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Focus Four Hazard Training
For Masonry Construction
Module 1 - Electrical Safety
Susan Harwood Grant Training Program
Disclaimer/Usage Notes
This material was produced under grant number SH-17793-SH8 from the Occupational
Safety and Health ...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Training Objectives


After completing this unit, you will:
– Be familiar with the...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

References
29 CFR 1926.400; Subpart K
 National Electric Code (NEC)


2
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

3

Take Electricity Seriously


Electricity is the second leading
cause of death i...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Electrical Accidents


Leading Causes of Electrical Accidents:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

5

Hazards of Electricity







Shock – Most common and can cause electrocuti...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Fundamentals of Electricity
Like Water In A Garden Hose

Resistance = Diameter of H...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Fundamentals of Electricity
Electrical current is the flow of
electrons through a c...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Current Flows in a
Loop or Circuit


Circuits are AC
(alternating current) or
DC (...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

How Shocks Occur
Current travels in closed circuits
through conductors (water,
meta...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Shocks Occur in
Three Ways





Contact with both
conductors
Contact with one
co...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Severity of the Shock


Severity of the Shock depends on:
– Amount of current
• De...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

He sweats - and he dies...
Luling, La. - A man was electrocuted when his
sweat drip...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

13

Effects of Current Flow








More than 3 milliamps (ma): painful shoc...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

14

Using a 120 volt circuit and resistance
for wet & dry skin:

E=IR: Voltage=Curr...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Effects of Current Flow

15
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Controlling Electrical Hazards




Employers must follow the OSHA
Electrical Sta...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Electrical Isolation


We can be safe by keeping electricity
away from us. We can:...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Insulating the Conductors








The first way to safeguard workers
from elect...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Defective Extension Cords

Photos depict hazardous condition

20
19
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

20

Defective Cord Incident






Depicts hazardous condition

Worker attempted...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Elevating the Conductors







The second way to safeguard workers
from electr...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Working Near Overhead Lines


Clearance of worker and any
equipment, tools, materi...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

23

Overhead Line Incident
A worker was
attempting to
move mobile
scaffold.
 Scaff...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

24

Guarding the Conductors








The third way to safeguard workers
from ele...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Guarding the Conductors

Photos depict hazardous condition

25
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Guarding the Conductors

Photos depict hazardous condition

26
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Equipment Grounding


We can be safe by providing a
separate, low resistance pathw...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Can You Rely on Grounding?


Grounding will not work if the
electricity can flow t...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

What Must be Grounded?
All circuits and
extension cords.
 All noncurrent carrying
...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Do Not Eliminate the Ground!

You become the next-best path for current!
Photos dep...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

31

Do Not Reverse Polarity
The prongs are different
sized so you can’t turn
the pl...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Circuit Interruption






We can be safer by automatically shutting
off the flo...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Circuit Protective Devices


Circuit Breakers and Fuses
– Only protect the buildin...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

34

GFCI Protection
All temporary circuits are required to
have GFCI protection or:...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

How a GFCI Works
The GFCI detects
‘leakage’ of 4-6
milliamps & opens
the circuit in...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Types of GFCI Protection

36
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

37

Types of GFCI Protection

A GFCI breaker must be installed to protect
workers u...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

GFCI Testers

38
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Assured Equipment Grounding
Conductor Program
Requires the following:
-Written prog...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Checking for Ground Continuity

What else we should we notice here?
Photo depicts h...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Temporary Wiring
There must be separate circuits for
electric tools and lighting, e...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

42

Permanent Equipment in Temporary Use

What is wrong with using this as a ‘split...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Extension Cords and Cables







Must be in good shape without splices.
Cann...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Acceptable Cord Types
All cords must meet the National Electric Code’s
(NEC) requir...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Photo depicts hazardous condition

45
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

46

Extension Cords-What’s the Difference?

No flat cords allowed on construction s...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Clever Or Foolish?

