Many students face challenges comprehending texts. Students are not conscious of strategies that assist with building reading comprehension as well as discipline literacy. As a result, students are not able to develop skills necessary for meaningful learning (Vacca, Vacca, & Mraz).
Through class discussion students will be able to interpret meaning of unknownvocabulary terms offered in a forage resource profile of Malawi.
The text was selected from an online supplementary article that coverspasture and forage resource profiles of Sub Saharan African countries.Secondary sources providing content specific materials through varyingforms of media assists students’ comprehension while generatingmotivation and interest.The texts’ readability is well beyond the secondary reading levelaccording to the Fry Readability Graph (1977 as cited in Vacca, Vacca, &Mraz, 2011). Introduction of the text selection allows students to buildupon vocabulary previously offered in the core text, while developingnew terms as additives to their funds of knowledge repertoire.The text aligns with the common core social studies standard whichrequires students make meaning of unknown and multiple meaningwords through context of their use. Unknown vocabulary terms providestudents with the opportunity to interpret meaning through theirposition and function in a sentence.
• Students are divided into groups after initially reading the text.• Each team is then directed to select one word they would like to learn more about. (The word must have some importance in the text)• Each group’s word selection is presented to the entire class. A representative for each group identifies the nominated word and answers the following questions:A. Where is the word found in the text? (The student reads the passage in which the word is found and describes the context the word is used.)B. What do the team members think the word means? (The team decides on the meaning of the word using the surrounding context.)C. Why did the team think the class should learn the word? (The team must tell why the word was important enough to single out for understanding.)*The teacher facilitates the discussion, writes nominated words on the board, and invites class members to contribute additional clarification*(Vacca, Vacca, & Mraz, 2011)
The Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy is most important as a tool to assiststudent’s long term acquisition of language in an academic discipline (Vacca,Vacca, Mraz, 2011). It proves most effective for instruction focused on wordmeaning in context to students across all aptitude levels. This strategy supportsequitable access to knowledge construction of difficult text through a model that isrigorous yet attainable. The strategy asks students to select words that areunknown yet relevant to the text. Through group collaboration students begin tobuild meaning by way of analyzing the position of the word within the text. Thisinteraction combines students’ meta-cognition , self-regulation, and peer evaluation.As a result students are able to make the connection to the enduring understandingof their role as participant in knowledge construction (Enduring Understandings inSocial Studies). The VSS strategy aligns to the common core standard whichrequires students develop meaning of unknown words based on reading andcontent. Students accomplish this goal by reading the text, selecting unknownwords, and developing a definition based on the surrounding context. TheLearning outcome is met by peer review of the document and analysis of theunknown words in relation to the neighboring text. From that analysis, studentsbegin to synthesize gathered information to create meaningful understanding of
The VSS Strategy is best aligned to the socio-cultural learningtheory which emphasizes the importance of social and culturalfactors in children’s cognitive growth (Ormrod, 2011 pg. 39).Throughout the strategy students work collaboratively to extractunknown words and analyze meaning within the text based uponpeer construction of knowledge.The most salient factor I would like students to develop as aresult of this lesson is the interconnectedness of word meaningand context. As a result of reading the selection of forage profilesstudents will be able to increase their funds of knowledge ofwords within the social studies discipline while developing theskills necessary to independently construct word meaning.Informal assessments are based upon peer evaluations ofmeaning during discussion.
Determine the centralideas or information of aprimary or secondarysource; provide anaccurate summary of howkey events or ideasdevelop over the courseof the text.
Learning OutcomeStudents will be able to summarizean autobiographical account ofNelson Mandela in order todistinguish the connection betweenhuman survival and naturalresources.
The text was selected from anautobiographical book written by NelsonMandela, titled Long Walk to Freedom.Primary source documents help studentsdevelop an understanding of culturalsignificance. According to the Fryreadability graph (1977 as cited in Vacca,Vacca, & Mraz 2011) the text reads at aninth grade level. The text providesstudents the opportunity to makeconnections between geographicalfactors and culture. As a result the textaligns to Common Core Standards whichrequires students determine central ideasand provide an accurate summary of howkey ideas develop through historicalinterpretation.
