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Going Purple : From full time breaker to part time fixer: 1 year later

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A little over a year ago I made the transition from external security consultant to internal offensive security engineer at Facebook. I went from a full time breaker to part time fixer. This talk is aimed at providing lessons learned and documenting the mindset changes I've made over the last year that I feel can be used by the industry as a whole. I've broken the lessons learned into three primary buckets; Red, Blue, and Purple and the talk will hopefully bring value to anyone working in their respective bucket or assist in their creation/continuing of purple teaming at their company.

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Going Purple : From full time breaker to part time fixer: 1 year later

  1. 1. Going Purple From full-time breaker to part-time fixer: 1 year later October 2015
  2. 2. @carnal0wnage - Engineer, Offensive Security & Redteaming carnal0wnage.attackresearch.com slideshare.net/chrisgates
  3. 3. Overview 1.  Provide lessons learned over the last year 2.  $PreviousCompany’s approach to Red Teaming 3.  Our take on Purple Teaming 4.  Examples in Red, Blue, and Purple Buckets
  4. 4. Goals Put more Offense in your Defense Put more Defense in your Offense
  5. 5. First Red Team Exercise
  6. 6. First Red Team Exercise
  7. 7. Red Bucket That is awesome...How did I get there?
  8. 8. Red Bucket •  Groundhog day every week, after multiple years of doing this and giving advice really wasn’t seeing people get any better. •  Spent a bit of time wondering why only 1 or 2 clients were really getting better while the rest were only marginally getting better. •  Is it me and my advice? (More on this soon) Are clients just lazy? Something else? Why Chris made the job change
  9. 9. Red Bucket •  Opportunity •  Job Description Why Chris made the job change
  10. 10. Red Bucket •  Consultants aren’t always invested in making a company better o  They provide what the client wants/perceive as valuable o  Most clients don’t know what is valuable o  Interesting/Michael Bay Explosions not always valuable •  Exhausted usefulness of outside pentest entities •  Need internal knowledge to craft more interesting attacks Why an Internal Red Team?
  11. 11. Red Bucket •  “Find vulnerable paths to achieve an objective” --> Pentest •  IMPACT driven •  Deliver a (researched) solution to system owners o  Don’t just drop off a report of “oh that sucks to the system owner” •  Example: o  Problem: Jenkins didn’t require auth, leads to RCE o  Solution: Research the various ways Jenkins does auth, test locally, write up details instructions to fix, task affected system owners to fix + link to how to fix o  Enjoy seeing vuln go away… :-) Pentesting at $PreviousCompany
  12. 12. Red Bucket •  Real life training event for IR team(s) o  Post Exploit, Persistence, Lateral Movement more important than initial hook o  Use “assist” to avoid initial detection (if necessary) o  “Exercise our ability to respond to an incident and find broken tools/ processes” --> Red Team, o  “Understand where are detection mechanisms are strong/weak” --> Detection Focused Red Team. o  Red Team switches to Blue Team after objectives achieved Red Teaming at $PreviousCompany
  13. 13. Red Bucket •  $PreviousCompany’s Public Red Team Exercises o  Vampire o  Loopback o  Shire https://medium.com/@magoo/red-teams-6faa8d95f602 https://threatpost.com/how-facebook-prepared-be-hacked-030813/77602/ http://arstechnica.com/security/2013/02/at-facebook-zero-day-exploits-backdoor-code-bring-war-games-drill-to-life/ Red Teaming at $PreviousCompany
  14. 14. Blue Bucket •  Strive to be seen as helping not creating work •  Encourage “same team” mentality •  Same manager for blue and red teams •  Partnered with senior blue team member (@cmccsec) o  Learned from each other o  Highest impact to date o  Develop empathy for what the other side deals with: q  ex. Implant deployer failed q  ex. Common lateral movement got us caught q  ex. Feel the despair as blue team takes out our implants How to work effectively with your IR/SOC/CERT teams
