IB DIPLOMA PROGRAMME PROGRAMME DU DIPLÔME DU BI PROGRAMA DEL DIPLOMA DEL BIECOSYSTEMS AND SOCIETIESSTANDARD LEVELPAPER 2Specimen2 hours RESOURCE BOOKLETINSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES• Do not open this booklet until instructed to do so.• This booklet contains all of the resources required to answer question 1
–2–Figure 1 — An introduction to Paradise Island, New Zealand.Paradise Island is an imaginary coral island, however the data used is based on real data from a range ofcoral islands. Paradise Island, known to locals as Limestone Island, is a 37ha (100 acre) island off New Zealand. It is one-hour boat ride from a mainland city with a population of 40,000. Community involvement in Paradise Island has steadily increased over the years. Efforts have been coordinated by the Friends Paradise / Limestone Island Society Incorporated (1993), PLIS for short. Predator Control New Zealand has many unique species which have evolved for millions of years without the predators of today. Predation and habitat loss on the mainland makes islands like Paradise Island especially valuable. Some predators do make it to the island, so ongoing vigilance is needed. The entire island has a grid of nearly 800 bait stations at 25m by 25m intervals, containing rat poison to control rats and mice. Each station contains a small amount of brodaficoum-based bait to kill rodents. There are about 40 wooden box traps set around the island. Stoats appear to be the mustelid most able to swim to the island, with three having been caught in traps since July 2002. Some of the traps are adjacent to walking tracks. They contain fenn-traps, set for stoats and rats. Monitoring tunnels are also present on the island. Inside each tunnel is a plastic tray with a dye-impregnated material in the middle and tracking papers either side. When something walks through the tunnel, it leaves footprints on the papers. Some 40 tracking tunnels are set every couple of months by the Ranger to see what is on the island.
–3–A brief history of the Island1876 Island sold to private developers1881 Cement production begins1906-1918 Lime works a major industry employing 270 people at its peak1989 Island given to the community1989 to Conservation and ecological restoration (floral andpresent faunal restoration) carried out. First planting in 19891993 PLIS formed1996 Rangers cottage installed and resident ranger employed to look after and maintain island1998 PLIS form strategic partnership with cement company who act as principal sponsors of the restoration project1999 Hotel and holiday complex plans announced for Paradise Island2000 Massive millennium planting 23,000 plants planted.2001 First Kiwi bird releases (2 adults –Glen and Helga) onto the island. 11 Flax snails released also. New signage installed2002 Forest gecko released2003 Hotel development beginsSource: Adapted from Nick Middleton, Geographical Review, Nov. 2005
– 4–Figure 2 —Map of Paradise Island Paradise Island 5 1 Jetty 4 Hotel Roa d Sunshine Airport Bay Coral reef 2 3 1. Tropical forest 2. Fringing coral reef 3. Shallow marine environment 4. Town 5. Cement works Source: Adapted from Nick Middleton, Geographical Review, Nov. 2005 Turn over
–5–Figure 3 — Bird and bat species lost from Paradise Island Bird species Endemic to Paradise Last confirmed record in wild Nightingale Reed Warbler 1969 Brown Booby 1979 White Tailed Tropicbird 1982 Paradise flycatcher Yes 1984 Rufus Fantail Yes 1984 Bridled White-eye 1984 Mariana Fruit Dove 1985 Micronesian Honeyeater 1986 Paradise Rail Yes 1987 Chestnut Munia 1994 Bat species Little Marianas Fruit Bat 1968 Pacific Sheath Tailed Bat 1972Source: Adapted from Nick Middleton, Geographical Review, Nov. 2005Figure 4 — Paradise Island and the Brown Tree Snake No one quite knows when the Brown Tree Snake arrived on Paradise Island, but it probably arrived by accident on a cargo ship as late as 1948. The Brown Tree Snake is a slender tree-climbing snake that grows to two metres in length. It is a nocturnal predator and hunts at all levels within a forest from the forest floor to high up in the tree canopy. The snake is native to Indonesia, the Solomon Islands and northeast Australia. Paradise Island does not have an indigenous predatory snake.Source: Adapted from Nick Middleton, Geographical Review, Nov. 2005
–5–Figure 5 — Vulnerability to extinctionListed below are the criteria that may lead to a species being at risk from extinction. • Species with a narrow geographical range • Species with a single population (or a few populations) • Species with a small population size • Species with a low population density • Species with a large body size • Species with low rates of population growth • Migratory species • Species with little genetic variation • Species requiring specialized niche environments • Large home rangeAdapted from Richard B. Primack (1993) Essentials of Conservation Biology, pub. SinaurFigure 6 — Ningaloo; a coral island in dangerMedia Release, Saturday, 27 November 2004 - People power and science deliver right formula forNingaloo The Save Ningaloo Campaign today welcomed the Government’s decision to increase protection at Ningaloo Reef. The outcome goes a long way to fulfilling the aspirations of many tens of thousands of people who have called for better protection of Ningaloo. Paul Gamblin, Save Ningaloo Campaign spokesperson, said, “By placing 34% of Ningaloo Reef in sanctuary zones, the Western Australian Government has heeded the call of the community and the advice of the world’s leading coral reef scientists.” The new plan allows for recreational fishing in two thirds of the marine park while setting aside one-third for the preservation of natural ecosystems. “The vast majority of recreational fishers understand that Ningaloo needs reasonable levels of protection, and will support this move.” “This plan has provided the Reef with an insurance policy against the serious threats facing coral reefs worldwide.” “The increased sanctuary zones and funding for management are critical to protecting Ningaloo for future generations, and we commend the Government for these responsible steps”.