New Electrical Safety Present2009

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New Electrical Safety Present2009

  1. 1. PHILSTEEL GROUP TECHNICAL TRAINING Today's Training for Tomorrow's Needs by aemanlalangit@yahoo.com
  2. 2. This module is intended to be used as a source of evidence in confirming that a learner has achieved the knowledge and skills critical to: •Working safely with electricity. •Ensuring electrical installations are safe and comply with standards as do relevant installation tests. •Selecting equipment that complies with standards. •Ensuring electrical protection systems operate in compliance with standards.
  3. 3. 1. INTRO TO ELECTRICAL SAFETY 2. WHAT ARE THE LEADING CAUSES OF ELECTRICAL ACCIDENTS? 3. HOW ELECTRICITY CAN HARM YOU 5. EFFECTS OF ELECTRICAL CURRENT ON THE HUMAN BODY 6. PREVENTING ELECTRICAL SHOCKS AND BURNS 7. PREVENTING ELECTRICAL FIRES 9. WORKING SAFELY WITH AND AROUND ELECTRICITY 10. ELECTRICAL EMERGENCIES : HOW TO RESPOND 11. CODE AND REGULATIONS
  4. 4. 1 INTRO TO ELECTRICAL SAFETY
  5. 5. ELECTRICAL SAFETY ? Electricity is nature's most versatile form of energy. Electrical power lights our homes, streets, offices and factories. The power of electricity can be dangerous if it's not used correctly. Electrical energy can damage property and ignite fires. It can also hurt and even kill. Sound safety practices can help minimize electrical hazards and cut down the risk of accidents. The hazard of electricity cannot be eliminated, but it can be controlled though education and engineering. The more you understand about electrical energy the safer you'll be at work and home.
  6. 6. What is management’s role in electrical safety? Management must: Create and maintain a safe work environment. Determine and arrange for appropriate safety training. Inspect work areas and equipment for hazards.
  7. 7. What is management’s role in electrical safety? Management must also: Enforce company safety procedures. Report and correct safety violations or accidents. Be a safety role model.
  8. 8. What is the employee’s role in safety? Follow all safety procedures as detailed in specs. Report all safety hazards and violations. Ensure all employees (including contractors and vendors) comply with safety procedures.
  9. 9. What is the employee’s role in safety? Recognize electrical hazards and make sound judgments on your ability to do a job safely. Be qualified and trained to work on electrically energized equipment for your job.
  10. 10. What is a safety violation? A situation in which: The task being performed contradicts the stated policy, training, or good common sense (not wearing proper PPE for the job). Personal safety is imparted by the way a person works (not following specs fix equipment or using shortcuts). Safety is owned by you!
  11. 11. What are the procedures for reporting safety violations ? If you observe a STOP the violation, if possible. safety violation, you should: REPORT, verbally, the situation to the supervisor in charge immediately. RECORD the details in written memo form. FOLLOW-UP with the supervisor on what is being done.
  12. 12. 2 WHAT ARE THE LEADING CAUSES OF ELECTRICAL ACCIDENTS ?
  13. 13. Unsafe Acts There are 2 reasons for unsafe acts: •We know better but intentionally do something unsafe. •We don't know better.
  14. 14. Unsafe Work Practices
  15. 15. Avoid the following unsafe acts: •Failure to de-energize, lockout tagout hazards during maintenance, repair or inspections. •Use of defective and unsafe tools. •Use of tools or equipment too close to energized parts. •Not draining off stored energy in capacitors. •Using 3-wire cord with a 2-wire plug. •Removing the third prong (ground pin) to make a 3- prong plug fit a 2-prong outlet. •Overloading outlets with too many appliances. •Using the attached electrical cord to raise or lower equipment. •Not verifying power is off when making repair (drilling into a 110 Volt a.c. line can kill). •Working in an elevated position near overhead lines.
  16. 16. Unsafe Equipment Some common causes of unsafe equipment: •Loose connections •Faulty insulation •Improper grounding (removal of 3rd prong) •Use of homemade extension cords •Defective parts •Unguarded live parts--for example: •Bare conductors or exposed terminals •Metal parts of equipment may become energeized when connected by cord or plug. Capacitance may cause up to 55% of line voltage to be stored on the casing of metal tools.
