Wilkinson U Navarra Day1


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Wilkinson U Navarra Day1

  1. 1. Social Scientific and Interpretive Traditions in International Communication Research and Practice Kent Wilkinson Regents Professor in Hispanic and International Communication – Texas Tech University Universidad de Navarra Lecture – Day One, April 12, 2010
  2. 2. Educational & Teaching Experience <ul><li>Education: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PhD – Univ. of Texas Austin, Radio-Television-Film, specialization in international communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MA – Univ. of California Berkeley, Latin American Studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BA – Univ. of Colorado Boulder, English/History </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International Experience: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Six months teaching English in Cuzco, Peru </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two years’ university-level teaching in Monterrey, Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Undergraduate Courses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International Electronic Media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnicity, Race, Gender in Media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media Theories and Society </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Research Interests <ul><li>U.S. Spanish-language Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Television industry development since its origins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inter-group struggles for influence and control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on Mexico and Latin America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language difference in electronic media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How cultural and linguistic differences impact health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grant Projects: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Informing Hispanics about obesity and diabetes via media </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recruiting minority high school students to health careers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Institute for Hispanic and Inter-national Communication’s Functions: <ul><li>Teaching related to Hispanic and international communication (in classroom and individually) </li></ul><ul><li>Research on Hispanic and international communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative (within TTU and with other universities) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grant-supported </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community outreach </li></ul><ul><li>Outreach to media industry professionals </li></ul>
  5. 5. Facts About Texas Tech and Lubbock <ul><li>Texas Tech University : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enrollment: 30,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TTU system includes Health Sciences Center with 7 campuses in W. Texas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals: increase enrollment and gain Tier 1 status </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lubbock , Texas : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population: 218,327 (not counting students) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic/racial groups: Anglo: 55.5% Hispanic: 32.3% African American: 8.7% Asian: 2% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd most conservative city in U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most famous citizen: Buddy Holly </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. You don’t have to die to be famous in Lubbock <ul><li>Former </li></ul><ul><li>Mayor </li></ul><ul><li>Alan </li></ul><ul><li>Henry (and wife) </li></ul>Lake Alan Henry 11 pounds, 26 inches
  7. 7. You don’t have to die to be famous in Lubbock <ul><li>Former “Lady Raider” Basketball Coach </li></ul><ul><li>Marsha Sharp </li></ul>The Marsha Sharp Freeway
  8. 8. You don’t have to die to be famous in Lubbock <ul><li>Former Lubbock County District Attorney and TTU Chancellor </li></ul><ul><li>John T. Montford </li></ul>Montford got the nickname “Maximum John” while a prosecutor. He is currently a senior advisor to General Motors Chairman and CEO Edward E. Whitacre, Jr.
  9. 9. You don’t have to die to be famous in Lubbock <ul><li>Dr. Lauro Cavazos </li></ul>Dr. Cavazos was President of Texas Tech when President Ronald Reagan appointed him Secretary of Education in 1988. He became the first Hispanic to serve in a presidential cabinet.
