從產品認知語意探討紙本書閱讀愉悅感之初步研究A Preliminary Study of Pleasurable Reading Experience in Paperbook from Cognitive Product Semantic Perspective 歐瑜婷 1* 王明揚 2 國立清華大學工業工程學系 1 firstname.lastname@example.org 摘要 目前電子書設計議題關注於使用性功能測試，如：反應速度、顯示器圖文品質等，而這些功能規格決定了電子書服務或設計之策略。大部分閱讀活動中，可發現重度閱讀者仍屬偏好紙本書籍的閱讀，而他們被視為潛在的電子書使用者。本研究初步了解讀者於紙本書閱讀時產生的愉悅和不愉悅感經驗，並透過語意調查法(semantic inquiry)，歸納相關紙本書閱讀愉悅和不愉悅感之形容詞語彙。我們架構五個主要的情緒體驗類別：讀者與紙本書的關係(reader-paper book attachment)、本能(visceral)、行為(behavior)、情境(situational)和人與人之間(interpersonal)。研究結果顯示紙本書閱讀愉悅感，需同時包含實用功能性和持續的閱讀經驗於各種不同讀者的情緒體驗中，除此之外，本研究所歸納之形容詞語彙，亦可為電子書服務經驗設計之應用。關鍵詞：愉悅感、電子書服務設計、紙本書、產品語意和情緒體驗 Abstract Current study for e-reader design is surrounded by usability orientation (e.g., competing in speed, displayquality on text and images) which leads toward service/design strategies. However, for most of the readingactivities, paper continues to be the preferred medium for frequent readers, who could be the most promisingpotential adopters for e-readers. The preliminary study aims to understand how ―pleasure‖ or its opposite―displeasure‖ was experienced by paper book readers, and also to collect semantics regardingpleasure/displeasure through semantic inquiry. Five categories of emotional experiences are identified to collectinquiry data: attachment (reader-paper book attachment), visceral, behavioural, situational and interpersonal. Thefinding shows that a pleasurable paper book reading combines pragmatic features and sustainable throughdiverse reading experiences. In addition, these semantics of pleasure/displeasure in paper book readingexperiences can be potentially used for e-reader service experience design.Keywords: pleasure, e-reader design, paper book, product semantics, emotional experience
1. Introduction we aim to advance our understanding of the In-depth understanding the emotional experiences emotional experience of paper book readingof interactions with frequent readers of paper book is corresponding to different categories of emotions,important to serve as the foundation for the and in turn, to model the interactions with the widedevelopment of electronic reading applications and range of pleasure/displeasure.service; however, little contribution has been made in 2. Five categories of emotional experiencesthis area by exploring how frequent readers approach to paper book experiencesexperienced pleasure/displeasure during holistic As for our definitions, reading experience withpaper book interactions. Ruecker (2002) has made reading medium interactions can be comprised withcontributions through his objective in single emotion multiple levels of emotions for frequent readers, andof pleasure to discern paper book experiences and also, we hope to better understand attributes whichunderlines the functionality of e-reader design can be can determine pleasure/displeasure of paper bookwithout loss to either the existing functions of paper interactions. Thus, we first have to define thebook or this significant range of pleasures. It different emotional experiences, and then explore theseemingly implies the design focus of e-reader goes possible determinants from the broad and variedbeyond the issue of functionality or usability. We product emotions of paper book.take similar view and deepen explanation to better 2.1Visceral, Behavioral and Reflectivedetermine how emotional experience of paper book Norman (2004) proposes a multi-level analysiscould evoke pleasure for frequent readers, and framework. In this analysis, emotional considerationswhether if there has contradictive emotions with are inclusive at each of three levels of emotional―pleasure‖ or its opposite ―displeasure‖ for processing: visceral (reactive), behavioral (routine),reader-paper book interactions. Currently, surveys and the reflective. As noted, this triple tierindicate that adults spend substantial amounts of time framework is similar and reasonably corresponds toreading as an important aspect of their lives (Gioia, Jordan‘s pleasurable framework which includes2008), and in the design trend for reading physio-pleasure, psycho—pleasure, socio-pleasureapplications, digital reading devices need to possess and ideo-pleasure. This viewpoint was confirmed bya paper-like high contrast appearance, ultra-low review of other existing literature in the field (Lim etpower consumption, and light weight enough to carry al., 2008; Schifferstein and Zwartkruis-Pelgrim,anywhere (Dougherty, 2010), whether these 2008). For this research, we adapted the visceral andelectronic feature can enrich the frequent readers‘ behavioral emotional relevance to the discussion (e.g.experience. On the one hand, developers may face book feature, material, appearance) and also havesome difficulties in deciding which functions should considered broad interests to explore how to triggerbe considered essential for an electronic reading the pleasure/displeasure arousing attributes withapplication or service, and seems certain that merely reflective experiences or other unknown emotionalembracing the notion of bare functionality or experiences in paper book interactions.usability is just not enough; on the other hand, little 2.2 Attachment (Reader-paperbook attachment)existing knowledge explains why frequent readersare bound by conventional paper media. In this study, In the literature, attachment with product has been defined as the strength of the emotional bond to a