Photos depict hazardous condition

47
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Temporary Lighting
All bulbs must be
guarded
 No broken bulbs
or empty sockets
 N...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Portable Generators


The frame of the
portable generator need
not be grounded if:...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Safe Work Practices





Before work begins, the employer
must determine where e...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Safe Work Practices


Competent Person determines if
performance of work could bri...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Safe Work Practices


Must not permit work near electric
circuits unless the worke...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Safe Work Practices
No metal ladders for or near
electrical work.
 No wet hands wh...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

Electrical Safety
Common OSHA Citations:
– .404(b)(1)(i): Branch circuits: GFCI
pro...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

55

Summary – Hazards & Protections
Hazards












Inadequate wirin...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

REVIEW QUESTIONS


True or False?
1. Shocks and Electrocutions are the most
common...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

REVIEW QUESTIONS


True or False?
5. All portable and semi-portable tools and
equi...
SUBPART

K

Masonry Electrical Safety

REVIEW QUESTIONS


True or False?
9. Circuit breakers and fuses are designed to
pr...
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Masonry Electrical Safety Training by Rocky Mountain Masonry Institute

  1. 1. Focus Four Hazard Training For Masonry Construction Module 1 - Electrical Safety Susan Harwood Grant Training Program
  2. 2. Disclaimer/Usage Notes This material was produced under grant number SH-17793-SH8 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Images shown may depict situations that are not in compliance with applicable OSHA requirements. These photos are clearly marked as non-compliant. It is not the intent of RMMI to provide compliance-based training in this presentation, the intent is more to address Focus Four hazard awareness in the masonry construction industry, and to recognize overlapping hazards present in many construction workplaces. It is the responsibility of the employer, its subcontractors, and its employees to comply with all pertinent rules and regulations in the jurisdiction in which they work. Copies of all OSHA regulations are available from www.osha.gov. This presentation is intended to discuss Federal regulations only. If this training is held in a state that is operating under an OSHA-approved State Plan, State OSHA requirements for that state must be included in the training. It is assumed that individuals using this presentation or content to augment their training programs will be "qualified" to do so. Developed under an OSHA Susan Harwood Grant, # SH-17793-SH8, by the Rocky Mountain Masonry Institute, Denver, Colorado
  3. 3. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Training Objectives  After completing this unit, you will: – Be familiar with the basic concepts of electricity. – Understand the potential effects of electricity on the human body. – Be able to recognize common electrical hazards associated with masonry work. – Be familiar with electrical protective devices. – Be knowledgeable of safe work practices. 1
  4. 4. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety References 29 CFR 1926.400; Subpart K  National Electric Code (NEC)  2
  5. 5. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety 3 Take Electricity Seriously  Electricity is the second leading cause of death in construction.  Electrocutions make up 12% of construction fatalities annually.  Over 30,000 non-fatal shocks occur each year.  Over 600 deaths occur annually due to electrocution. Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics
  6. 6. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Electrical Accidents  Leading Causes of Electrical Accidents: – – – – – – – – – – Drilling and cutting through cables Using defective tools, cables and equipment Failure to maintain clearance distance of 10 feet Failure to de-energize circuits and follow Lockout/Tagout procedures Failure to guard live parts from accidental worker contact Unqualified employees working with electricity Improper installation/use of temporary electrical systems and equipment By-passing electrical protective devices Not using GFCI (ground fault circuit interrupters) devices Missing ground prongs on extension cords 4
  7. 7. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety 5 Hazards of Electricity      Shock – Most common and can cause electrocution or muscle contraction leading to secondary injury which includes falls Fires – Enough heat or sparks can ignite combustible materials Explosions – Electrical spark can ignite vapors in the air Arc Flash - can cause burns ranging from 14,000 degrees f. to 35,000 degrees f Arc Blast – In a short circuit event copper can expand 67,000 times. The expansion causes a pressure wave. Air also expands adding to the pressure wave
  8. 8. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Fundamentals of Electricity Like Water In A Garden Hose Resistance = Diameter of Hose Example – Larger hose (less resistance), more water flows Voltage = Water Pressure Example – 45 PSI ter low of Wa F Current = Flow Rate Example – 15 gallons per minute 6