  17. 17. HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENTS Use special precautions when working in potentially hazardous environments and situations. Even an accidental static discharge can cause a fire or explosion in areas where the following are present: •Flammable vapors, liquids and gasses •Combustible dusts •Corrosive atmospheres •Explosive environments •Poor housekeeping: blocked electrical boxes, flammable materials stored in equipment rooms, lack of proper hazard signs, excess clutter. Special care is also need in wet or damp locations - water and electricity are a bad combination. If the wire is frayed or damaged, a fatal electrical shock can result .
  18. 18. 3 HOW ELECTRICITY CAN HARM YOU
  19. 19. Current passing through your body can cause electric shock, resulting in 3 types of potential injuries: •Burns (arcs burn with heat radiation) •Physical injuries (broken bones, falls, muscle damage) At 10 mA, the muscles clamp on to whatever the person is holding. •Nervous system effects (stop breathing at 30 to 75 mA alternating current at 60Hz, fibrillation at 75 to 100 mA at 60Hz) Fibrillation = heart is twitching and there is no blood flow to the body.
  20. 20. ELECTRICITY IS DANGEROUS Whenever you work with power tools or on electrical circuits there is a risk of electrical hazards, especially electrical shock. Anyone can be exposed to these hazards at home or at work. Workers are exposed to more hazards because job sites can be cluttered with tools and materials, fast-paced, and open to the weather. Risk is also higher at work because many jobs involve electric power tools.
  21. 21. ELECTRICITY IS DANGEROUS Electrical trades workers must pay special attention to electrical hazards because they work on electrical circuits. Coming in contact with an electrical voltage can cause current to flow through the body, resulting in electrical shock and burns. Serious injury or even death may occur. As a source of energy, electricity is used without much thought about the hazards it can cause. Because electricity is a familiar part of our lives, it often is not treated with enough caution. As a result, an average of one worker is electrocuted on the job every day of every year!
  22. 22. ELECTRICITY IS DANGEROUS Electrocution is the third leading cause of work-related deaths among 16- and 17-year-olds, after motor vehicle deaths and workplace homicide. Electrocution is the cause of 12% of all workplace deaths among young workers. 1
  23. 23. WHAT IS AN ELECTRICAL INSULATOR? A material having few free electrons that cannot move easily. Rubber, dry wood, porcelain, and clay are good insulators. Insulators prevent electricity from flowing where it should not flow and control the flow of electricity in order to prevent accidents.
  24. 24. WHAT IS AN ELECTRICAL CONDUCTOR? A material having many free electrons that can move easily. Metals (especially copper) are good conductors A copper wire will allow billions of electrons to flow in the same direction to create a great source of electrical current.
  25. 25. How is an Electrical Shock Received ? Current- the movement of electrical Current charge Voltage- a measure of electrical force Voltage Circuit- a complete path for the flow of Circuit current You will receive a shock if you touch two wires at different voltages at the same time.
  26. 26. How is an Electrical Shock Received ? An electrical shock is received when electrical current passes through the body. Current will pass through the body in a variety of situations. Whenever two wires are at different voltages, current will pass between them if they are connected. Your body can connect the wires if you touch both of them at the same time. Current will pass through your body.
  27. 27. How is an Electrical Shock Received ? You will receive an electrical shock if a part of your body completes an electrical circuit by... •Touching a live wire and an electrical ground, or •Touching a live wire and another wire at a different voltage
  28. 28. DANGERS OF ELECTRICAL SHOCK The severity of injury from electrical shock depends on the amount of electrical current and the length of time the current passes through the body. For example, 1/10 of an ampere (amp) of electricity going through the body for just 2 seconds is enough to cause death. The amount of internal current a person can withstand and still be able to control the muscles of the arm and hand can be less than 10 milliamperes (milliamps or mA). Currents above 10 mA can paralyze or freeze muscles.