consumer experience with a specific product also enrich the extent of the reader‘s pleasurable(Schifferstein et al., 2004). Ruecker (2002) even experiences with paperbook and might possibly bementions that there is a strong emotional bond undefined by Norman or Jordan. So, additional issuebetween frequent readers and paperbook. Govers and arises as to what determinants can affect reader‘sMugge (2004) states a product attachment can result durable experiences with paperbook in differentin a longer usage period may experienced the process situational experience (e.g. purchase of book, readingsuch as, (s)he is more likely to handle the product occasion)with care, to repair it when it breaks down, and to 2.4 Interpersonal experiencepostpone its replacement as long as possible. It Guthrie et al. (2004) sates social readingsuggests design product that was composed with motivation leads to increased amount of reading andenjoyment and memories that evoked from the high achievement in reading. And also, Parkinson etassociations between products and people, places or al. (2005) restates these elements of interpersonalevents (Norman, 2004; Schifferstein and experience included: emotional contagion, socialZwartkruis-Pelgrim, 2008). appraisal, and interpersonal reinforcement. Similarity,2.3 Situational experience the factor of self-image has also been concerned into As we mentioned, readers with various purposes the reflective category as defined (Norman, 2004).were performed their reading tasks. Adler et al. (1998) 2.5 Semantic identification of pleasure/displeasurereports adults‘ reading activity is far too general and emotions from product attributeswith ubiquities from a varied range of forms and Wikstrom (1996) defines the four product semanticpurposes. These reading activities will also depend functions that a product may possess as: to describe,on whether person is considering reading at work or to express, to signal, and to identify itself. Withat home according to their different considerations. recent design trends in ergonomics benefiting fromAs we can see, it‘s seemingly has a barrier for contributions by related to semantics and emotionalreaders owning a pleasurable reading experience that design, the focus of product semantics has shiftedmeets several of ubiquitous reading or occasion. We from emphasis on the product‘s narrativerealized the paperbook relationship represents a performance to the psychosocial feelings productdurable experience for readers and from the different interactions engender or evoke. Many researchersroles in relationship to a book it can be assumed that have been motivated to find out how to trigger thethey will evoke various emotions from these pleasure arousing attributes in a product. Fordifferent situational experiences, such as whether example, Jordan (1998) used interviews to ascertainfrom book of purchasing, reading enjoyably, carrying product attributes including features, usability,books of anywhere, etc. It‘s naturally responsive to aesthetics, performance and reliability factors thatthe points of Kahmann and Henze (2002) mentions contribute to making product use pleasurable orthat consumers have different roles in their displeasure. Naturally, it is interesting not only torelationship to a product: there‘s the person who buys understand the determinant attributes of pleasurablethe product, the person who uses the product and the book interactions, but specifically attempt toperson who owns the product. Based on the literature organize the semantics are frequently mentioned withregarding durable product experiences, these could regard to ―pleasure‖ and it‘s opposite ―displeasure‖
from reader‘s inquiry context. have collected a total of 29 experiences for each3. Respondents and procedure given emotional category (see Appendix, Table 1). In the second stage, we carefully formulated the This study conducted two inquiry stages to questions according to the experiences gained frominvestigate the issue of pleasure or displeasure in following up on the semi-structured interviews. Thisexperiences with paper book interactions. At the not only helps the respondents to express more aboutfirst stage, data were collected from 60 frequent their experiences with paperbook, but alsoreaders who preferred reading paperbook through contributes to the data collection and analysisopen-ended questionnaires with snowball sampling. followed. The fifteen respondents were randomlySubsequently, we attempted to conduct in-depth chosen for follow-up interview, and were asked asemi-structured interviews with 15 respondents who series of questions that cover the experienceswere randomly selected from a representative pool of elaborated in the first inquiry stage. All of thethe frequent readers in this study. The representative questions were formulated in accordance with thepool sample respondents had the following five emotional categories and evaluated by expertscharacteristics: age ranging from 24 to 55 with the and peers.average age of 35. The number of male and femalesubjects is the same. 62% of the respondents had 5. Resultshigher education (bachelor and master degrees), and The interview data were transcribed and codedthe rest have doctoral degrees; thus, indicating a bias according to the principles of content analysistoward higher educational status. The respondents (Saldana, 2009), and analyzed by the nVivowere individuals from a range of occupations, qualitative data analysis