  9. 9. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Fundamentals of Electricity Electrical current is the flow of electrons through a conductor.  A conductor is a material that allows electrons to flow through it.  An insulator resists the flow of electrons.  Resistance opposes electron flow.  7
  10. 10. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Current Flows in a Loop or Circuit  Circuits are AC (alternating current) or DC (direct current).  Current is usually AC.  AC current has five parts: (1) Electrical source (2) HOT wire to the tool. (3) The tool itself (4) NEUTRAL wire returns electricity from the tool (5) GROUND 8
  11. 11. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety How Shocks Occur Current travels in closed circuits through conductors (water, metal, the human body).  Shock occurs when the body becomes a part of the circuit.  Current enters at one point & leaves at another.  9
  12. 12. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Shocks Occur in Three Ways    Contact with both conductors Contact with one conductor and ground With a tool: contact with “hot” metal part and ground (1), (2) & (3) 10
  13. 13. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Severity of the Shock  Severity of the Shock depends on: – Amount of current • Determined by voltage and resistance to flow – Path through the body – Duration of flow through the body – Other factors such as general health and individual differences. 11
  14. 14. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety He sweats - and he dies... Luling, La. - A man was electrocuted when his sweat dripped into the electric drill he was using to build a swing set in his backyard, the coroner said. Richard Miller was pronounced dead Sunday at St. Charles Hospital, said David Vial, St. Charles Parish coroner. Miller, 54, had been using an electric drill in 90 degree heat, Vial said Monday. “Apparently the man was sweating profusely,” Vial said. “He probably was pushing against the drill with his chest and his perspiration went into the drill itself and made a contact.” The Associated Press 12
  15. 15. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety 13 Effects of Current Flow        More than 3 milliamps (ma): painful shock More than 10 ma: muscle contraction More than 20 ma: considered severe shock More than 30 ma: lung paralysis - usually temporary More than 50 ma: possible ventricular fibrillation (usually fatal) 100 ma to 4 amps: certain ventricular fibrillation (fatal) Over 4 amps: heart paralysis; severe burns
  16. 16. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety 14 Using a 120 volt circuit and resistance for wet & dry skin: E=IR: Voltage=Current x Resistance (Volts) (Amps) (Ohms) So: I=E/R Dry Skin =120/100,000=.0012 amps =1.2ma flowing through body to ground Wet skin =120/1000=.120 amps =120ma flowing through body to ground Remember: 1 Amp = 1000 milliamps
  17. 17. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Effects of Current Flow 15
  18. 18. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Controlling Electrical Hazards    Employers must follow the OSHA Electrical Standards (Subpart K) Electrical installation Subpart K includes four proactive methods: – – – – Electrical Isolation Equipment Grounding Circuit Interruption Safe Work Practices 16
  19. 19. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Electrical Isolation  We can be safe by keeping electricity away from us. We can: – Insulate the conductors. • Example: The insulation on extension cords. – Elevate the conductors. • Example: Overhead powerlines. – Guard the conductors by enclosing them. • Example: Receptacle covers, boxes, & conduit. 17
  20. 20. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Insulating the Conductors     The first way to safeguard workers from electrically energized wires is through insulation. Rubber and plastic is put on wires to prevent shock, fires, short circuits and for strain relief. It is always necessary to check the insulation on equipment and cords before plugging them in. Remember, even the smallest defect will allow leakage! 18
  21. 21. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Defective Extension Cords Photos depict hazardous condition 20 19
  22. 22. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety 20 Defective Cord Incident     Depicts hazardous condition Worker attempted to climb scaffold with electric drill. Drill’s cord was damaged with bare wires showing. The bare wire contacted the scaffolding. The worker died!
  23. 23. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Elevating the Conductors     The second way to safeguard workers from electrically energized wires is by elevating them. Wires are often elevated by the power company. It is always necessary to check the location of overhead lines before you begin work each day. Remember, never allow yourself, your tools, or the materials you are working with to be within 10 feet of energized lines! Photo depicts hazardous condition 21
  24. 24. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Working Near Overhead Lines  Clearance of worker and any equipment, tools, materials, or scaffold near uninsulated lines is 10 feet! Photo depicts hazardous condition 22
  25. 25. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety 23 Overhead Line Incident A worker was attempting to move mobile scaffold.  Scaffold made contact with 7200 volt line.  The worker died.  Photo depicts hazardous condition
