Agriculture in kharan
Social life and culture
Different projects and
researches in kharan
Geographical Boundaries and
The Kharan Desert is a sand desert situated in
the Balochistan province in
It is a mountainous desert located in Kharan
Geographically, District Kharan is mountainous in the
north, which is known as RasKoh Range which
separates Kharan from GidarSurab, Rodenjo and
Dasht-i-Goran valleys in Kalat and Besima in Washuk
District. In the south, it is bounded by Siahan
Range, separating it from the Rakhshan valley and
It covers an area of about 48,051 sq. km.
The district is mainly deserted and is occupied by
The important features of the desert are accumulations
of wind-borne sand, in large masses, which are formed
into crescent shaped dunes.
The desert area occupies centre of the district and runs
from Hamm-i-Mashkel on the west to the Carr Hills in the
There are only two small rivers in the distric
Boddo with its tributaries in the north-east and
the Mashkel in the south-west. Main stream
flows to the north-west of Magas valley in the
Iranian Makran, where it turns east towards Pir
Shah Imam and then towards north-west.
The climate of Kharan is dry. Dust storms
are common throughout the year. During
the summer season, the days are hot and
nights are very pleasant and cool. The
winter is dry and cold.
The annual average rainfall in the district
is 104 mm measured.The average
minimum temperature was 2.4°C in
January and the maximum temperature
42.5°C in July.
The average rainfall in the desert is about
100 mm annually
The climatic conditions in the kharan areas
including Chagai are extreme with the ratio of
average annual precipitation to evaporation
reaching extremely low values.
The rugged and varied topography with denuded
environment resulting in frequent droughts and
occasional flash floods causing land degradation
Incidences of drought have been a common feature
in the area due to its hyper arid natural climate, and
they have taken a heavy toll of livestock and crops.
Agriculture in kharan
Agriculture is the major source of livelihood
in the district. Like in most other adjoining
districts e.g. Panjgur, Awaran, Khuzdar,
and Chagai, wheat is the principle crop in
the district while a varies of fruits is also
Livestock and camel breeding is the
second most important sector in the
district. Rug making is also popular in the
district. Electricity was provided to the
district as late as 1991.
The major issues of the district are:
Loss of vegetative cover in the
Watersheds and rangelands due to
overgrazing, and use of wood for fuel by
the local and nomadic population.
Soil loss and reduction in fertility due to
wind and water erosion.
Limited water availability and its poor
quality for domestic, agricultural and other
While agriculture is mostly subsistence
oriented using the highly rainfall dependent
Sailaba and Khushkaba forms of practices,
water for domestic purposes is brought
From long distances on animal backs or,
where communities can afford, in bowers
pulled by tractors.
Major Crops Rabi Crops:
Wheat, Barley, Rapeseed/Mustard, Cum
in, Lentil (Masoor), Vegetables,
Fodder and Sunflower
detachment, transportation, and deposition of soil
material by wind
The Mechanisms of Wind Erosion
There are 3 major processes involved in wind erosion.
Saltation involves small particles being lifted into the
air by strong wind currents then blown back onto the
Suspension is the process immediately after saltation where
turbulent airflow keeps the (fine) sediment in the air. These grains
travelling by suspension may remain airborne until rain washes
them out of the air
Creep occurs when larger grains of material are pushed
downwind by the turbulence caused in suspension.
Soil grain motion or grain transport rely on interactions between
the grains and the passing airflow
Abrasion is the direct result of wind erosion. It is the process
by which landforms in arid environments are shaped.
Abrasion is the wearing away of (relatively) solid rocks by
suspended particles being thrown against a surface at high
Wind is common in desert because:
Air near the surface is heated and
rises, cooler air comes in to replace hot
rising air and this movement of air results in
In desert there is little or no soil moisture to
hold rock and mineral fragments
Controll of wind erosion
Due to the following practices we can control wind erosion.
Field shelterbelts can provide extra protection against wind
erosion no matter what cropping system is used. They are
especially important in dry years when low crop yields result
in insufficient residue cover.
Field shelterbelts reduce the wind velocity for distances up to
30 times the height of the trees. They also trap
snow, increasing soil moisture for increased crop yields. This
yield increase helps to offset yield losses associated with
taking land out of crop production for the shelterbelt
Permanent Soil Cover
Perennial grasses and legumes cover the soil
densely and provide the best long-term protection
against wind erosion. Most common use of this type
of soil cover is as pasture or hay. Grasse sand
legumes can also be used in combination with
other crops such as tree fruits and some berry
Surface roughening helps to control erosion by:
covering the surface with soil clods that are too large
to be lifted by the wind
making the surface sufficiently rough with tillage
ridges and furrows that can trap any loose
soil that may be moving.