  29. 29. DANGERS OF ELECTRICAL SHOCK When this freezing happens, a person is no longer able to release a tool, wire, or other object. In fact, the electrified object may be held even more tightly, resulting in longer exposure to the shocking current. For this reason, hand-held tools that give a shock can be very dangerous. If you can't let go of the tool, current continues through your body for a longer time, which can lead to respiratory paralysis (the muscles that control breathing cannot move). You stop breathing for a period of time. People have stopped breathing when shocked with currents from voltages as low as 49 volts. Usually, it takes about 30 mA of current to cause respiratory paralysis.
  30. 30. DANGERS OF ELECTRICAL SHOCK Currents greater than 75 mA may cause ventricular fibrillation (very rapid, ineffective heartbeat). This condition will cause death within a few minutes unless a special device called a defibrillator is used to save the victim. Heart paralysis occurs at 4 amps, which means the heart does not pump at all. Tissue is burned with currents greater than 5 amps. 2
  31. 31. DANGERS OF ELECTRICAL SHOCK ampere (amp)- the unit used to measure current milliampere (milliamp or mA)-1/1,000 of an ampere shocking current-electrical current that passes through a part of the body - You will be hurt more if you can't let go of a tool giving a shock. - The longer the shock, the greater the injury
  32. 32. DANGERS OF ELECTRICAL SHOCK LOW VOLTAGE… DOES NOT MEAN LOW HAZARD!
  33. 33. THE RESISTANCE OF THE HUMAN BODY The inner resistance of human bodies is about 500 to 1000 ohms, but the skin resistance greatly depends on the content of moisture. When sweaty, the skin resistance decrease to 1 ½ of dry time. The skin resistance changes with the applied voltage. Several tens of thousands of ohms of skin resistance of 100 V in dry condition results in, at 1000V at wet, insulation breakdown. This leaves only the human inner resistance making the situation very dangerous.
  34. 34. THE RESISTANCE OF MATERIALS • Most metals …..10 to 50 ohms • Human body (wet,ear to ear) ……100 ohms • Human body (damp-hand to foot ….400 to 600 ohms • Human body ( wet skin) …………..1000 ohms • Human body (dry skin) ………100,000 to 800,000 • Dry wood……………………………100,000 ohms • Wet wood ……………………………1,000 ohms • Rubber ………………100,000,000,000 ohms
  35. 35. 4 EFFECTS OF ELECTRICAL CURRENT ON THE HUMAN BODY
  36. 36. EFFECTS ON ELECTRICAL CURRENT ON THE BODY Current Reaction 1 milliamp Just a faint tingle. Slight shock felt. Disturbing, but not painful. Most 5 milliamps people can let go. However, strong involuntary movements can cause injuries. Painful shock. Muscular control is lost. This is the range 6-25 milliamps (women)† where freezing currents start. It may not be possible 9-30 milliamps (men) to let go. Extremely painful shock, respiratory arrest (breathing 50-150 milliamps stops), severe muscle contractions. Flexor muscles may cause holding on; extensor muscles may cause intense pushing away. Death is possible. Ventricular fibrillation (heart pumping action not 1,000-4,300 milliamps (1-4.3 amps) rhythmic) occurs. Muscles contract; nerve damage occurs. Death is likely. Cardiac arrest and severe burns occur. Death is 10,000 milliamps (10 amps) probable. Lowest overcurrent at which a typical fuse or circuit 15,000 milliamps (15 amps) breaker opens a circuit!
  37. 37. EFFECTS ON ELECTRICAL CURRENT ON THE BODY *Effects are for voltages less than about 600 volts. Higher voltages also cause severe burns. †Differences in muscle and fat content affect the severity of shock. High voltages cause additional injuries! - Higher voltages can cause larger currents and more severe shocks. -Some injuries from electrical shock cannot be seen.