  26. 26. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety 24 Guarding the Conductors     The third way to safeguard workers from electrically energized wires is by guarding them. Covers, boxes, and enclosures are often put around conductors to prevent worker contact. It is always necessary to check that electrical boxes and panels are covered and free from missing “knock-outs”. Remember, electric equipment operating at 50 volts or more must be guarded! Photo depicts hazardous condition
  27. 27. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Guarding the Conductors Photos depict hazardous condition 25
  28. 28. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Guarding the Conductors Photos depict hazardous condition 26
  29. 29. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Equipment Grounding  We can be safe by providing a separate, low resistance pathway for electricity when it does not follow normal flow (ground prong).  Grounding gives the stray current somewhere to go and keeps you from becoming part of the circuit. 27
  30. 30. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Can You Rely on Grounding?  Grounding will not work if the electricity can flow through you more easily than the ground. This can happen when: – Your tool doesn’t have a ground pin. – You’re working in wet locations. – You’re touching a metal object. 28
  31. 31. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety What Must be Grounded? All circuits and extension cords.  All noncurrent carrying metal parts.  Portable & semi-portable tools and equipment unless double insulated.  29
  32. 32. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Do Not Eliminate the Ground! You become the next-best path for current! Photos depict hazardous condition 30
  33. 33. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety 31 Do Not Reverse Polarity The prongs are different sized so you can’t turn the plug around. If you do, the electrical fields within the motor are always energized. If there is moisture present, the case is likely to be “hot”. Even with double-insulated tools, you still could get a shock. Photo depicts hazardous condition
  34. 34. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Circuit Interruption    We can be safer by automatically shutting off the flow of electricity in the event of leakage, overload, or short circuit. Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCI) are circuit protection (or “overcurrent”) devices that protect you, the worker. Circuit breakers & fuses protect equipment, not you, because they take too much current & too much time to trip. 32
  35. 35. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Circuit Protective Devices  Circuit Breakers and Fuses – Only protect the building, equipment, and tools from heat build-up! – Never depend on circuit breakers or fuses to prevent shocks!  Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) – Is the only device which will protect the worker from shock and electrocution! 33
  36. 36. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety 34 GFCI Protection All temporary circuits are required to have GFCI protection or: – Equipment & cords must be included in an Assured Equipment Grounding Conductor Program  An extension cord is a temporary circuit.  Types of GFCIs: receptacle, circuit breaker and portable  Must be wired correctly and tested. 
  37. 37. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety How a GFCI Works The GFCI detects ‘leakage’ of 4-6 milliamps & opens the circuit in 1/40th of a second. It will work without the ground plug but not fast enough if you are the ground . 35
  38. 38. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Types of GFCI Protection 36
  39. 39. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety 37 Types of GFCI Protection A GFCI breaker must be installed to protect workers using 220V masonry saws.
  40. 40. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety GFCI Testers 38
  41. 41. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Assured Equipment Grounding Conductor Program Requires the following: -Written program and specific procedures -Program implemented by a Competent Person (one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them. -Equipment grounding conductors must be tested (tools, extension cords, and circuits): At least every three months for cords & tools At least every six months for receptacles Results recorded - equipment coded (colored tape) 39
  42. 42. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Checking for Ground Continuity What else we should we notice here? Photo depicts hazardous condition 40
  43. 43. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Temporary Wiring There must be separate circuits for electric tools and lighting, each labeled as such.  Light circuits do not require a GFCI.  – Unless used in a wet location. Test branch circuits before use.  Maintain vertical clearances.  Insulate wires from their supports.  41
  44. 44. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety 42 Permanent Equipment in Temporary Use What is wrong with using this as a ‘splitter’? Photo depicts hazardous condition
  45. 45. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Extension Cords and Cables       Must be in good shape without splices. Cannot be secured with staples, nails or bare wire. Must be protected from damage. Must have a ground pin. Should be inspected regularly and pulled from service if defective. Cannot be repaired with electrical or duct tape. Must repair with heat-shrink sleeve or bonding/vulcanizing tape to retain original insulation properties. Photos depict hazardous condition 43