  10. 10. Overview of Topics <ul><li>Day 1: (today) Social Scientific and Interpretive Traditions in International Communication Research and Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Day 2: Representation of Social Groups in U.S. and International Media </li></ul><ul><li>Day 3: Diaspora, Identity, Ethnicity and Health Communication </li></ul>
  11. 11. Factors leading to international communication emphasis <ul><li>World War I demonstrated the possibilities for large-scale persuasion (and carnage). </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Depression led to government intervention in economic, social issues in U.S. – opinion research grows. </li></ul><ul><li>World War II showed the deep, negative influence mass media can have on societies. </li></ul><ul><li>Cold War triggered political, economic, military competition between U.S. and USSR </li></ul>
  12. 12. Two Traditions <ul><li>In the U.S. media research focused on effects : how messages can elicit specific responses from the audience (attitude and behavior change). </li></ul><ul><li>In Europe media research focused on political economy , how elites use media to maintain power, and interpretation , how audiences make sense of media content. </li></ul><ul><li>Which tradition do most researchers at Univ. de Navarra work in? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Development Communication <ul><li>The use of communication technology and practices to support national development, improvement in quality of life, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Historically, development communication research and practice has been pursued through three basic paradigms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modernization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative </li></ul></ul>www.columbia.edu/itc/sipa/nelson/newmediadev/
  14. 14. Development Communication <ul><li>Paradigm - a collection of major assumptions, concepts and propositions on a subject. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often broad enough to cross disciplines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orients research, theorizing, policy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modernization Paradigm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumed that to prosper, developing nations must become like developed (Western) ones. Thus, many programs sought to emulate conditions, institutions, etc. in the West. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lerner and Rostow readings are examples </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Walter Rostow’s 5-Stage Model <ul><li>1. Traditional Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agrarian; land ownership = power; family/clan are social base </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Preconditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External contact leads to change; econ./pol. institutions appear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Take-Off </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic growth; production diversifies; middle class develops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Drive to Maturity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued industrial diversification; increased trade; urbanization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5. Mass Consumption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More disposable income and consumption of consumer goods; welfare spending increases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic growth is principal measure of development </li></ul>
  16. 16. Dependency Paradigm <ul><li>Emulation of Western models will only lead to further dependency on developed nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing nations should rely on themselves and each other for development, not outsiders. </li></ul><ul><li>Radical View - The growth of developed countries ( center ) comes at the expense of the developing ones ( periphery ). The only solution is to disengage from the world economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate View –Under capitalism both rich and poor countries grow, but the rich derive more benefits. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Dependency Paradigm <ul><li>Example of dependency-influenced communication research: How to Read Donald Duck: Imperialist Ideology in the Disney Comic (Ariel Dorfman & Armand Mattelart, 1971). </li></ul><ul><li>Seminal work in applying economic dependency theory to the realms of culture and communication </li></ul><ul><li>An early articulation of cultural imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>Key Themes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitalist ideology is presented as natural to kids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic competition is normal and healthy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native peoples manage their resources poorly </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO) <ul><li>Background : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1954 - Movement of Non-aligned Nations forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1946 United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Org. (UNESCO) forms – in 1970s-80s became a forum for heated debates over a NWICO </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One member/one vote structure of UNESCO favored the non-aligned nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the relationship between communication policies and economic, social and cultural development. </li></ul><ul><li>Free press vs. government control of information became the major issue. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Arguments for Establishing a NWICO <ul><li>Inequities existing in the international system keep developing nations in a constant state of underdevelopment (sound familiar?) </li></ul><ul><li>An international monologue, not dialog, is dominated by those who control the economy and technology. </li></ul><ul><li>As long as the status quo of one-way flow of communication “from the West to the rest” persists, it will be difficult for developing nations to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>improve their standards of living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>initiate and sustain political stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>curb ethnic violence </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Proposals for Changing the Status Quo <ul><li>Structural changes in legal, trade, financial systems </li></ul><ul><li>Impose restrictions of the flow of certain types of information to: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promote circulation of news for and by developing nations. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allow broader access to scientific and financial info. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foster democracy through greater internal equity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Place developing nations on stronger competitive footing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How do you think the U.S. and other Western nations responded (and why?) </li></ul>