  38. 38. EFFECTS ON ELECTRICAL CURRENT ON THE BODY High voltages can cause violent muscular contractions. You may lose your balance and fall, which can cause injury or even death if you fall into machinery that can crush you. High voltages can also cause severe burns. At 600 volts, the current through the body may be as great as 4 amps, causing damage to internal organs such as the heart. High voltages also produce burns. In addition, internal blood vessels may clot. Nerves in the area of the contact point may be damaged. Muscle contractions may cause bone fractures from either the contractions themselves or from falls.
  39. 39. EFFECTS ON ELECTRICAL CURRENT ON THE BODY The greater the current, the greater the shock! - Severity of shock depends on voltage, amperage, and resistance. resistance-a material's ability to decrease or stop electrical current ohm-unit of measurement for electrical resistance - Lower resistance causes greater currents. - Currents across the chest are very dangerous.
  40. 40. EFFECTS ON ELECTRICAL CURRENT ON THE BODY A severe shock can cause much more damage to the body than is visible. A person may suffer internal bleeding and destruction of tissues, nerves, and muscles. Sometimes the hidden injuries caused by electrical shock result in a delayed death. Shock is often only the beginning of a chain of events. Even if the electrical current is too small to cause injury, your reaction to the shock may cause you to fall, resulting in bruises, broken bones, or even death.
  41. 41. EFFECTS ON ELECTRICAL CURRENT ON THE BODY The length of time of the shock greatly affects the amount of injury. If the shock is short in duration, it may only be painful. A longer shock (lasting a few seconds) could be fatal if the level of current is high enough to cause the heart to go into ventricular fibrillation. At relatively high currents, death is certain if the shock is long enough. However, if the shock is short and the heart has not been damaged, a normal heartbeat may resume if contact with the electrical current is eliminated.
  42. 42. EFFECTS ON ELECTRICAL CURRENT ON THE BODY The amount of current passing through the body also affects the severity of an electrical shock. Greater voltages produce greater currents. So, there is greater danger from higher voltages.
  43. 43. EFFECTS ON ELECTRICAL CURRENT ON THE BODY The path of the electrical current through the body affects the severity of the shock. Currents that passes through the heart or nervous system are most dangerous. If you contact a live wire with your head, your nervous system will be damaged. Contacting a live electrical part with one hand-while you are grounded at the other side of your body-will cause electrical current to pass across your chest, possibly injuring your heart and lungs.
  44. 44. EFFECTS ON ELECTRICAL CURRENT ON THE BODY The danger from electrical shock depends on... •the amount of the shocking current through the body, •the duration of the shocking current through the body, and •the path of the shocking current through the body
  45. 45. Figure : Effect of entry points on current distribution (a) Macroshock, externally applied current spreads throughout the body. (b) Microshock, all the current applied through an intracardiac catheter flows through the heart.
  46. 46. BURNS CAUSED BY ELECTRICITY The most common shock-related, nonfatal injury is a burn. Burns caused by electricity may be of three types: electrical burns, arc burns, and thermal contact burns. Electrical burns can result when a person touches electrical wiring or equipment that is used or maintained improperly. Typically, such burns occur on the hands. Electrical burns are one of the most serious injuries you can receive.
  47. 47. BURNS CAUSED BY ELECTRICITY Arc-blasts occur when powerful, high- amperage currents arc through the air. Arcing is the luminous electrical discharge that occurs when high voltages exist across a gap between conductors and current travels through the air. This situation is often caused by equipment failure due to abuse or fatigue. Temperatures as high as 35,000°F have been reached in arc- blasts.
  48. 48. BURNS CAUSED BY ELECTRICITY Electrical shocks cause burns. arc-blast-explosive release of molten material from equipment caused by high-amperage arcs arcing-the luminous electrical discharge (bright, electrical sparking) through the air that occurs when high voltages exist across a gap between conductors
  49. 49. BURNS CAUSED BY ELECTRICITY Burns are the most common injury caused by electricity. The three types of burns are . . . •electrical burns, •arc burns, and •thermal contact burns
  50. 50. BURNS CAUSED BY ELECTRICITY Entrance Wound Exit Wound
  51. 51. BURNS CAUSED BY ELECTRICITY Arc or Flash Burns Thermal Contact Burns
  52. 52. INVOLUNTARY MUSCLE CONTRACTION
  53. 53. WORST CASE ELECTRICAL-RELATED ACCIDENT!
