Critically evaluate the effects of an impact sport and a repetitive action sport on the skeletal system ofa young performer.High impact sports can be generalised as invasion games such as football, rugby and hockey and usuallyinvolve contact between players. Low impact sport is any activity with minimal wear and trauma toweight bearing joints for example jogging, cycling or swimming. Finally a repetitive action sport aresports that involve any activity where a specific joint or joints are continuously performing a particularmovement for example cricket, golf and racket sports.The positive effects that these kinds of sport can have on the skeletal system if the actions were taken inmoderation would include an increase in bone density or bone health due to there being an increase incollagen or calcium deposits within the bone, this will lead to the bone strengthening or thickening overtime helping injury to be prevented during high impact collisions (fractures) or repetitive movements(shin splints/Osgood Schlatters).The prevention of Osteoporosis will occur especially in teenagers who are susceptible to the disease.Osteoporosis is a reduced bone density leading to the bone becoming weak and is normally associatedwith older people especially women but can effect young people particularly in the bones surroundingthe hip, spine or wrist joints.Over time there will be an increase in the health and stability of joints of a performer taking regular partin impact and repetitive sports. The ligaments and tendons surrounding joints strengthen and there isan increase in the muscle tone. This helps to prevent breaks, sprains or dislocations during high impactcollisions in sports such as rugby and football.There will also be a reduced risk of osteoarthritis or arthritis as the articular cartilage thickens, thismeaning that joints are much better cushioned enabling them to withstand force and absorb shock thatusually occurs with repetitive actions involved in activities such as jogging or swimming.There is likely to be an improved posture or alignment in the participant due to the increased strength ofcore muscles, reducing the chances of lower back pain, this is also due to be improved as the weight ofthe participant is likely to be reduced if they a regularly participating in impact or repetitive activities.This weight reduction reduced the amount of stress on the skeletal system, reducing the risk of injuriesand osteoarthritis as the weight bearing down on joints is reduced.The negative effects on the skeletal system from overuse poor levels of rest and recovery time includean increased risk of Osteoarthritis due to the wear and tear of over participation in repetitive sportssuch as swimming and jogging as the articular cartilage can deteriorate especially if poor technique isused. This will cause pain and swelling in the region which will limit movement. Surgery may berequired in the long term to rectify this problem.There may be some growth plate damage especially through high levels of regular participation of highimpact sports. The growth plate is the weakest area of the bone in young individuals and a sudden forcecreated through impact could cause a fracture to occur in this area.
Participants may also suffer with overuse injuries and these are common in repetitive sports such asgolf, badminton and tennis. Usually inflammation of a joint will cause pain and swelling leading to areduction in the range of motion of a particular joint (tennis elbow).In summary the positive effects of participation in impact sports and repetitive sports outweigh thenegative effects and it is about the moderation that is put in place that will allow these positive effectsto take place. Following a long term athlete development plan will allow athletes to have sufficient restintervals between sports and these will minimise the risk of injury in young performers allowing them tomaintain healthy lifelong involvement in physical activity.