Surface roughening should only be considered when
there is insufficient (less than 50%)
vegetation cover to protect the soil surface or when
the soil type will produce sufficient clods to
protect the surface. Roughening can be used in both
crop and pasture country
Traditional economy is a blend of cereal forming, and
seminomadic grouping of goats, sheep and cattle.
communities make their living from fishes and formal trade
as worthless occupation
Balochies in Karachi and other areas enjoy all the festivals
and take part in the recreational activities
Balochi is main language but Persian, Saraiki, Sindhi and
Brahui, are used as second languages by the desert people.
Balochi women are very famous for their art work,
embroidery on their cloths
The art work of mirror on cloths is the most famous art
work of Balochi culture.
The people's dress consists of shirt (qameez), trousers
leather shoes or sandals (Balochi Chapal) are common
Women also wear gold and silver ornaments.
The woman of Baluchistan is different from the woman
belonging to other parts of country.
• Those who are living in the remote areas are
following some festivals, music, folk culture
and dancing and enjoying their lives
Balochi have two meals a day, one in the morning and
one in the evening.
The most essential grain is wheat but they also make
use of rice and millet.
Balochi diet meat is the most important In Balochistan
Sajji is s special dish and it is presented to honorable
Milk is the most favorite drink and also made
cheese, butter and buttermilk from it
In summer the most loving sharbat is “Lassi” it is made
form molasses, milk and sugar. Dates are also very
much liked by the Balochi.
Mostly people live in mud houses in some area,s
cemented houses are also present.
Baluchistan is the province having tribal setup.
They are Balochs or Pathans or the Hazaras all of
them owns a separate tribal setup with some basic
They are very paceful people.
Balochi are mostly Predominantly muslim
Baloch culture is rich, varied and deep-rooted.
Balochistan had one of the earliest human settlements
in the world.
Rainwater Harvesting and
(RHDC), Kharan Desert
Balochistan (Gov of Pakistan)
The project aims to manage and utilize the
existing land, water and bio-resources of Kharan
Chaghai Desert on productive lines. The water
resources remained under high stress due to
prolonged drought for the last seven years
throughout Balochistan but had pronounced effect
on the ecology of Kharan Chaghai Desert.
The accelerated desertification process can be
controlled through rainwater harvesting and
exploitation of available saline and fresh
groundwater sources and utilizing these resources
for sand dunes stabilization by applying
biotechnologies i.e.. Introducing naturally
screened xerophytes native and exotic
tree, bushes and grass species of the desert
Establishment of a field research station
on 500 acres of land is in process.
Initially, four water storage ponds have
been excavated in District Noshki. Water
shed management activities i.e..
Construction/development of check
dams, dikes and ditches have also been
initiated in the area.
The desertification control and rainwater harvesting activities in Kharan Desert
GARUK DAM PROJECT
Location: The proposed dam site is located across
Garuk River at about 47 Kms South East of Kharan
district of Baluchistan.
Scope of Work: Government of Pakistan intends to
develop land and water resources of the country for
irrigated agriculture development, hydropower, flood
control, socio economic uplift, and emancipation of
poor and needy women of the area.
Objective / Benefits:- Conservation of flood water
resources for irrigation drinking and
Development of new irrigated agricultural area.
Date of starting 2013-14
Date of Completion:2016-17 (Construction Period
= 3 Years)
Project Cost: Original Approved Rs. 1.790 Billion
Revised (under submission) Rs. 7.921 Billion
184 ft high Earth Core Rock fill Dam will create gross
storage of 50,695 AF and this storage will be used to
irrigate 12,500 Acres of Cultural Command Area with
high efficiency irrigation system along with hydropower
generation of 300 KW.
Present Status / Progress:
Tender of Garuk Dam on EPC basis invited on Oct 03
WAPDA proposed the Project through local District
Contractors by subletting the various components to
participation of local community local monetary benefits.
Government of Baluchistan suggested transferring
the project to I&P (Department of Baluchistan for
Funds amounting to Rs. 1,000 Million required for
Is the name given to
the Pakistan's second atomic, which
were carried out on 30 May 1998 in
the Kharan Desert in Pakistan's
Baluchistan Province. Chaghai-II took
place two days after Pakistan's first
nuclear test, Chaghai-I, which was
carried out on 28 May 1998 in the Ras
Koh Hills in Chaghai District.