  54. 54. WORST CASE ELECTRICAL-RELATED ACCIDENT!
  55. 55. WORST CASE ELECTRICAL-RELATED ACCIDENT!
  56. 56. WORST CASE ELECTRICAL-RELATED ACCIDENT!
  57. 57. 5 PREVENTING ELECTRICAL SHOCKS AND BURNS
  58. 58. PREVENTING ELECTRICAL SHOCKS AND BURNS Electric shocks, electrocution and burns, which cause more than 12,000 injuries a year in the U.S., happen when electricity uses your body as a path to its ultimate destination—the ground. As the electricity passes through you, it can do grave harm, burning tissue and even stopping your heart. And it doesn't take much to do a lot of damage. In fact, folks have been killed by shocks from as little as 60 milliamps, the amount of electricity it takes to light a Christmas tree bulb.
  59. 59. To help protect yourself and your loved ones from electrical shocks or burns: 1. Never yank, twist or severely bend electrical cords or carry appliances by their cords. This can cause the appliance wires to fray, which might lead to electrical shocks or burns, as well as fires. 2. Never use an appliance that has a frayed, smashed or broken cord. (Wrapping a frayed cord with electrical tape might help protect you against being shocked or burned, but it probably will not prevent the possibility of an electrical fire. 3. Never remove the third prong of an electrical plug. This is the ground wire, which helps protect you against shock should the appliance ever short-circuit.
  60. 60. To help protect yourself and your loved ones from electrical shocks or burns: 4. Install GFCI (ground-fault circuit interrupter) outlets in your home or business and use GFCI adapters—especially in bathrooms and kitchens or other places where electrical appliances might be used near water or in damp conditions. GFCIs can detect imbalances in the amount of electricity flowing through an appliance (which might indicate some electricity has jumped its circuit and taken an alternate route—possibly through you) and will shut off power to the appliance. 5. Do not touch electrical appliances with wet hands or cleaning rags unless the appliances are unplugged. 6. Keep electrical appliances away from water. Pools, tub surrounds, and counters next to kitchen or bathroom sinks are not appropriate places for radios, hair dryers, curling irons, toasters, or other plugged-in appliances.
  61. 61. To help protect yourself and your loved ones from electrical shocks or burns: 7. Never stick anything into an outlet, except a properly working electrical plug. 8. If you have young children in the home—even as visitors—equip your outlets with child safety plugs to prevent curious youngsters from sticking their fingers or other items into unused outlet openings. 9. Never stick knives, forks, screwdrivers or other items inside toasters or other electrical appliances unless the appliances are unplugged. 10. Keep away from outdoor power lines. Many of these lines are uninsulated and any contact with them—either direct or indirect—can be fatal. When working in the yard, be sure to maintain a safe distance between power lines and ladders, rakes and other long tools. You do not actually have to touch a power line to be shocked by it. Electricity can jump (arc) from a nearby wire to you (or to the ladder or tool you are carrying).
  62. 62. To help protect yourself and your loved ones from electrical shocks or burns: 11. Do not climb trees that are located near overhead lines (read #10 to see why). 12. Fly kites only in open fields far from overhead lines. If a kite should become entangled in a power line, call CWLP immediately (789-2121). Do not attempt to retrieve it yourself. 13. Before digging in your yard, call JULIE (Joint Utilities Location Information for Excavators) at 811 or 1-800-892-0123 to find out where underground electrical (and other) services are buried. You need to allow 48 hours for the locations to be marked. 14. Always turn off a tool or appliance before unplugging it. 15. Never enter an electrical substation or tamper with a pad- or pole- mounted transformer.
