ALIAS ConferenceHuman role and automation: impacts on the aircraftdesignThe aircraft manufacturer perspectiveFlorence,15/0...
Keywords and definitions• Conference keywords    – … the conference will address liability and automation in air transport...
Background• Today the human role is central in the air transport operations and control• Tomorrow, more    – Services to t...
More automation vs human integrationToday• The aircraft is designed around the human and the level of automation (human vs...
More automation vs human integrationTomorrow• In distributed systems, more information and services will be available,    ...
The challenges• The requirements and the means of compliance are clear and recognised    – What’s can be accepted by the a...
The challenges• In an automated distributed system who is responsible and for what’s. E.g.:    – the aircraft will use inf...
Remarks• Automation is a great opportunity for the users, but different areas have to be  investigated• Level of automatio...
Thank you very much for your attention       Regional                    Military AirliftAerostructures                   ...
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The Perspective of the Automation industry by F. Ruta

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The Perspective of the Automation industry by F. Ruta

  1. 1. ALIAS ConferenceHuman role and automation: impacts on the aircraftdesignThe aircraft manufacturer perspectiveFlorence,15/06/2012Fabio Ruta
  2. 2. Keywords and definitions• Conference keywords – … the conference will address liability and automation in air transport, focusing on air traffic management• Some definitions – liability, legal [Black’s Law Dictionary] The quality or state of being legally obligated or accountable; legal responsibility to another or to society, enforceable by civil remedy or criminal punishment (liability for injuries caused by negligence) – automation [source www.definitions.net] the technique, method, or system of operating or controlling a process by highly automatic means, as by electronic devices, reducing human intervention to a minimum – Autonomy [EUROP SRA – July 2009] … is the system’s ability to independently perform a task, a process or system adjustment – Air traffic management [source EC] The aggregation of the airborne and ground-based functions (air traffic services, airspace management and air traffic flow management) required to ensure the safe and efficient movement of aircraft during all phases of operations. 2
  3. 3. Background• Today the human role is central in the air transport operations and control• Tomorrow, more – Services to the users – Automation through availability of mature and reliable technologies• But – The human role will continue to be central: the system is not and will not be liable! – The level of safety must not decrease – Current roles and responsibilities will be impacted: allocation and sharing need to be clearly established – What is behind the realisation and operations of a complex automated distributed system: • what increased automation means ? • who is responsible for what in a distributed system? • how to handle new distributed services (e.g., satellite, information net, etc.)?• Focus of this presentation is on aircraft manufacturer side 3
  4. 4. More automation vs human integrationToday• The aircraft is designed around the human and the level of automation (human vs system) can be variable: e.g.: – use of the aircraft (e.g. civil vs military, piloted vs remote piloted); – level of aircraft capabilities (e.g. sensors, systems, performances, etc); – level of workload acceptable/manageable by the human, etc• Information to be provided to the human can significantly change according to the level of automation (more automation, less information to be managed by the human)• The current tendency is to have: – an active human control based on the situational awareness presented by the system – some automation systems and/or functions as support to the human• But, the use of remote piloted aircraft (RPA) is also to be considered (e.g. today mainly for military applications) 4
  5. 5. More automation vs human integrationTomorrow• In distributed systems, more information and services will be available, – the manageable human workload remains the same – the system must do more (what’s the appropriate situational awareness level?) – Collaborative system and standardisation are needed “Standardisation means also HMI”• the level of separation among aircraft shall be reduced as well as more flexibility in the tactical flight management – the reaction time of human is limited – more systems are needed to support the human (on ground and in flight) (e.g. information fusion, flight data consistency, etc.)• for the near future, extensive use of RPA – also for civil applications and – its technological footprint on manned aviation (e.g. hijacking conditions) 5
  6. 6. The challenges• The requirements and the means of compliance are clear and recognised – What’s can be accepted by the authorities and what’s the industry need to demonstrate• The legal basis need to be established – Total System Approach should be adopted – service providers needs to be correctly taking into account  quality of service approach should be used (e.g. satellite signal) – when the human (pilot) is liable and when are the other parties  manufacturer, service providers, air traffic controllers, etc• The operational part need to well defined – who does what’s for the entire gate-to-gate flight profile (normal/emergency condition) – taking into account the human dimension, the system capability• The security aspects in a distributed systems need to be addressed (who does what’s) as well as the privacy protection 6
  7. 7. The challenges• In an automated distributed system who is responsible and for what’s. E.g.: – the aircraft will use information and data provided by an other party (air and/or ground) – what’s happens in case of corrupted data? • The aircraft will work on corrupted data • The corrupted results will be presented to the pilot and • Which are the consequences if the relevant functions are safety critical? – standardisation and techniques to check the data quality need to be established• from an “auxiliary system” to a “flight system” need a shift on responsibility e.g. – Today • GPS is an auxiliary to the navigation system • pilot knows that the only reliable and certified navigation source is the inertial system • A low figure of merit (FOM) of GPS can be acceptable – Tomorrow • Satellite navigation will become the primary navigations source • Degradation of the received Signal (availability, reliability, integrity, etc) is not acceptable and then has to be managed 7
  8. 8. Remarks• Automation is a great opportunity for the users, but different areas have to be investigated• Level of automation need to correctly address: – level of human capabilities – central human role in the system (from a direct control to supervisory control) – override on the system must be maintained – Different system capabilities have to be considered• As far as liabilities is concerned: – a legal basis is to established – the total system approach should be adopted – the operational part need to be defined in a solid way in normal & emergency conditions• Areas to be explored: – quality of service and standardisation aspects (interoperability & data dissemination quality) – security aspect (jamming, etc) is a key-point in a more automated distributed system 8
  9. 9. Thank you very much for your attention Regional Military AirliftAerostructures Special mission Trainer Defence

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