*Teacher introduces activity by asking students what they know aboutsummarizing texts and how they go about developing main ideas. Use thisdiscussion to segue into reading strategy*1.Have students read a text passage, then turn their books face down and try torecall everything of importance. (The teacher records what students recall on theboard)2.Teacher demonstrates how to delete trivial and repetitious information on the list.3.Students are given a chance to return to the passage and double check for missingpoints.4.Teacher guides student’s organization of a graphic outline using informationgathered. (Here is where students can be shown how to collapse individual datainto conceptual categories. These categories can be used for identifying or creatingtopic sentences).5.Students individually integrate the main points into a summary. (Teacher asks foradvice on revisions to make their passages more coherent).6.As a final point of discussion, team students and let them read their summaries toone another. Students peer evaluate on writing in progress.(Vacca, Vacca, & Mraz 2011)
Name______________Date_________________Today we will create summaries using an autobiographical account ofNelson Mandela’s experience and interaction with the environment asa young boy. I would like you to take a few minutes to answer a couplequestions before we begin the exercise. Afterwards, we will discusssome of your responses.What is the importance in summarizing reading material?How would you go about summarizing what you have read?
Name______________ Date_____________________Read your partner’s summary. As you read answer thefollowing questions to assist in a polished revision:What details of the text should be left out?What details should be added to the summary?Are there details that can be grouped together?Does the summary need a topic sentence?Were all of the categories developed in the summary?
The Guided Reading Procedure is aligned to both narrative andexpository texts. The strategy assists secondary students recall what theyhave read, self-correct responses, develop organizational skills, andcreate their own questions during the reading process. Through groupparticipation students are able to gather information and organize itaround important ideas as they reconstruct the author’s message (Vacca,Vacca, and Mraz 2011).As student’s incorporate the GRP strategy while reading a personalnarrative, they develop the enduring understanding that geography,climate, and natural resources affect the way people live and work(Enduring Understanding in Social Studies). In this way, both thelearning outcome and common core standard are met as students read aprimary source document to determine its central ideas and key eventsthrough an organized summary. Another learning outcome developedthrough this lesson is the cultural connection made while gatheringevidence to build an interpretation in support of the idea that humansurvival is dependent upon natural resources.
The group reading procedure best aligns to the social cognitive theorywhich focuses on how people learn by observing others and how theyeventually assume control over their own behaviors (Ormrod, 2011 pg.323). Throughout the strategy students work collectively gathering keydetails and ideas, self correcting through discussion about initialaccounts, and peer evaluating each other’s summaries for a polishedproduct. As student’s develop the organizational skills for propersummarization they acquire the processes necessary to self-regulate ormonitor their own decisions (Ormrod,2011).I would like student’s to make the connections among synthesizingideas, analyzing information, and identifying key concepts in the effortto develop higher order thinking. Formal assessments are developedthrough a pre-reading activity (funds of knowledge), summaryproduct, and peer evaluation forms. Informal assessments are basedupon group discussion as students develop the skills necessary toorganize their ideas while delineating unnecessary information incompletion of a polished summary.
Analyze a particular point of view or culturalexperience reflected in a work of literature fromoutside the United States, drawing on a widereading of world literature.
Learning OutcomeStudents will be able to explore a cultural experience reflected in an African Folktalein creation of a visual/virtual museum project.
The text was selected from an African Folktale provided as an onlineinstructional resource. Folktales develop from oral traditions of peoplewho share a common history. They also provide cultural imageryabout the community from which it originated. The text’s readability isaligned to a ninth grade reading level according to the Fry ReadabilityGraph (1977 as cited in Vacca, Vacca, & Mraz, 2011). Introduction ofthe text provides student’s with the necessary platform to engage inimagination, elaborating, predictions, and confirmation of thisexchange through textual clues. As a traditional African Folktale thetext supports the common core standard which requires studentsanalyze a cultural experience reflected in a work of literature fromoutside the United States.