  15. 15. Blue Bucket •  IR teams need someone with attacker knowledge/methodology o  “More offense in your defense” o  What can I do with these credentials? o  Where can I REALLY go with this level of access? vs where you THINK I can go o  Knowledge of current attacker methodologies o  Ability to test vs. believing assumptions or info from another team How to work effectively with your IR/SOC/CERT teams (2)
  16. 16. Blue Bucket •  Pentesters are interested in IR as long as they don’t have to make a career change to learn it •  Responders are interested in offense as long as they don’t have to make a career change to learn it Working with IR/SOC/CERT teams (3) Image from: http://blog.workisnotajob.com/post/3129795739/new-things-and-new-thoughts-important
  17. 17. Blue Bucket •  Most red teamers have limited access to enterprise defensive tools o  No visibility into what actions were detected or not o  What actions/events causes an alert to fire o  Red team within IR fills this gap & allows both teams to learn •  Blue teamers sometimes don’t have time to fully understand new attacks o  Know what a golden ticket is, but never made/used one/understand risks or artifacts it leaves behind Writing alerts to catch yourself makes you a better pentester (1)
  18. 18. Blue Bucket •  Tons of tools leave tons of artifacts if you are equipped to look for them •  MSF creates a random 16 character hostname during smb_login requests o  Random just became not so random :-( How can I modify my tools to avoid public or internal signatures?
  19. 19. Blue Bucket MSF 16 character smb_login example
  20. 20. Blue Bucket •  Fix-->Modify metasploit to hardcoded or different value MSF 16 character smb_login example
  21. 21. Blue Bucket •  Do I need a tool when I can do it via command line? o  Most tools/scripts leave artifacts •  Force you to up your game by fixing low hanging vulns & alerting on the easy to catch stuff •  Stay up to date with latest techniques for lateral movement or persistence o  Then write rules for them o  Then modify the tools not to be detected :-) Writing alerts to catch yourself makes you a better pentester (2)
  22. 22. Blue Bucket •  My biggest gripe as a consultant was rarely getting feedback on what the client saw o  Did you see me and let me go because it was a Pentest? Or not see me at all? q  Now I make a W.A.G. in your report o  Actions on detection often not clear in ROE o  The answer drives recommendations and remediation •  Validate your tools and techniques against other “professionals” •  Steal their good ideas :-) Incident Response can be fun?!?!
  23. 23. Blue Bucket •  I was tasked to come up with actual solutions to issues I found on pentests •  Took me MUCH longer to research and test a fix than break it •  Developed quite a bit of Empathy for receivers of my report •  People don’t have time to act on generic findings/recommendations o  **We** give pretty bad recommendations (more on this soon) •  Delivering a detailed/REAL fix with the problem goes far Fixing vulnerabilities you find is hard
  24. 24. Purple Bucket •  Recommendations are usually given in a one size fits all format o  Company size, culture, etc are generally not considered o  Best practice vs what would actually work for the specific environment o  ex: “Utilize application whitelisting” o  ex: “Segment your network” We give bad recommendations and wonder why clients don't fix things
  25. 25. Purple Bucket We give bad recommendations and wonder why clients don't fix things
  26. 26. Purple Bucket Better recommendations
  27. 27. Purple Bucket •  Keys to this: o  Show impact of the vuln q  “Access to X gave me Y information” q  “Compromising X allowed me to bypass 2fac requirements” q  Attackers don’t pop shells for fun, only pentesters do •  Attackers have specific objectives (Impact) o  Remove all the fluff...Get full point across in Executive Summary q  Lead with the “So What?” o  Technicals details in later sections Making pentesting a desired activity and not just creating work for others -- high value / low friction (1)
  28. 28. Purple Bucket •  Keys to this: o  Work through solutions and don’t overhype the problem o  Provide actionable solutions, with steps, preferably tested in our environment, with the recommendations. q  Example: Don’t say “use iptables to restrict access” q  Instead: Test some iptables rules then provide the iptables rules so they can cut and paste q  Difficult for external consultants to provide this level of detail o  Retest and retest until it is fixed Making pentesting a desired activity and not just creating work for others -- high value / low friction (2)
