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Charged Activated Pressure Filter [CAPF] - Introduction

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Charged Activated Pressure Filter [CAPF] uses charged activated filter media, which is direct replacement of Sand. Made in Scotland from specific grade of green glass & processed to get charged by activation. Once replaced, no need to replace for its life time. No bio fouling due to negative zeta potential aroung filter media. Surface area is 1,000,000 m2/m3, which is 300 times silica/quartz sand. Can filter down to 1.0 micron & turbidity less than 0.5 NTU. The golden rule is "What goes in during service cycle needs to come out during backwash.

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Charged Activated Pressure Filter [CAPF] - Introduction

  1. 1. 2 Index No Description Page 1. Charged Activated Pressure Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 2. What is CAFM & How it is made . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 3. Charged Activated Surface & -ve Zeta Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 4. Bio fouling of Sand & CAFM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 5. Bacteria Levels on Sand & CAFM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 6. Filtration & Backwash Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 7. Surface Area Per Unit Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 8. Filtration Degree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 9. Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 10. CAFM – Performance Summery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 11. Industry Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 12. Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 13. Cost Benefit Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 14. Performance Comparison – For Tertiary Sewage Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 15. Performance Comparison – CAPF v/s Sand v/s UF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
  2. 2. Uses Charged Activated Glass Filter Media for Fresh Water & Waste Water
  3. 3. • CAFM is manufactured in Scotland from a specific type of glass. • The glass is reduced to a precise particle size distribution and shape to maximise the hydraulic flow characteristics and mechanical filtration performance. • The raw material is chemically processed [activated] to open up the aluminosilicate atomic lattice and activate the surface physio-chemistry. • An activation process increase the surface area by 300 times over crushed glass or sand. What is Charged Activated Filter Media [CAFM] & How it is made -
  4. 4. Net electronegative Potential on “Charged Activated Filter Media” [CAFM] Positively charged hydrated ions align over the surface of “CAFM” Diffused layer, with a predominant negative charges “ZETA POTENTIAL” Bulk Water To be filteredEnlarged View Of “Charged Activated Filter Media” [CAFM] Charged Activated Surface & Zeta Potential +vely charged coagulated, polar & dipolar dissolved organics +ve cationic flocculated solids
  5. 5. Bio-fouling of sand and CAFM Electron micro graphs of sand and CAFM Silica/Quartz Sand has 100% bacteria coverage after 3 days in a drinking water filter CAFM stays free of biofilm, even after 5 years in sewage effluent New sand Used sand New CAFM Used CAFM
  6. 6. Wormhole Channeling Alginates excreted by bacteria coagulate the sand and cause wormhole channeling. Coagulated Alginates of Bacteria Excreta Channeling In Filter Bed Bacteria Sand Filter
  7. 7. Bacteria levels on sand and CAFM - transient worm holes Sand filters are biological, bio-mechanical instability results in media coagulation, transient worm hole channel and discharge of solids into the product water CAFM is electro-mechanical, media does not suffer from bacterial coagulation so no channeling of water through the filter bed. Media Total colony count (aerobic) at 37 deg C, on 5 grams of filter media CAFM 18 Silica Sand 3,600,000 Media samples were taken just prior to a back-wash at a depth of 200mm into the bed, and 500 mm from the side of the filter. Bacterial levels on CAFM and sand after 3 months in a clean water filter. The Table is certified data showing total bacterial levels of 3.6 million with sand, and essentially zero with CAFM.
  8. 8. Filtration & Backwash Efficiency CAFM v/s Quartz/Silica sand filtration What goes into a filter must come out in the back-wash The graph opposite is the back-wash profile for identical sand filter and Charged Activated filter after 10 weeks. The profile shows that 30% more solids are back-washed out of the AFM. This means 30% more solids have there been trapped & removed during the service phase CAPF performance is maintained while sand filters continue deteriorate with time. Trials conducted on parallel systems with CAFM and Quartz/Silica Sand
  9. 9. Surface Area Per unit volume - Surface Area [m²]
  10. 10. Filtration Degree - [ % ] At velocity – 20 m/hr ; without any coagulant or flocculent
  11. 11. Specification CAFM – Grain 1 : Specific Weight : 1’250 kg/m³ Effective Size : 0.6 mm Spherizity : > 0.8 Roundness : > 0.7 Uniform Coefficient : < 1.3 Cross section Ratio : < 2.4 Specific Gravity : 2.5 Purity : 99.95 % Chemical Composition : Silica : 70 Magnesium : 1 Sodium : 8 Aluminum : 1.5 Antimony : < 0.001 Arsenic : < 0.0001 Barium : 0.02 Cadmium : < 0.0001 Chromium : 0.15 Calcium : 10 Lanthanum : 2 Cobalt : 0.016 Lead : < 0.005 Mercury : < 0.0005 Titanium : 0.1 Rubidium : 0.05 Iridium : 0.05 Platinum : 0.0001