1. Select a passage from the text that is appropriate for developing imagery. (Teacher can read this selection to the class)2. Imagine-Have students close their eyes to imagine a scene from the book or text they are going to read. Encourage them to think about their five senses to associate with the topic. (Have students share their images with the class as teacher records their responses)3. Elaborate-Once initial responses have been recorded ask students to think about additional details associated with their imagery. (Teacher asks questions that will prompt them to elaborate and records responses)4. Predict-have students use their initial images and elaboration of those images to make predictions about the text. (Teacher records students’ responses)5. Confirm-During and after reading, encourage students to recall their predictions. Were they able to confirm their predictions or did they have to make modifications? (Teacher records responses)(Vacca, Vacca, & Mraz 2011)
Once there was a rich man named Haptom who lived in a beautiful home and had many servants. Although he had many possessions, he was not happy. He had nothing tointerest him or keep him busy.Haptom had a servant named Arha. Now Arha did not have riches, but he was a happy man. One day he was building a fire for Haptom. Fire is a wonderful thing, he saidto Haptom.Yes, Haptom agreed sullenly. It is nice to have fire when it is cold. In fact I wonder how cold it would have to be before a man could freeze. I cannot imagine! Arharesponded. But it probably would not be long on a cold night in a cold place.I wonder, Haptom said slowly, if a man would freeze to death if he stood on top of a mountain on the coldest night and he had no clothes or fire to keep him warm. Only avery foolish man would try such a thing, said Arha. I bet no one could do it, said Haptom. I don’t know that but it does not matter because I have nothing to bet, laughed,Arha.Well, this amuses me. I have much that I could bet, said Haptom. In fact, Arha, if you go to the top of the mountain and stay all night without clothes or a fire to warm you,and you do not freeze, I will give you a farm and a house and cattle.Arha was amazed. He had always wanted to have his own farm for his wife and family and so he said, Yet, I would do anything to have my own farm. I will take the bet.Arha then went to the home of a wise friend. Old man he began, I have done a stupid thing. I have made a bet that I could stand on top of the mountain all night with noclothes or fire to keep me warm. If I can do this without freezing, I will win a farm of my own. If I cannot I will freeze to death and my wife and children will have nothing.What a foolish thing I have done!The next night Haptom called two of his servants and told them to take Arha to the top of the mountain. He told them to take Arha’s clothes and guard him all night to besure he had no fire to warm him. Arha went with the two servants to the top of the mountain. He took off his clothes and searched the horizon for the fire the old man hadbuilt in the village. Once he saw the fire he did not take his eyes off of it. He thought about how warm it would be standing next to the fire. He could feel himself warminghis hands by the fire and he began to feel warm. All night he stood on the freezing mountain but he did not freeze. The next morning the servants took him to Haptom.I stayed on the mountain all night with no fire and no clothes and I did not freeze. You owe me a farm and a home and cattle!How did you do it, Arha? Haptom was amazed.The old man built a fire in the village below the mountains. I watched it all night and it kept me warm, said Arha. Then do I owe you a farm said Haptom. I said there wereto be no fires! Arha could not believe what he was hearing. Haptom would not give him the farm after all. He went to a judge in the village. The judge was a fair man. Helistened to the story and thought about it. Then he gave his judgment.Haptom said that there were to be no fires. Since you were warmed by the fire you watched in the village all night, you have not kept your part of the bet. You do not winthe farm. Arha and the old man were surprised at the verdict but they were silent. The old man took Arha aside and said I have a plan. Do not give up yet.A few days later the old man invited everyone in the village to a feast. He invited the judge and Haptom as special guests. All day wonderful smells came from the oldman’s kitchen. When the guests arrived the aroma of delicious food filled the house. As night wore on the guests became hungry. They could smell the food being preparedbut nothing was served. They became hungrier and hungrier until finally the judge could stand no more and he spoke up for everyone.Old man we have been invited for dinner. Everyone is hungry and we would like to eat. Do you plan to feed us soon, he inquired? Why of course not! You do not need toeat the food. If Arha was warmed by seeing the fire in the village, you must be full from smelling the food in my kitchen. The old man smiled at the judge.The judge listened to this and shook his head. I was wrong. Just seeing the fire was not enough just as smelling the food is not enough. I am sorry Haptom but you have lostthe bet. You must pay Arha his farm his home and cattle. The old man has proved his point.
Passage Read by TeacherHaptom had a servant named Arha. Now Arha did not have riches, but he was a happyman. One day he was building a fire for Haptom. Fire is a wonderful thing, he said toHaptom.Yes, Haptom agreed sullenly. It is nice to have fire when it is cold. In fact I wonder howcold it would have to be before a man could freeze. I cannot imagine! Arha responded.But it probably would not be long on a cold night in a cold place.I wonder, Haptom said slowly, if a man would freeze to death if he stood on top of amountain on the coldest night and he had no clothes or fire to keep him warm. Only avery foolish man would try such a thing, said Arha. I bet no one could do it, saidHaptom. I don’t know that but it does not matter because I have nothing to bet, laughed,Arha.Questions Prompting ElaborationWhat details in the passage helped your mental image?Who was poor?Who was rich?Who made the bet?
Imagine Elaborate Predict Confirm Red-confirmation Blue-modifiedI’m Haptom Haptom and Haptom and Arha didthinking wondered how Arha will place place a bet on whoof a man cold it would a bet to see could stay on the coldstanding have to be for how long they mountain with no fireon top of a man to can stand on or clothes.a freeze. top of a cold Arha won the bet.mountain mountain.with frost Haptom isbite. going to win the bet.