  46. 46. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Acceptable Cord Types All cords must meet the National Electric Code’s (NEC) requirement for Hard/Extra Hard type.  Look for markings stamped on cords.  Acceptable Cord Types  – Extra Hard Use Markings: S, ST, SO, STO – Hard Usage Markings: SJ, SJO, SJT, SJTO 44
  47. 47. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Photo depicts hazardous condition 45
  48. 48. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety 46 Extension Cords-What’s the Difference? No flat cords allowed on construction sites!
  49. 49. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Clever Or Foolish? Photos depict hazardous condition 47
  50. 50. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Temporary Lighting All bulbs must be guarded  No broken bulbs or empty sockets  Not suspended by wiring  Low voltage for wet locations  Photos depict hazardous condition 48
  51. 51. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Portable Generators  The frame of the portable generator need not be grounded if: – the generator supplies only cord and plug connected equipment. – The non-current carrying metal parts of equipment and the equipment grounding conductor terminals of the receptacles are bonded to the generator frame. – GFCI is required if >5kV or if generator provides 220V as well as 110V. 49
  52. 52. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Safe Work Practices    Before work begins, the employer must determine where exposed and concealed electrical circuits are located. Once found, warning signs/labels must be posted. Workers need to know the location, hazards, and protective measures. 50
  53. 53. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Safe Work Practices  Competent Person determines if performance of work could bring contact with energy. – Distance of the worker to the energy source should be considered first. – Tools, materials, and processes should also be considered to see if they could potentially shorten the safe separation distance. • Examples: Metal Ladders, Re-bar, Forklift, Scaffold Frames, etc. 51
  54. 54. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Safe Work Practices  Must not permit work near electric circuits unless the worker is protected by: – De-energizing the circuit and grounding it. – Guarding it effectively by insulation. – Other means (maintaining safe separation)  De-energized circuits and equipment must be locked/tagged out. 52
  55. 55. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Safe Work Practices No metal ladders for or near electrical work.  No wet hands when plugging or unplugging cords/equipment.  No raising or lowering tools by the cord.  Unless equipment is designed for it, cannot be used in damp and wet locations.  Photo depicts hazardous condition 53
  56. 56. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety Electrical Safety Common OSHA Citations: – .404(b)(1)(i): Branch circuits: GFCI protection/Assured Equipment Grounding Conductor Program – .404(f)(6): Grounding path – .403(b)(2): Equipment installation and use – .404(b)(1)(ii): GFCI – .403(i)(2)(i): Guarding live parts How can the hazards addressed by these Standards best be corrected, controlled, or eliminated? 54
  57. 57. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety 55 Summary – Hazards & Protections Hazards            Inadequate wiring Exposed electrical parts Wires with bad insulation Ungrounded electrical systems and tools Overloaded circuits Damaged power tools and equipment Using the wrong PPE and tools Overhead power lines All hazards are made worse in wet conditions Damaged extension cords Unqualified workers doing electrical work Protective Measures            Proper grounding Use GFCI’s Use fuses and circuit breakers Guard live parts Lockout/Tagout Proper use of flexible cords Close electrical panels by Competent Person Employee training Ensure Competent Person on site Use proper approved electrical equipment Qualified person install electrical devices
  58. 58. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety REVIEW QUESTIONS  True or False? 1. Shocks and Electrocutions are the most common type of electrical accident and are the fourth leading cause of worker deaths. 2. The human body will not conduct electricity. 3. It takes at least 1 amp going through a worker to kill them. 4. Insulation on extension cords & elevating power lines are examples of protection through isolation. 56
  59. 59. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety REVIEW QUESTIONS  True or False? 5. All portable and semi-portable tools and equipment must be grounded unless double insulated. 6. You, your tools, and the materials you are working with, must never be closer than 3 feet of energized power lines! 7. Electric equipment operating at 50 volts or more must be guarded! 8. All circuits and extension cords must be grounded. 57
  60. 60. SUBPART K Masonry Electrical Safety REVIEW QUESTIONS  True or False? 9. Circuit breakers and fuses are designed to protect the worker from electrocution. 10. GFCI protection or Assured Ground Continuity is required on all temporary circuits. 11. Extension cords are not required to have a ground prong when they are GFCIprotected. 12. It is OK to work on a circuit which has not been de-energized. 58
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