  12. 12. “CAFM” - performance summary  Typically improves performance by 30% to 50% in terms of solids removed for both waste water and clean water applications.  CAFM does not need to be replaced, the media may be used for the life of the filter, and can be recycled and used again.  CAFM does not bio-coagulate or experience worm-hole channelling.  Performance is stable and predictable CAFM® is certified under Regulation 31 of the UK Drinking Water inspectorate, CAFM is compliance with European Water Directive (98/83/EC) & (80/778/EEC).
  13. 13. Applications  Slow Gravity Filtration  Pressure Media Filtration  Pre-treatment to UF & RO  Fresh Water Filtration  Ion & Manganese Filtration  Sewage & Effluent Filtration
  14. 14. Industry Coverage  Pharmaceutical  Aquaculture  Food & Beverage  Dairy  Package Drinking Water  Cosmetic  Chemical  Cooling Tower  STP & ETP [Industrial Waste Water]  Swimming Pool  Pre Treatment to RO  Sea Water RO
  15. 15. Advantages  No Bio fouling  Filtration down to < 5.0 micron  Filtration With coagulant or Ozone < 1.0 ppm ; Turbidity < 1  Highest Backwash efficiency  No need to replace Media for life time  Filters Iron & Manganese  With Ozone extremely effective on Organics, Chlorine not required at all  No Chlorine, so no need of de-chlorination & No Trihelo-methane  With Ozone, no need of Activated Carbon Filter
  16. 16. Cost benefit analysis CAFM is around 3 to 4 time, the cost of quartz/silica sand, however we are already dealing with a relatively low efficiency, low performance & low cost product. AFM has been confirmed to work a great deal better than sand, and will give a return in capital out of revenue savings measured in months through savings in; 1. filter media; no need to replace AFM for the life of the filter 2. water; back wash water reduced by up to 50% 3. energy; increased run phase and reduced back-wash could give 15% savings 4. chemicals; reduced chemical consumption, chlorine, alum & flocculants
  17. 17. Performance Comparison - for the tertiary sewage treatment TYPE OF FILTER SS. (mg/l) Performance % Turbidity [ntu] Performance % Bacteria cfu Performance % Velocity inlet outlet inlet outlet inlet outlet m3/m2/h RGF sand filter with sand 7.14 2.2 69 3.5 2.23 36 23,120 12,300 46 1.2 Pressure filter with sand 8.18 3.82 53 5.87 4.76 18 22,311 18,023 19 4.96 Moving bed sand filter with sand 7.08 3.82 46 2.13 1.79 16 14,067 10,307 26 5.4 Drum filter 10 micron 14.66 7.33 50 7.16 3.88 45 56,712 38,460 32 3.23 Disc Filter 10 micron 5.6 3.1 44 2.22 2.06 7 30,450 21,138 30 2.12 Ring Filter 10 micron 7.41 3.98 46 3.01 3.17 9,447 7,761 17 2.5 Charged Activated Pressure filter 10.60 0.89 96% 2.98 0.24 92 % 23,000 10,000 58 % 3.59 CAPF media in a pressure filter out-performed all other technologies, some of which were 10 times the cost Independent tests conducted by Spanish Water Company and reported in Technology del Agua , December 2009, page 47.
  18. 18. Performance comparison of CAF + O3 with sand and UF Parameters CAPF + O3 Ratting Sand [PSF] Ratting UF at 0.03 microns Ratting Remove dissolved silica Yes  Can add free silica to water    No   Remove phosphate Yes, when combined with NoPhos    No   No   Remove dissolved organics Yes, especially when combined with APF pre-coagulation and flocculation using Ozone      After 6 months sand filters will be increasing organic load through autotrophic bacteria      No, UF cannot remove chemicals in solution.   Bio-fouling No, CAFM does not bio-foul      Yes, 100% coverage of every grain of sand in 3 days      Yes, membranes need to be regularly cleaned      Prevention of RO membrane bio-fouling Yes, because it removes phosphate and dissolved nutrients required by bacteria      No, sand is the perfect substrate to grow bacteria. Often solids load is higher on discharge than influent.      Phosphate, and dissolved nutrients will react the RO membranes      Scaling No      Yes, with carbonates, calcite, struvite, ferric etc    Yes, with carbonates, calcite, struvite, ferric etc    Chlorination Not required, AFM does not biofoul. So no chlorine reaction products such as THM`s, TCA, or hydrobromous acid      Yes, sand filters need to be chlorinated continuously or as part of a regular cleaning schedule.      May be required as part of the cleaning schedule. Chemical Enhance Backwash [CEB]      Filtration level 90% down to 0.1micron, approx. 80% down to 0.01micron      All sand filters will channel, so membranes are exposed to unfiltered water.      0.03 to 0.01 microns absolute, unless the membrane ruptures      Sustainable 100% sustainable, Circular Economy VIBES winner in the UK [50 yrs Life time]      No sustainable, needs to be replaced at 1 to 5 year intervals     Not sustainable, membranes need to be replaced at 1 to 5 year intervals     Operation costs Can operate at 50% higher flow rates, so much lower capital cost than sand filtration    Lower capital cost than AFM and higher running, operation & maintenance costs   Much higher capital cost than AFM. Much higher pressures and running costs. Lower area required for installation     CAPF : Charged Activated Pressure Filter CAFM : Charged Active Filter Media
  19. 19. Solution Engineer : Mr. Sunil Shah Contact : +91-93212 34527 Mail ID : sunilshah@chemtronicsindia.com URL : www.chemtronicsindia.com www.ozonegeneratorindia.com www.m.chemtronicsindia.com Thank You

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