to convince legislators tostrengthen the floundering government program in Uganda that provides free secondaryeducation. The paper also touches on the institutional and economic reforms that have occurredover the past twenty years, aided by ongoing Uganda Demographic and Health Survey Reports."Community-based Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition." World Health Organization,United Nations Committee on Nutrition, United Nations Childrens Fund, World FoodProgramme. May 2007.This is a collaborative effort from the four organizations, presenting a model for relieving theproblems of malnutrition in children. The organizations provide detailed steps of targeting andtreating life-threatening signs of malnutrition, including national policies that may beimplemented to enhance community management of child mortality. These policies can be usefulguidelines for management of malnutrition are very broad in scope and can be applied in anycountry suffering from high child mortality rates.Hosseinpoor, Ahmad, et. al. "Towards Universal Health Coverage: The Role of Within-CountryWealth-Related Inequality in Twenty-Eight Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa." Bulletin of theWorld Health Organization. Vol. 89, No. 2 (Dec 2011): pp 881-890.This quantitative study measures the difference by country of wealth-related factors thatcontribute the quality of health care in rural areas. It provides factual statistics and evidence ofthe coverage gap between the governments regulatory policies, and shows that inequality in thetypes of medical care received by different socioeconomic classes is most apparent in antenatalcare and skilled midwife assistance. This provides a focal point for research regarding the role ofwealth in obtaining necessary medical services.Katende, Charles. "The Impact of Access to Health Services on Infant and Child Mortality inRural Uganda." African Population Studies. Bioline International. Vol. 9 (April 1994).Katendes research focuses on rural access to health facilities and how this, combined with analarming lack of socioeconomic and biotechnological privileges, has aided alarmingly to theincrease of infant death rates. The study also identifies maternal risk factors (age, education,location), environmental contamination, nutritional status, injury, and personal illness control."Successful Leadership: Country Actions for Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health." WorldHealth Organization. The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health. 2008.This document details the successful health policies that third-world countries have utilized andthe positive results that have been an outcome. All of the projected programs are designed tofulfill the Millennium Goals 4 and 5: to reduce the mortality rate of mothers and children underfive, and to achieve universal access to reproductive health care. Many anthropologists such asmyself feel a responsibility to help reduce the ever-increasing crisis of child mortality, and thePMNCH organization provides evidence of effective alternative political methods.Vella, V, et. al. "Determinants of Child Nutrition and Mortality in North-West Uganda." WorldHealth Organization, Vol. 70 No. 5 (1992): pp. 637-643.
This article examines the well-known determinants of high child mortality rates and goes intodetail on the impacts of the internal and external factors of a childhood in rural, poverty-strickenareas. The authors reflect on the ways in which the determinants such as child-rearing practicesand illness prevention could be shaped to become a positive factor in these childrens early lives.