tool. Boyatzis (1998)including administration related to computer work suggested the raw data be audio taped responses, the(35.5%), information specialists or engineers unit coding be determined by the structured(22.2%), publishers (15.2%), researchers (6.7%), as interview (e.g., by each question). Weber (1996) alsowell as product designers, sales, students, retired and stated the content analysis of the specific words wereothers. From these respondents, frequent readers are higher reliability than other unites of text (e.g.,those who usually read books for 1-2 hours daily, and paragraphs). Moreover, in the literature, we foundbought nearly three books a month on average. that many emotions related research studies used4. Instrument development interviews or discourse to collect respondent‘s semantic adjectives (Hauge-Nilsen and Flyte, 2002; The instrument used in this research was aimed to Jordan, 1998; Ruecker, 2002).With this reason, weexplore the polarity of pleasure and displeasure in encoded a sample of respondent quotes for eachpaper book reading experiences. A two-stage experience using semantic adjectives as a unit ofquestioning technique was employed to elicit the analysis. More important, the semantics evoked andemotions of the reader‘s experiences associated with extracted from these respondent‘s words werepleasure or displeasure. In the first stage, the selected and divided into groups of similar attributes.open-ended questionnaire allows us to collect Attributes were grouped together based on referencesexperiences (e.g., easy to turn page, difficult to recall to related aspects of experience respondentsposition, book as treasure) in an unbiased and mentioned (e.g., they described the act ofnon-leading way (Venkatesh and Brown, 2001). We
preciousness as ―nostalgic‖ and ―precious‖) or From the overall distribution, we can clearly see thatreference to diametrically opposing aspects (e.g., the range of behavioral category involving broaderrelaxed vs. tense).These attributes were combined experiences collected in the opened-endedand named according to their contribution to questionnaire and interview stages. Although it couldidentifying the context of experience resulting in potentially imply the importance of behavioralpleasure or displeasure. Following these collection experiences to readers, the significant pleasure inprinciples and data driven analysis, a total of over ―usage of book‖ is recognized in highest in30,000 words were collected from an initial pool of attachment category, followed by ―sharing &15 interview responses, and each respondent that discussion‖ in interpersonal, ―marking‖ in behavioral,contributed 2,500 to 3,000 words in average for total ―sense of vision‖ and ―reading occasion‖ in visceralof 29 experiences. From the data we collated, 17 and situational category respectively. As expected,attributes of book reading experiences were labeled. readers‘ pleasure in paperbook reading is not85 semantic adjectives regarding pleasure or particular to the behavioral experiences but to thedispleasure were identified in this research (see broad ones. In contrast to displeasure aspect, noAppendix, Table 2). In order to understand which attributes affect the ―ownership of book,‖ but dopossible attributes can determine the significantly influence ―reserve of book‖ inpleasure/displeasure experiences of the five attachment category. Also, it is important to note thatcategories of emotions, we purposely separated the the particular displeasure experiences in paperbooksemantics without emotional terms associated with were ―storage book‖ and ―recall previously read‖ inpleasure (e.g., happy and comfortable) and with which they can be significantly identified indispleasure (e.g., dislike and unhappy). By doing behavioral category. The distinction betweenso, we hoped to avoid the bias on terms occurring pleasure and displeasure of paperbook experiencesfrequently in the data analysis. More specifically, the shows an interesting result for readers‘ feelings withthree independent researchers transcribed the data contradiction. The most particular pleasure forinto the template and the categories were compared readers was from the attachment with paperbook.after each coding session until valid categories were Particular displeasure, meanwhile, was evoked fromfound (Kvale, 1996). Additionally one supervising those experiences in behavioral. It suggests that theanalyst (out of the 3 participating data analysts) particular displeasures occurred with the lack ofinvestigated all the data to make sure that the data existed book functions or obstructive original goals.was consistent to the coding template. The101 Several respondents had comments like “It’ssemantic attributes were discussed among coders marvellous to see a shelf of books displayed, but ituntil reaching unanimous consensus. The inter-coder did occupy most of my living space” or “I’m usedreliability was 0.79. to clipping pages by bookmarks, but if not, I felt5.1 Significant experiences of the five categories of irritated because next time I might find the pageemotions which was previously read.” Overall, the relatively higher frequencies of pleasure than displeasure show The significant paperbook experiences in each that the readers have less displeasure experiences incategory of emotions in terms of pleasure/displeasure paperbook interactions.were distinctly identified (see Appendix, Figure 1).
