Company Proprietary and Confidential 1 August 16, 2011 PDD1 2011
Brief History of F1 Company Proprietary and Confidential 2 Formula One – “Formula” refers to a set of rules to which all participants and cars must comply to In 1930s – Plans for Formula One drivers’ championship discussed In 1946 – The first Formula One race was held. By May 1950 – First world championship was held at Silverstone.
History of Formula One in Singapore Company Proprietary and Confidential 3 Singapore Grand Prix went on until 1973. Stopped after several fatal accidents in 1972 and 1973 races. Known as Suez Canal Crisis. 28th September 2008 – First country to host a night-time event in history.
Formula One in Singapore now Company Proprietary and Confidential 4 In September 2011, held the most recent F1 race scheduled. Singapore Grand Prix will take place on public roads around Marina Bay area.
Formula One in Singapore Now Company Proprietary and Confidential 5 Estimated to be able to accommodate about 80,000 spectators. Grandstand seating and hospitality areas lined the track. Permanent pit area built adjacent to the existing Singapore Flyer complex. Revised route disrupts lesser businesses and is 5.2 kilometers longer.
Why we chose this topic? Company Proprietary and Confidential 6 Environmental Impact of F1 race in Marina Bay• Concerns – younger audience about the environmental issues• Future – health of the locals• Risks – critical to minimal issues
7 Background information Company Proprietary and Confidential• Massive preparation• Funded by government, 60% = $90 million• Pit Building = $33 million• Road works = Approximately $24 million• Road works affecting more than 70% of existing roads.
Advantages Company Proprietary and Confidential 8• Economic – Profits gained – Tourists receipts – 195 million international viewers (1st & 2nd race) – Integrated Resorts• Job creation – Worked with ITE schools – Temporary jobs
Disadvantages Company Proprietary and Confidential 9• Road closures• Business opportunities – Descending number of visitors• Lighting
10 Problems faced Company Proprietary and Confidential• Location• Road works• Lighting• Security
Improvements Company Proprietary and Confidential 11• Shorter period of road closures – Reduces 12 hour.• Engines – Biofuel engines
Environmental Impact Assessment Company Proprietary and Confidential 12• What is Environmental Impact Assessment?• The EIA Process in Sequence of Application• Various Methodologies• Selected Methodology for PDD1
Environmental Impact Assessment Company Proprietary and Confidential 13 Environmental Impact Assessment EIA Planning Tool Decision Making Impact & Effects
Various Methodologies Company Proprietary and Confidential 15We look at 6 types of methodologies: • Ad-hoc • Checklist • Matrices • Networks • Overlays
Selected Methodology for PDD1 Company Proprietary and Confidential 16Environmental Impacts Air (CO2) Solid waste Noise Dust Pre - Race * * * ** Actual - Race *** ** *** *** Post - Race ** *** ** * The table above shows how we incorporated the matrix methodology into our PDD1: * Meaning * Can be avoided ** Not very serious *** Very serious, actions needed to be taken
Matrices Company Proprietary and Confidential 17Matrices links• Projects activities & checklist of a potential environmentally impacts• Identify cause & effect relationship• State the severity of each factor• List the range of possible actions & characteristics
Environmental Impacts During Singapore F1 Race Confidential Company Proprietary and 18There are 5 impacts that we look into:• Littering• Noise• Carbon Dioxide Emission• Lighting System Used
Carbon Dioxide Emission from F1 Cars Company Proprietary and Confidential 19 An F1 car is able to emit • 1, 500g of CO2 for every 1km ≈10 times a regular saloon car emission During the race • CO2 emitted is close to 10 tonnes (excluding practice session) F1 cars use gasoline (rich high octane fuel) as a fuel for their engines • 6 pounds (2.722kg) of gasoline used =20 pounds (9.072kg) of Co2
Carbon Dioxide Emission from F1 Cars Company Proprietary and Confidential 20 Friday 23 September 2011 Practice 1 16:00 - 17:30 Practice 2 20:00 - 21:30 Saturday 24 September 2011 Practice 3 17:00 - 18:00 Qualifying 20.00 Sunday 25 September 2011 Race 20.00
Lighting System Company Proprietary and Confidential 21
Lighting System Company Proprietary and Confidential 22The lighting system consist of :• Circuit of 5.067 kilometres• Power 3,180,000 watt• Track Projectors 1, 485 @ 2,000 watt each• Power Generators 12 (twin-power)• Power Cables 108, 423m• Overall Luminosity 3000lux levels (4 times brighter than a sports stadium)
Lighting System Company Proprietary and Confidential 23
Lighting System Company Proprietary and Confidential 24Power generation is one of the main contributions of pollutants• Sulphur Dioxide• Nitrogen Oxides• Mercury
Effect of Lighting System Used Company Proprietary and Confidential 25Metal Halide Lamp (MHL)• 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit ≈ Temperature of liquid magma• The glass shatter when it is exposed to intense heat for very long (can cause injury)
Excessive Emission of Carbon Dioxide Company Proprietary and Confidential 26By having event such as F1 race:• Singapore contributes towards anthropogenic CO2 emission• Sharp increase in anthropogenic CO2 emission• Natural CO2 cycle will not be balance
Excessive Emission of Carbon Dioxide Company Proprietary and Confidential 27When there is a rise in CO2:• More plants are needed to balance up the whole CO2 cycle HOWEVER In hot & dry weather• The plants pores will be closed• Prevent the loss of water & photorespiration will take place
Excessive Emission of Carbon Dioxide Company Proprietary and Confidential 28• In which the plants will consume oxygen and carbon dioxide is produced• CO2 is only responsible for 20 % of the natural greenhouse effect• 60 % of the anthropogenic greenhouse effect that contributes to current global warming
Noise Pollution Company Proprietary and Confidential 29Human Response F1 cars0 Hz 10,000 Hz Sensitive 8,000 Hz 500 Hz 2,000 Hz The damage done to the ear could cause certain situations: • Piercing to the eardrum • Breaking of the bone • Constant exposure to high intensity sounds leading to noise-induced deafness • Presbycousis- loss of acuity with increasing age.
Effects of Noise Company Proprietary and Confidential 30 EFFECTS PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL OTHER EFFECTS EFFECTS EFFECTS Respiratory system Hearing loss Task interference Muscular system Speech interference Cardiovascular system Sleep interference Neuroendocrine system Annoyance