Cardiovascular and limfe histology


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limfe and cardiovascular

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Cardiovascular and limfe histology

  1. 1. Cardiovascular and limfe histologyHeart • Heart Walls layer – ENDOCARDIUM – MYOCARDIUM
  2. 2. – EPIKARDIUM • PERIKARDIUMEndothelium cell:POLIGONALSub endothelium layer:Loose thin connective tissue layerCompact tight connective tissue layerSub endocardial layer:Loose connective tissueContain vascular, nervous, and hearts conduction.MyocardiumThe tightest layer: heart muscularContractile cellConductive cellThe webbing of elastin fibers between muscular heart cellsVentricle wall is tighter than atrium wallPapillaris muscular in ventriclePericardiumPEMBUNGKUS SEROSA BERBENTUK KANTONGFree surface of pericardium is covered by mesothelContains liquid
  3. 3. There are 2 layers:LAMINA PARIETALISLAMINA VISCERALIS (EPICARDIUM)Blood vesselsHistologically, blood vessels consist of concentric layers or "tunics" of different tissue types. The tunica intima is the inner lining, consisting of endothelium and a relatively thin layer of supporting connective tissue. The tunica media is the middle muscular and/or elastic layer, containing smooth muscle and elastic tissue in varying proportions. The tunica adventitia is the outer, fibrous connective tissue layer.ArteriesThe largest arteries, such as the aorta and its larger branches, have a tunica media dominated byelastic tissue. The elasticity conferred by elastin allows these elastic arteries to smooth out thesharp changes in blood pressure resulting from the pumping heart.Most arteries are muscular arteries, with a media dominated by smooth muscle. But elastin isalso a substantial component (for a good view of elastin in vessel walls, see Virtual Slidebox, Artery andVein).Arterioles are the smallest arteries. Note that gross anatomists and surgeons may use the termarteriole for any very small artery. Histologists tend to use the term arterioles only for terminalarterial vessels (i.e., those immediately preceding a capillary bed) which are characterized byhaving only a single layer of smooth muscle cells.
  4. 4. EM imageof artery (longitudinal section, from Elektronenmikroskopischer Atlas im Internet).Most arteries have continuous layer of elastin, called the internal elastic lamina, at theboundary between the media with the intima.In routine histological sections, the internal elastic lamina of transversely-sectioned arteriestypically displays a distinctive sinusoidal appearance, resulting from postmortem contraction ofthe arterys smooth muscle in the absence of normal blood pressure.The thickness of arterial walls is typically not much less than the diameter of thelumen. With such relatively thick walls, arteries tend to retain a round cross-section inpostmortem histological preparations (in contrast to veins, which tend to appear more flattened).Note that arteries of pulmonary circulation (which convey blood of lower pressure than systemic circulation) haverelatively thinner walls, similar to systemic veins.VeinsVeins have a wall similar to that of arteries but with a thinner tunica media. The walls of the smallest veins (sometimes called "venules") do not include smooth muscle.The thickness of vein walls is typically much less than the diameter of the lumen (i.e., proportionatelymuch thinner than arteries carrying a similar volume). With such relatively thin walls, veins tend toappear flattened or collapsed in cross-section in postmortem histological preparations (in contrast toarteries, which tend to appear more round).Note that vessels of pulmonary circulation (which convey blood of lower pressure than systemiccirculation) have relatively thinner walls than systemic vessels of comparable diameter.
  5. 5. LIMFE - PEMBULUH LIMFEDIMULAI DENGAN KAPILER LIMFE BUNTUMENAMPUNG DARI CAIRAN JARINGAN - LYMPHONODUSMENAMPUNG KAPILER PADA PERMUKAAN CEMBUNG - PEMBULUH LIMFE LEBIH BESARMENAMPUNG DARI VASA EFERENTIA N. LYMPHATICUS - PEMBULUH LIMFE BESAR MENUJU KE JANTUNGDIAMETER PEMBULUH LIMFE SEMAKIN BESARDUCTUS THORACICUS  V. SUBCLAVIA SINISTRADUCTUS LYMPHATICUS DEXTER  V. SUBCLAVIA DEXTRALymphatic vesselsLymphatic vessels (often just called lymphatics) are channels which drain excess fluid ("lymph") fromtissues.In most peripheral tissues, some plasma seeps out of capillaries. A portion of this is taken back up invenules while the rest drains into terminal lymphatic channels, also called lymphatic capillaries. A shiftin the balance between fluid entering and leaving tissues (e.g., increased vascular permeability due toinflammation) can result in accumulation of tissue fluid, or edema.All lymphatic vessels eventually lead "downstream" to the thoracic duct, which empties into the venacava (a point where blood pressure is quite low; higher pressure would impede drainage).Lymphatic vessels resemble blood vessels with exceptionally delicate walls (and, of course, without redblood cells). Smaller lymphatic vessels consist of little more endothelium.If, while examining a histological specimen, you encounter a flattened, endothelially-lined passage thatseems too delicate to be a vein but too large to be a capillary, it is probably a lymphatic.