  21. 21. NWICO <ul><li>The U.S. and Western allies’ response: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported the unrestricted right of all people to freely seek and distribute information. (Free speech and unrestricted access to media emphasized.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media systems should be free of government control and interference. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposed restrictions on (some, not all) information flow, licensing of journalists, and the formation of regional news agencies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The U.S. withdraws from UNESCO in 1984 citing its: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Politicization of issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion of state-centered policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mismanagement and fiscal irresponsibility </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Alternative Paradigm <ul><li>A different development paradigm emerged from the NWICO conflicts--neither recreating or excluding the West is possible. Societies must implement changes on their own terms, at their own pace, using as many local resources as possible, and involving their own people. </li></ul><ul><li>Paolo Freire’s Pedagogy of the Oppressed argues that education must accommodate objects, concepts, values etc. that are familiar to learners. Freire challenges the “banking metaphor” suggesting that knowledge can be deposited in people. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Alternative Paradigm <ul><li>Luis Ramiro Beltrán’s concept of horizontal communication stresses the effectiveness of communication among people of similar standing as opposed to “top-down,” hierarchical (vertical) communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory communication emphasizes involvement of community members who stand to benefit from the development project. </li></ul><ul><li>New, interactive technologies facilitate these dynamics. (More on this on Day 3.) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Effects v. Interpretation <ul><li>Differences between the Modernization and Alternative paradigms in development communication illustrate an historical divide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social scientific “effects” research vs. humanistic “interpretive” research. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prior speakers discussed the Sender-Message-Channel (SMCR) model, and variations of it, in some detail. </li></ul><ul><li>Efforts to address “Ferment in the Field” have improved international communication research over the past 30 years . (Journal of Communication special issue vol. 33 no. 3, 1983) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Differences in Scientist/Humanist Approaches to Communication Theory & Research <ul><li>Scholars grounded in behavioral sciences approach communication objectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Scholars grounded in the humanities approach communication through the interpretation of “texts.” </li></ul><ul><li>Ways of knowing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific - Assumes that truth is singular and may be discovered through objective research. Good theory mirrors nature. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanistic - Assumes that meaning is constructed by individuals (i.e. subjective) and varies by person, place, time and other factors. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Differences in Scientist/Humanist Approaches to Communication Theory & Research <ul><li>Views of human nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific - Interprets behavior as a response to stimuli. External forces act upon individuals to provoke specific reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanistic - Attributes behavior to the individual’s conscious intent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goals of theory building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific - Tests theory by making predictions and testing them under controlled conditions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanistic - Applies theory to understand the various texts (intentional symbolic expressions) influencing people’s lives. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Symbolic Interactionism <ul><li>Argues that people give meaning to symbols and those meanings come to strongly influence if not control people. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed to counter the stimulus-response assertions of traditional behaviorism (effects model). </li></ul><ul><li>Argues that our actions in response to symbols are mediated (or controlled) largely by those same symbols. </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols - arbitrary, often abstract representations of unseen phenomena. They mediate and structure our ability to perceive and interpret the world around us. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Symbolic Interactionism <ul><li>3 fundamental propositions regarding symbolic interaction and communication: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People’s interpretation and perception of the environment depend on communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication is guided by and guides the concepts of self, role, and situations, and these concepts generate expectations in and of the environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication consists of complex interactions involving action, interdependence, mutual influence, meaning, relationship, and situational factors. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do you see the connection with identity? </li></ul>
  29. 29. Semiotics (review) <ul><li>The science of signs--how they work and the ways people use them. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The study of everything used for communication: words, images, traffic signs, flowers, music, medical symptoms, and much more” (Ellen Seiter). </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains that people construct language to produce meaning—things and events in themselves do not have inherent meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Begins with the smallest unit, the sign, and builds rules for the combination of signs and the meanings produced by those combinations. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Semiotics (review) <ul><li>First asks how meaning is created rather than what the meaning is . </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of asking what meaning is conveyed by a word, image, etc. semiotics examines the mechanics of how they communicate—an effort to develop a more scientific, methodological approach to the analysis of “texts.” </li></ul><ul><li>A word’s meaning derives from its difference from other words in the sign system of language. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Semiotics (review) <ul><li>Sign – something that stands for something (or someone) else. </li></ul><ul><li>Signifier - the physical part of the sign which indicates the person object or concept itself. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pattern of sound comprising a word (speech) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marks on paper or a screen as we read as words (text) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patterns of shape and color used to represent people or objects (visual image) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signified - the concept called forth (mentally) when a person perceives the signifier. </li></ul><ul><li>Referent – the actual things—objects, beings, ideas or events—that signs refer to. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Rose Rose Rosa House Casa Maison
  33. 33. Discussion of Day 1 Homework <ul><li>Images/audio files related to Texas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What did you find? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does it communicate to you/us about Texas? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Images/audio files related to Lubbock, Texas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What did you find? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does it communicate to you/us about Lubbock? </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Texas Links <ul><li>Chuck Norris </li></ul><ul><li>Stevie Ray Vaughn </li></ul><ul><li>Barbara Jordan Speech to Democratic National Convention 1976 </li></ul><ul><li>Los Tigres del Norte </li></ul>
  35. 35. Thank You! Nos vemos mañana