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Scalable High Efficiency Video Coding based HTTP Adaptive Streaming over QUIC Using Retransmission

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HTTP/2 has been explored widely for video streaming, but still suffers from Head-of-Line blocking and three-way hand-shake delay due to TCP. Meanwhile, QUIC running on top of UDP can tackle these issues. In addition, although many adaptive bitrate (ABR) algorithms have been proposed for scalable and non-scalable video streaming, the literature lacks an algorithm designed for both types of video streaming approaches. In this paper, we investigate the impact of quick and HTTP/2 on the performance of adaptive bitrate (ABR) algorithms in terms of different metrics. Moreover, we propose an efficient approach for utilizing scalable video coding formats for adaptive video streaming that combines a traditional video streaming approach (based on non-scalable video coding formats) and a retransmission technique. The experimental results show that QUIC benefits significantly from our proposed method in the context of packet loss and retransmission. Compared to HTTP/2, it improves the average video quality and also provides a smoother adaptation behavior. Finally, we demonstrate that our proposed method originally designed for non-scalable video codecs also works efficiently for scalable videos such as Scalable High EfficiencyVideo Coding (SHVC).

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Scalable High Efficiency Video Coding based HTTP Adaptive Streaming over QUIC Using Retransmission

  1. 1. All rights reserved. ©2020All rights reserved. ©2020 Scalable High Efficiency Video Coding based HTTP Adaptive Streaming over QUIC August 14th, 2020 ACM SIGCOMM EPIQ Workshop Minh Nguyen, Hadi Amirpour, Christian Timmerer, Hermann Hellwagner
  2. 2. All rights reserved. ©2020 ● Motivation ● Contributions ● Proposed method ● Evaluation and discussion ○ HTTP/3 over QUIC vs HTTP/2 over TCP ○ Proposed method vs state-of-the-art methods ● Conclusion and Future work Agenda All rights reserved. ©2020 2
  3. 3. All rights reserved. ©2020 ● Protocols ○ HTTP/2 suffers from Head-of-line (HOL) blocking. ○ QUIC running on top of UDP can tackle this issue. ● Video streaming ○ Adaptive bitrate (ABR) algorithms are mainly designed for either non-scalable or scalable video coding formats. ○ Lack of an approach that works well for both non- scalable and scalable video coding formats. Motivation QUIC Stream 1 Stream 2 Stream 3 Non-scalable video Scalable video Quality FHD HD SD Quality FHD HD SD SegmentSegment Enhancement layer 1 (EL1) Base layer (BL) Enhancement layer 2 (EL2) Server Client 3 HTTP/2 Stream 1 Stream 2 Stream 3 HOL blocking Server Client
  4. 4. All rights reserved. ©2020 ● A systematic comparison of QUIC and HTTP/2 regarding the multiplexing feature. ● A non-scalable video streaming ABR algorithm in combination with an additional download technique is proposed to not only improve the video quality but also to provide a smooth adaptation behavior. Contributions QUIC HTTP/2 >< Non-scalable ABR Additional download technique Video quality Smooth adaptation Scalable video streaming 4
  5. 5. All rights reserved. ©2020 Proposed method ● State-of-the-art ABR algorithms ○ Non-scalable based method: Aggressive ABR (AGG) ○ Scalable based method: Backfilling ● Proposed method for Scalable Video Streaming ○ Modified AGG + HTTP/2-Based Retransmission technique (H2BR) ○ Modified AGG ■ Choosing the number of layers for each segment based on the network condition, ■ Downloading sequentially from low to high layers of each segment. ○ H2BR [PV’20] ■ Filling quality gaps in the buffer, ■ Downloading concurrently next layers and the additional layer with priority and multiplexing features, ■ Terminating layers with termination feature. Scalable based Backfilling Modified non-scalable based AGG Modified non-scalable based AGG + H2BR 5
  6. 6. All rights reserved. ©2020 Proposed method How does H2BR work? ○ Detecting gaps in the buffer. ○ If there is a gap, additional layer will be 1-level higher (i.e., the segment has BL, the additional layer is EL 1). ○ Additional layer will be downloaded if the throughput can sustain the next layer and additional layer so that: ■ Retransmission buffer > 0, and ■ Estimated buffer > BufferSize/4. ○ Assigning priority weights for additional layer and next layer so that for these layers enough throughput is allocated. ○ Sending 2 requests. ○ Terminating the additional layer if: ■ Retransmission buffer < 100 ms, or ■ Current buffer < BufferSize/4. Modified non-scalable based AGG + H2BR 6
  7. 7. All rights reserved. ©2020 Evaluation and discussion Server Client All rights reserved. ©2020 ABR algorithm H2BR DummyNet Tool 4G NetworkLSQUIC for QUIC Nghttp2 for HTTP/2 LSQUIC for QUIC Nghttp2 for HTTP/2 Video EL 3 EL 2 EL 1 BL Testbed * BL: Base layer * EL: Enhancement layer 7
  8. 8. All rights reserved. ©2020 Evaluation and discussion Modified AGG (M-AGG) Backfilling (BF) All rights reserved. ©2020 Modified AGG + H2BR (H2BR) Compared methods 8
  9. 9. All rights reserved. ©2020 Evaluation and discussion Impact of packet loss rate on the performance of adaptation approaches All rights reserved. ©2020 Average quality level # downward switches HTTP/3 over QUIC vs HTTP/2 over TCP 9
  10. 10. All rights reserved. ©2020 Evaluation and discussion # additional layers successfully downloaded by H2BR All rights reserved. ©2020 HTTP/3 over QUIC vs HTTP/2 over TCP 10
  11. 11. All rights reserved. ©2020 Evaluation and discussion Average quality level # downward switches Impact of buffer size on the performance of adaptation approaches All rights reserved. ©2020 Proposed method vs state-of-the-art methods 11
  12. 12. All rights reserved. ©2020 Evaluation and discussion Buffer starvation when buffer size is 5s All rights reserved. ©2020 Proposed method vs state-of-the-art methods 12
  13. 13. All rights reserved. ©2020 Conclusion and Future work All rights reserved. ©2020 ● Conclusion ○ QUIC can well support concurrent streams to provide a better performance in case of packet loss. ○ Proposed method makes non-trivial improvement in scalable video streaming. ○ H2BR might be a burden that can lead to buffer starvation when the buffer size is small. ● Future work ○ Investigating parameter selections for H2BR. ○ Considering different network traces and video contents. 13
  14. 14. Thank you All rights reserved. ©2020 14

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