  63. 63. 6 PREVENTING ELECTRICAL FIRES
  64. 64. PREVENTING ELECTRICAL FIRES Many electrical fires start when a combustible (burnable) material comes into contact with a hot electrical appliance, like a stove burner, portable heater or light bulb. Electrical fires can also start when combustibles come into contact with frayed or broken electrical cords or when wires inside the house or inside an electrical cord overheat. Overheating can occur when too many appliances are plugged into one outlet or one extension cord. The wires inside your home and inside extension cords are designed to carry a certain amount of current. If you plug in too many appliances, or plug in an appliance that requires more current than a wire is designed to carry, the wire can overheat and cause a fire. Here's a list of ways you can help prevent electrical fires:
  65. 65. Here's a list of ways you can help prevent electrical fires: 1. Protect electrical cords from damage by avoiding twisting or severely bending them. Also, keep cords away from heat sources—such as stoves, light bulbs and open fires—that might damage the cord's insulation. 2. Never use an appliance if its cord insulation is damaged. A fire could start if paper or another combustible material should come into contact with the exposed wire. (You could also be injured if you should touch the damaged wire. 3. Never run electrical cords underneath rugs. They can become frayed from being walked on or might simply overheat. 4. Do not plug too many appliances into one outlet or extension cord.
  66. 66. Here's a list of ways you can help prevent electrical fires: 5. If you are having a problem with blown fuses or tripped circuit breakers, find out why. These are indications that you have an overloaded circuit and might be at risk for an electrical fire. 6. Never replace a blown fuse with one of a higher amperage rating. You circuits are designed to handle a specific amount of current. Increasing a fuse amperage in an attempt to increase the load a circuit will carry is a guaranteed ticket to disaster. Never ever use a penny or other metal object as a replacement for a fuse. 7. If you must use an extension cord, make sure it is designed to carry as much current as the appliance needs. Appliances that draw a lot of power need a heavy gauge extension cord. 8. When operating outdoor electrical appliances or equipment, be sure to use extension cords that are rated for outdoor use.
  67. 67. Here's a list of ways you can help prevent electrical fires: 9. Keep curtains, towels, furniture, paper and other combustible materials away from electrical appliances— including stoves, ovens, toasters, portable heaters and light bulbs—that generate a lot of heat. 10. Keep electrical equipment and tools in good, clean condition. Oil and dirt buildup can cause equipment to overheat.
  68. 68. 7 WORKING SAFELY WITH AND AROUND ELECTRICITY
  69. 69. How can you protect yourself from electrical current? Understand the basics: How current flows through a circuit (the greater the current the greater the danger). Which materials are conductors and which are insulators. How small measurements of electrical current can still be very dangerous, especially if there is no resistance. 3-6
  70. 70. How can you protect yourself from electrical current? When working around electrical equipment, NEVER: Make repairs unless the power is off and unplugged from the circuit. Use equipment or appliances with frayed cords. Operate, repair, submerge or work with equipment in or around water.
  71. 71. How can you protect yourself from electrical current? When working around electrical equipment, ALWAYS: Remove all conductors such as metal jewelry and watches. Remove pagers and portable phones. Use required PPE such as insulated tools, gloves, and floor mats. Keep your skin dry!
  72. 72. Working Safely With and Around Electricity RESPECT THE POWER OF ELECTRICITY Electricity is a strong invisible force that gives power to machinery, lights, heaters, air conditioners, and many other forms of equipment that we have come to depend upon. However, electricity can be very dangerous, too. Accidental contact with electrical currents can cause injury, fire, extensive damage and even death. It is very important to remember that working with and around electricity requires your full attention and respect.
  73. 73. Working Safely With and Around Electricity INFORM YOUR SUPERVISOR OF FAULTY EQUIPMENT Contact with electricity does not have to happen if you follow a few simple guidelines. It is very important that you immediately inform your supervisor of any faulty equipment so it can get repaired or replaced. Don't attempt to repair the tool yourself. Lock out the equipment or, at the very least, tag it so others are aware that the equipment is damaged.
  74. 74. Working Safely With and Around Electricity WEAR PROTECTIVE CLOTHING You should make it part of your routine to wear rubber gloves and rubber-soled shoes or boots, especially if you are working around electricity in a damp environment. Of course, you know that water and electricity do not mix, but how often do you think about other liquids, such as grease, oil or solvents? Operating a drill with sweaty hands can also be a potential for electrical shock. However, do not make the mistake of believing that, regardless of your action, protective articles alone will protect you. Remember to do your best to avoid making any contact with electricity.