6. Conclusion PublishingIn practice, the results of this study offer four main 4. Govers, P. C., & Mugge, R. (2004). ‗I love myimplications as below, First, the semantics of jeep, because it‘s tough like me‘: The effect ofdescribing the pleasure/displeasure of paperbook product-personality congruence on productreading shed lights on the facilitation of connection attachment. In Proceedings of the Fourthamong designers in developing digital reading International Conference on Design andapplication. Second, we suggest, from the Emotion, Ankara, Turkey.implications of results, designers/researchers in the 5. Hauge-Nilsen, A. L., & Flyte, M. G. (2002).product development need to evaluate reader‘s Understanding attributes that contribute toemotion in digital reading by the blend of two pleasure in product use. In: William S. Greendimensions of pleasure/displeasure or mixed. Finally, and Patrick W. Jordan, Eds. Pleasure withmangers implementing technology or service in adult products: beyond usability. London: Taylorreading market should broadly sense that a and Francis, 257-270.successful combination of frequent readers and 6. Jordan, P. W. (1998). Human factors forsustainable reading experiences is inclusive of pleasure in product use. Applied Ergonomics,five-category emotions rather than taking single view 29(1), 25-33.in functionality concerned. We present important 7. Kahmann, R., & Henze, L. (2002). Mappingimplications for design or service development the User-Product Relationship (in Productrelated digital reading application. Finally, we hope Design). In:William S. Green and Patrick W.our study provides potential value for both emotional Jordan, Eds. Pleasure with Products: Beyondexperience research in ergonomics and HCI, as well Usability. London: Taylor and Francis, 297-306as for service-oriented industries, which is based on 8. Norman, D. A. (2004). Emotional design.holistic design strategies for e-reader reading Citeseer.pleasures. 9. Ruecker, S. (2002). Carrying the pleasure ofReferences books into the design of the electronic book.1. Adler, A., Gujar, A., Harrison, B. L., OHara, In:William S. Green and Patrick W. Jordan, K., & Sellen, A. (1998). A diary study of Eds. Pleasure with products: beyond usability. work-related reading: design implications for London: Taylor and Francis, 135-146. digital reading devices. In Proceedings of the 10. Saldana, J. (2008). The coding manual for SIGCHI conference on Human factors in qualitative researchers. Sage Publications. computing systems (pp. 241-248). ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. 11. Schifferstein, H. N., & Zwartkruis-Pelgrim, E. P. (2008). Consumer-product2. Dougherty, W. C. (2010). MANAGING TECHNOLOGY: E-Readers: Passing Fad or 12. Schifferstein, H. N., Mugge, R., & Hekkert, P. Trend of the Future?. Journal of Academic (2004). Designing consumer-product Librarianship, 36(3). attachment. Design and emotion: The experience of everyday things, 327–331.3. Gioia, D. (2008). To Read Or Not to Read: A Question of National Consequence. DIANE 13. Venkatesh, V., & Brown, S. A. (2001). A
(N=3) smelling touching vision longitudinal investigation of personal computers in homes: Adoption determinants Behavioral Navigation Cross-referen Turning page (N=17) ce and emerging challenges. MIS Quarterly, Search index Marking Recall 71–102. previously read 14. Weber, R. P. (1996). Basic content analysis. Look up Classification Review Sage Publications, Inc. dictionary 15. Wikstrom, L. (1996). Methods for Evaluation Relevance note Search extend Note taking of Products‘ Semantics. PhD Thesis,(Sweden, Edit document Storage book Stack book Chalmers University of Technology). Carry book Access Book Appendix Situational Purchase of Reading Reading (N=3) book occasion location Table 1. Five Categories of emotional experiences Interperson Sharing & Social Social Five Detailed readers’ experiences (Total=29) al (N=3) discussion identity ideology categories Attachment Reserve of book Ownership of Usage of (N=3) book book Visceral Sense of Sense of Sense of Table 2. 