  29. 29. Purple Bucket Typical Red Team vs Blue Team relationship... http://fellows-house.deviantart.com/art/Red-vs-Blue-195109671
  30. 30. Purple Bucket •  Chris sits with the Incident Response Team •  Most other companies Red Team vs Blue Team is VERY adversarial o  One of the primary goals with the role was to avoid this relationship o  Ex: Blue Team not wanting to share detection/defense strategy q  Focused (wrongly) on catching the Red Team q  Sharing strategy forces Red Team to get creative; just like real attackers will q  Iterate and make both teams improve Where the Red Team sits @ $PreviousCompany and why (1)
  31. 31. Purple Bucket •  Purple team reports can include both Red and Blue narrative o  Significantly more valuable than “How I pwned all your stuff” narrative o  Highlight to leadership the value of the IR team, show wins with new initiatives, gear, training, etc o  Identify logging gaps, identify technology overlap Where the Red Team sits @ $PreviousCompany and why (2)
  32. 32. Purple Bucket •  More complicated the environment the longer it takes to achieve goals •  Internal Red Team can test fixes against the environment •  You can construct a Red Team exercise to force IR team to test/refine specific skills: o  How people react under fire o  Forensics (Disk, Memory, Mobile) o  Malware analysis o  Identify logging gaps o  External relationships (comms, legal, network, IT, etc) o  Blue Team OPSEC Pros/cons of internal vs external red teams (1)
  33. 33. Purple Bucket •  It’s really fun to watch someone that didn’t conduct the attack...deconstruct the attack o  What artifacts did I leave behind? o  How good/bad was my OPSEC? o  Did my pentester tricks work? o  Small things that red team may consider insignificant can be all the breadcrumbs the IR team needs •  Ability to suppress alerts in order not to start the exercise early o  Use “the assist” to get us past initial access vector Pros/cons of internal vs external red teams (2)
  34. 34. Purple Bucket •  Outside teams aren’t conditioned to the network o  They won’t automatically ASSUME network conditions •  Can find vulns while messing with unknown systems o  Not following the normal flow or use cases o  This happened during a previous red team (internal system) •  Outside team can bring in skills the inside team doesn’t have o  Previous outside team found a privilege escalation exploit o  Would have been VERY difficult for me to find and exploit that bug Pros/cons of internal vs external red teams (3)
  35. 35. Purple Bucket •  Internal team gets to: o  Work with Blue team during containment, eradication, recovery and post- incident (fixing) phases o  Be Included in planning and execution of the response o  See everything that goes into an effective response o  Capture gaps in response q  ex. IR missed the backup implant Pros/cons of internal vs external red teams (4)
  36. 36. Purple Bucket •  Fully internal -- No external Contractors •  Partnered with senior Blue Team member •  Took things I found pentesting…chained together story for the exercise •  “Create internal havoc” attackers Overview of a Recent $PreviousCompany Red Team Exercise
  37. 37. Purple Bucket SMS Phish**
  38. 38. Purple Bucket
  39. 39. Purple Bucket
  40. 40. Purple Bucket
  41. 41. Purple Bucket Some VPN magic happens that I went through in person Sorry you had to be there -- J
  42. 42. Purple Bucket
  43. 43. Purple Bucket
  44. 44. Purple Bucket
  45. 45. Purple Bucket
  46. 46. Purple Bucket
  47. 47. Purple Bucket
  48. 48. Purple Bucket
  49. 49. Purple Bucket
  50. 50. Purple Bucket
  51. 51. Purple Bucket
  52. 52. Purple Bucket
  53. 53. Purple Bucket
  54. 54. Purple Bucket
  55. 55. Purple Bucket
  56. 56. Wrapup ●  Purple Teaming is bleeding edge ○  There is no right or wrong way of doing it ●  Forming strong bonds between Red and Blue Teams IS possible ○  We have proven this makes both team better/stronger ●  We need more offense in our defense ○  And defense in our offense...Purple teaming is a way to do this ●  Try it and see ○  Share your results
  57. 57. Thanks! @carnal0wnage chris [] carnal0wnage.com

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