  75. 75. WEAR PROTECTIVE CLOTHING • Proper foot protection (not tennis shoes) • Rubber insulating gloves, hoods, sleeves, matting, and blankets • Hard hat (insulated - nonconductive)
  76. 76. Working Safely With and Around Electricity REGULARLY INSPECT YOUR ELECTRICAL TOOLS Inspect your electrical tools on a regular basis, including the large tools such as table saws, drill presses and bench grinders. Test your equipment first before starting to work. If any tool gives you a slight shock or smokes and sparks when the power is turned on, don't use it, but notify your supervisor immediately.
  77. 77. REGULARLY INSPECT YOUR ELECTRICAL TOOLS
  78. 78. Working Safely With and Around Electricity INSPECT THE POWER CORD Check the insulation around the power cord to make sure it is in good condition. You should not see any exposed wires or frayed ends. Power cords in poor condition should be replaced, never taped or spliced. Check the plug at the end of the cord to make sure the prongs are secure in the plug and none are missing. If one of the prongs is missing, do not use the tool. If you notice one of the tongs on the plug is slightly larger than the other, do not attempt to trim the tong down to match the smaller one. These tongs are polarized to prevent you from shock. When you unplug cords from the outlet, remember to pull on the plug and not the cord.
  79. 79. Electrical Plugs and Extension Cords
  80. 80. Electrical Plugs and Extension Cords
  81. 81. Working Safely With and Around Electricity MAKE SURE ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IS PROPERLY GROUNDED Properly grounded electrical equipment can offer you protection if the equipment should malfunction electrically. If your electric tool states that it's doubly insulated on the manufacturer's tag, this means there is insulation on the inside of the tool to protect you from shock. This type of tool will only have a two prong plug. If the tool doesn't state that it is doubly insulated, then you must have a third prong on the plug. (See Figure 6.) This third prong, or ground prong, plugs your tool into ground or earth so that in the event of a malfunction, the electricity will go through this ground prong to earth and bypass your body. If the prong is broken off, you have no protection and all the electricity will go through your body. A Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter should be used where there is a chance you could make contact with the moisture on the ground, such as working outside.
  82. 82. Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters Portable Ground Fault Circuit GFCI Panel Mounts Interrupters
  83. 83. Working Safely With and Around Electricity WATCH OUT FOR OVERHEAD POWER LINES It is very important to keep your distance from overhead power lines. (See Figure 7.) Each year, construction and farm workers are injured or killed because they have accidentally made contact with the high voltage lines that pass overhead. To prevent this from happening to you, preplan your job. Go out to the area you plan to move large equipment into, stack bales within, or where irrigation pipe will be laid, and look around for overhead wires and electric poles. Then plan your job around them. Remember, high voltage power lines are not insulated. Also, be aware that there are laws that prohibit any work within six feet of lines that carry between 600 and 50,000 volts, and require a minimum distance of 10 feet from these lines when operating boom-type lifting equipment.
  84. 84. Working Safely With and Around Electricity DO NOT MISUSE EXTENSION CORDS Extension cords appear harmless, but they can do quite a bit of damage if they are misused. No extension cord can be kinked, tied in a knot, crushed, cut, or bent and still insulate the electrical current safely. An extension cord that is misused in this manner may cause a short circuit, fire or even electrical shock. Don't use extension cords in areas that receive a lot of traffic because not only will it cause someone to trip, but constant traffic will wear out the insulating rubber cover. If you have no choice and must use cords in high traffic areas, make sure the cords are taped securely to the flooring or are hanging high overhead. Extension cords are to be used temporarily and never as a permanent source of power to equipment.
  85. 85. Working Safely With and Around Electricity NEVER THROW WATER ON AN ELECTRICAL FIRE As mentioned, water and electricity do not mix. In fact, water is an excellent conductor of electricity, and if water is thrown on an electrical fire, it will only spread the fire. Instead, use a chemical fire extinguisher. Make sure you know how to operate a chemical fire extinguisher and where the nearest one is in case of emergency. If you have questions or have difficulty locating an extinguisher, ask your supervisor for help.