17 Attributes comprising semantics associated with pleasure/displeasureDefinition of attributes pleasure displeasureContent –content that are classified, accessed or searched by various 1.Complete 2.Organized 1.Tedious 2.Disorganizeddesign elements contained in a book, such as ―text,‖ ―length,‖―format,‖ ―section,‖ etc. 3.Concise 4.correct 3.Incomplete 4.IncorrectUtility – the quality of being practical to use, such as ―does what I 1.Useful 2.Indispensable 1.Useless 2.dispensablewant it to do.‖Preciousness– the emotional feeling to desire to keep a book for a 1.Nostalgic 2.Precious 1.Worthless 2.Replaceablelonger time, such as ―treasure,‖ ― love,‖ etc. 3.Irreplaceable 4. Memorable 3.ContradictoryReminder – the reminder function to assist reading, such as ― recall 1.Remindful 1.Forgetfulprevious section,‖ etc.Self-efficacy –capable of attaining designated levels of performing 1.Progressive 1.Regressivereading task, such as ―recognition of my reading progress,‖ etc.Focus attention – the act of devoting to study or reading, such as 1.Focused 1.Distracted―concentrate on searching or reading,‖ etcSelf-image –the way readers view themselves or their sense of social 1.Vain 2.Deep 1.Shallow 2.Old-fashionedrelationship, such as ―what kind of book interests me,‖ ―how deep Idiscuss or talk with others,‖ or ―how do I catch up to date,‖ etc. 3.Recognized 4.New-fashionedEco-awareness –awareness related to environ- mental issues, such 1.Aware 1.Unawareas, ― uses too much paper,‖ etc.Cost – the amount of money that needs to be paid for a book. 1.Lower 2.Discountable 1.higherBook feature – features are book characteristics that deliver 1.Limited 2.Traditionalprominent functions or benefits.
Ambiance – the ambiance of the reading place is the character or 1.Relaxed 2.Engaged 1.Tense 2.Noisedatmosphere that it seems to have, such as ― I read at home,‖ I read inmy workplace,‖ ―I habitually read in bed,‖ etc. 3. Quiet 3.DisengagedPhysicalness– related objects or things which actually can be visible 1.Appropriate 2.Tangible 1.Inappropriate 2.Narrowand tangible, such as the ‖size,‖ ―shape‖ or ―weight‖ related to bookstructure; the ―space‖ or ―area,‖ related to a storage room. 3.Light 3.Heavy 4.DenseAesthetic–the way that a book looks on the outside in visible aspects 1.Colorful 2.Beautiful 1.Old 2.Uglywith aesthetics, such as ― design of the book cover,‖ ―colour ofphotos‖ or ―resolution,‖ etc. 3.Attractive 3.MonotonousTimeliness –the time needed for efficiently completing reading tasks 1.Timely 2.Regular 1.Inefficient 2.Belatedor purchases, ―stay inform latest version of a book,‖ ―taking owntime to complete a reading task,‖ etc. 3.AsynchronousManipulation– the reading state or process of acting or doing, such 1.Effortless 2.Free 1.Difficult 2.Inconvenientas ―turning page,‖ ―searching passages‖ or holding books,‖ etc. 3.Controllable 4.Quick 3.Unpredictable 4.Restricted`Material – the tangible substance of paper that is made into a book, 1.Thick 2.Flexible 1.Flimsy 2.Irretrievableand also includes the texture of paper, such as ―the surface or fabricwhen touched.‖ 3.Unreflecting 3.Smelly 4.RiskySocial Relation –playing an important role in defining person‘s 1.Perceivable 2.Sympathetic 1.Unsympathetic 2. Unperceivablesocial characteristics, especially mixing specific groups, such as ―areading or discussion group,‖ etc. 3.Active 4.Curious 3. Passive 4.Prejudiced Figure 1. The frequency counts of attributes in each category of emotional experience, where frequency counts of pleasure and displeasure are 536 and 380, respectively