• Students will work in preselected groups of five.• Projects should include images that represent your interpretation of African society (work, community, culture, and traditions).• Any form of media (PowerPoint, voice thread, YouTube, etc.) may be used as well as hand drawn pictures.• Each group must present visual/virtual museums with explanations for each image selected in relation to culture and its significance to the past.• A rubric will be provided to peer evaluate your classmates’ presentations.• *As you develop your projects refer back to the IEPC chart as a guide for your image selections and explanations*
Level 4 3 2 1 Insufficient/Criteria Excellent Proficient Adequate Limited* Blank*Identifies cultural Identifies Identifies Identifies Identifiescharacteristics significant cultural significant cultural significant cultural significant cultural(languages and characteristics characteristics characteristics characteristicscelebrations) and provides and provides and provides and provides only(220.127.116.11) comprehensive detailed partial sketchy information about information about information about information about characteristic characteristics characteristics characteristics using words and using words and using words and using words and pictures pictures pictures picturesIdentifies events Identifies a Identifies a Identifies a Identifies afrom the past significant significant significant significant(18.104.22.168) tradition and tradition and tradition and tradition and provides provides detailed provides partial provides only comprehensive information about information about sketchy information about it using words and it using words and information about it using words and pictures pictures it using words and pictures picturesUses technology Uses technology Uses technology Uses technology Uses technologyto support a skillfully to create to create a visual to create a visual to create a visualpresentation a visual that that effectively that generally that does little to(2.S.8.6) informs and informs and informs and informs and interests the interests the interests the interests the audience audience audience audiencePresents Orally Presents orally to Presents orally to Presents orally to Presents orally in(2.S.8.1) enhance audience support audience partially support a way that does understanding understanding audience little to assist and holds the and maintains understanding audience interest of the audience interest. but does not understanding audience sustain audience and does not interest sustain audience interest
The imagine, elaborate, predict, and confirm strategy assists many students,especially those who struggle with reading and have difficulty creating mentalimages as they read (Vacca, Vacca, & Mraz 2011 pg.184). This strategy supportsassignments that require students create a visual representation of culturalexperiences. Students are guided through an imaginative exercise using afolktale from Africa while creating predictions and confirming their responsesduring and after reading. The IEPC strategy aligns to the enduringunderstanding that students are a part of the human story and they arecapable of viewing it from multiple perspectives while using past lessons toshape the future (Enduring Understanding in Social Studies). The strategysupports the learning outcome and common core standard throughincorporation of a cultural experience provided in an African folktale inpreparation for a visual/virtual museum project. In this way, students areprovided with the scaffold necessary to develop skills of mental images whilemaking predictions and analyzing the text in confirmation of their predictions.
The IEPC strategy best supports the social constructivist theorywhich emphasizes people’s collective efforts to impose meaningon the world (Ormrod, 2011 pg. 221). Throughout the strategystudent’s worked collectively in the imaginative process whilepredicting and confirming textual clues in an African folktale. Asa result of this interaction students were able to analyze acultural experience provided in a work of literature from outsidethe United States. I would like students’ to make the connectionbetween thinking critically and creatively about what they arelearning and apply that learning to authentic situations (NCSS).Informal assessments are provided through group creation ofthe IEPC chart while reading. Development of the visual/virtualmuseum with adjoining rubric provide a diagnostic assessmentof the learning activity.
As students engage with varied textaligned to the core chapter coveringSub Saharan African Landforms; Iwant them to make the connection among multiple perspectives regardinganalysis of a subject. I also want themto understand the link between landand human history. As they participatecollectively toward a common goal of knowledge acquisition through textual strategies, students begin to evolve aslearners using the art of analysis,synthesis, and argumentation.
Boehm, Richard G. (2012). World Geography and Cultures. Ohio: McGraw-Hill.Common Core Standards Retrieved on 10/24/2012http://www.corestandards.org/assets/CCSSI_ELA%20Standards.pdfEnduring Understanding In Social Studies Retrieved on 10/24/12www.hopedale.K12.ma.us/page/136Grassland and Pasture Crops Retrieved on 10/24/12www.fao.org/ag/AGP/doc/counprof/Malawi.htm#2_CLIMATE,LANDFORMSANDLesson Plan for Sub Saharan Africa Retrieved on 10/21/12www.docstoc.com/docs/37866254/Lesson-Plan-for-Sub-Saharan-Africa-Courtesy-of-Martha-TurnipseedMandela, N. (1995) Long walk to freedom: The autobiography of Nelson Mandela. Back BayBooks.NCSS Retrieved on 10/29/12http://www.socialstudies.org/positions/powerfulOrmrod, J.E. (2011). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners (7th Ed.). Upper SaddleRiver, N.J. Pearson.Vacca, Richard T., Vacca, Jo Anne L., and Mraz, MaryAnn. Content Area Reading: Literacyand learning across the curriculum. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. 10th Edition 2011