  86. 86. Working Safely With and Around Electricity PRACTICE GOOD HOUSEKEEPING Electrical safety involves more than just ensuring that electrical equipment is in good working order, it also involves ensuring that you can get to the main power source as quickly as possible without climbing over obstructions in the event of an emergency. Keep the aisles and walkways clean and clear of garbage, and make sure all flammable liquid, such as gases or chemicals, is stored away from the area where any electric tool will be operated. Many electric tools produce sparks, which could ignite the flammable liquid's fumes and cause extensive damage.
  87. 87. 6 ELECTRICAL EMERGENCIES : HOW TO RESPOND
  88. 88. Protect yourself •Don't touch the person. That person might be energized, so take time to protect yourself. •Don't try to use a conductive tool to free the person. •Don't touch anyone who has become grounded.
  89. 89. Call 163 for help, IF the person: •is obviously injured (loss of consciousness, significant trauma, etc.) •has an altered mental status (confusion, slow/slurred speech, etc.) •has other obvious injury (laceration, burn, etc.) •or: at your discretion or that of the shock victim or supervisor.
  90. 90. •Keep others from being harmed •Shut off the power ( fuse or circuit-breaker or pull the plug; this might be difficult because there might be secondary sources; if you are not sure, get help) •Move the victim to safety only when power is OFF and no neck or spine injuries are possible •Give necessary first aid (keep CPR training up-to-date). •Report accident to supervisor (even minor shocks and close calls must be reported) •Secure area •Collect data for an investigation and to prevent reoccurrence.
  91. 91. What To Do Until Aid Arrives: Check for: Pulse •If person's heart has stopped, start CPR, if you are trained. Breathing •If person isn't breathing, begin mouth- to-mouth resuscitation, if you are trained. Treat for shock •Keep person lying down. •If unconscious, put them on their side to let fluids drain. •Don't move the person if neck or spine injuries are possible. •Cover the person to maintain body heat
  92. 92. Stay with patient until help arrives. Inform medical personnel about patient conditions.
  93. 93. If not emergency •Often symptoms are delayed and the person might need medical attention. •All persons, who have received shocks but do not fall into the categories above, must be taken to the University Health Center by a co-worker or supervisor. •Medical EVALUATION is a must.
  94. 94. 9 Codes and Regulations
  95. 95. Qualified and Authorized According to OSH , Electrical Safety- related work practices: Electrical equipment or electrical system design, installation, modification, testing, repair, and maintenance shall be done by QUALIFIED AND AUTHORIZED electrical personnel.
  96. 96. PHYSICAL PLANT SAFETY MANUAL, ELECTRICAL CHAPTER Lockout-Tagout Manual (Working Around Energized Equipment and Systems) must be adhered to for all electrical work. NOTE: The Lockout-Tagout procedure requires the release of stored energy. OSH’s purpose and policy is to assure that every working person has safe and healthful working conditions.
  97. 97. Here are the OSH requirements that must be followed: •Live parts of 50 volts or more shall be guarded. •Systems, Circuits and Equipment shall be grounded to: •Protect people from shock •Safeguard from fire •Protect equipment from damage •Exposed non-current carrying metal parts of equipment connected by cord and plug which may become energized shall be grounded to prevent shocks. •If housing not connected to ground and if there is any leakage, a shock could result. •Most common wiring violations are: •#1 - Flexible cords shall have strain relief to prevent pull from being directly transmitted to joints or terminal screws. 60% of fires are caused by poor connections and faulty outlets, plugs and cords. xx #2 - Conductors entering cabinets, etc. shall be protected from abrasion.
  98. 98. It takes a Minute to write a safety rule It takes an Hour to hold a safety meeting It takes a Week to plan a safety program It takes a Month to put it in practice It takes a Year to win a safety award It takes a Lifetime to make a safe worker But it only takes a Second To destroy it all in one accident.

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