[Source: Paul Gamblin (2004), Save Ningaloo Campaign, http://www.save-ningaloo.org] Turn over
–6–Figure 7 — Threats to coral islands Over fishing 45 45 Marine based 87 10 low threat pollution medium threat Sedimentation 65 12 high threat Coastal 73 15 development 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Figure 7a. Caribbean Islands; threats to coral 100% 6 90% 16 10 80% 70% 54 60% high threat 50% medium threat 92 40% 80 82 low threat 30% 20% 36 10% 0% Over fishing development Marine based Sedimentation Coastal pollution Figure 7b. Indonesian Islands: Threats to Coral[Source: Lauretta Burke and Jon Maidens and contributing authors (2004) Reefs at Risk in theCarribean.: http://reefsatrisk.wri.org/casestudy_text.cfm?ContentID=3039]
–7–Figure 8 — Threats to coral Islands Climate Change The burning of vast amounts of coal, oil, and natural gas is increasing the amount of certain gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere and contributing to climate change. These gases are trapping heat inside the planet and temperatures gradually rising. While corals are well adapted to their life in the tropics, they are not prepared for warmer temperatures, and they are falling victim to global warming. When it gets too hot the corals “bleach”, i.e. they turn a bright white color, which is a sign of sickness. If temperatures remain high for an extended period of time, corals will die. Recently, as a result of record high temperatures, many corals throughout the world have died. Scientists are worried that if the world’s temperatures continue to rise, we will see many other corals sicken and die and this might be worse in those places where the corals are already stressed. Over Fishing The ocean is the natural environment for millions of species but an array of human activity is threatening these riches and today more than three quarters of our oceans are over-exploited. There are simply too many people trying to fish in the ocean, and over-fishing upsets the balance of the entire ecosystem. Some of the most popular fish to eat are groupers, snappers and jacks, but there are many reefs in the world where you’d be lucky to see one! In a few places, especially in the Caribbean and Florida, so many fish have been taken that the entire ecosystem is unbalanced. Furthermore, some fishermen use explosives to catch fish. By creating a massive blast they kill all the fish over a wide area. The blast also destroys the coral. It takes years for the reef to recover and fishermen will unwittingly destroy the conditions necessary to sustain fish for future generations. There is therefore an urgent need to protect our oceans from over-exploitation, and to create safe havens for marine habitats and life forms to recover.
–8–Pollution and sedimentationSome of the biggest problems facing the coral reefs come from the land. Corals arethreatened by pollution in many forms, including oil slicks, sediments, fertilizers,pesticides and other chemicals, heavy metals, and garbage. A nasty cocktail ofchemicals is carried in the rivers and even in pipes, and winds up near the coral reefs.Human sewage, one of the most common problems for the reefs, encourages the growthof certain types of large algae or seaweed. These grow much better than the corals andcan smother or kill them by shading them out of existence.In many parts of the world people are chopping down forests and plowing up the land.A great deal of soil is being washed off the land, into the rivers and from the rivers tothe sea. When there is a lot of mud in the water it cuts out the light. This mud or“sediment” sinks down and creates muddy ooze on the bottom of the ocean. Corals needbright clear waters to get the sunlight they need, and also hard surfaces to grow on. Thissediment stops new corals from growing, and can smother and suffocate the existingcorals.TourismCoral reefs attract millions of visitors, but uncontrolled tourism and coastaldevelopment have caused pollution and resulted in heavy damage to the reefs. Toomany irresponsible visitors damage or destroy corals by touching, walking or standingon them. Many tourists collect and/or buy corals, sponges, seashells or other reefanimals as well as jewelry and sculptures made out of them. Excessive collectingdecimates the reef species and throws reef ecosystems out of balance. Hotels and resortscontribute to water pollution by not properly treating their sewage and wastewater, andmany tourist boats crush coral while throwing their anchors onto reefs, or spill oil andgas into the sea.[source:http://www.oceanwonderland.com/threats.htm (no author stated)]