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MPLS/SDN 2013 Intercloud Standardization and Testbeds - Sill


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This talk givens an overview of several multi-SDO and cross-SDO activities to promote and spur innovation in cloud computing. The focus is on API development and standardization, including testbeds, test use cases, and collaborative activities between organizations to create and carry out development and testing in this area. The focus is on work being pursued through the Cloud and Autonomic Computing Center at Texas Tech University, which is part of the US National Science Foundation's Industry/University Cooperative Research Center, and on work being done by standards organizations such as the Open Grid Forum, Distributed Management Task Force, and Telecommunications Management Forum in which the CAC@TTU is involved. A summary is also given of work to produce a new round of more detailed use cases suitable for testing by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology's Standards Acceleration to Jumpstart Adoption of Cloud Computing (SAJACC) working group, with brief mention also given to other related work going on in this area in other parts of the world. Background and other standards work is also mentioned.

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MPLS/SDN 2013 Intercloud Standardization and Testbeds - Sill

  1. 1. Cross-SDO Projects to Accelerate Cloud Innovation Alan Sill, Ph.D Site Director, Cloud and Autonomic Computing Center Senior Scientist, High Performance Computing Center Adjunct Professor of Physics Texas Tech University Vice President of Standards, Open Grid Forum
  2. 2. Standards as a Means to Interoperability • Risk reduction: • Lessen risk of dead-end product design and orphan components. • Lessen or remove risk of vendor service lock-in. • Mitigate reusability barriers for software and data access. • Provide best-of-breed development and methods. • Mix-and-match for input & output of processing steps. • Allow innovation/competition at more interesting layers and development of better internal features. • Facilitate interoperation with other provider software services, components and infrastructures. • Approach must be explicitly cross-SDO and cross-vendor. Alan Sill, TTU November 20, 2013 !2
  3. 3. CAC Goals and Vision The Texas Tech site intends to provide a practical work arena for development and coordination of standards, standards-based software and reference implementations applicable to cloud and other forms of advanced distributed computing. The site will fill a need to organize, classify, develop reference implementations for and otherwise contribute to standardsbased software in advanced distributed computing. The vision that underlies these goals is one of harmonious, coordinated development of software that interoperates across many boundaries of deployment and implementation, and that can be repurposed, rescaled and redeployed as needed to solve a wide variety of user, vendor and supplier problems. Alan Sill, TTU November 20, 2013 !4
  4. 4. Standards, Clouds and Interoperability: Our vision at the CAC is that appropriate use of standards as part of the innovation process permits software and hardware used in clouds to interoperate with other components and infrastructures, and thus reduces risks including the risk of unwanted vendor lock-in. ! This allows developers, vendors and users to focus more on higher level capabilities and therefore less on reinventing common aspects and features of their APIs and interface modules. ! Coupling standards and software innovation is therefore crucial to economical cloud development at this stage. Alan Sill, TTU November 20, 2013 !5
  5. 5. Background:
 Large-Scale Science Alan Sill, TTU November 20, 2013
  6. 6. The Large Hadron Collider
  7. 7. 10k CPU cores, 2M lines of code Muon system: Drift tubes (170k wires), RPC, Cathode Strip Ch.(200k wires) Silicon tracker: 66M pixel channels 9.6M strips, 210 m2 ECAL: 76k PbWO4 crystals HCAL: 15k scint/brass ch.
  8. 8. Beam Crossings at the LHC Where a lot of things happen at once… and then happen again very quickly!
  9. 9. CMS Higgs Candidate Event
  10. 10. CMS Global Data Grid CMS Experiment Online System Tier 0 Tier 1 Tier 2 10-40 Gb/s Taiwan T1 UK T1 Italy T1 Physics caches across Tier 2 10 Gb/s UCSD FNAL T1 >10 Gb/s Caltech Univ. T3 Tier 3 Tier 4 CERN T0 ~4 Gb/s Wisconsin Univ. T3 Univ. T3 PCs Florida Univ. T3
  11. 11. Example: Worldwide LHC Computing Grid ~450,000 cpu cores ~430 Pb storage Typical data transfer rate: ~12 GByte/sec Total worldwide grid capacity: ~2x WLCG across all grids and VOs Alan Sill, TTU November 20, 2013 !15
  12. 12. EGI in numbers CPU  cores 361,300  across  53  countries  (1.44   M  job/day) Storage Value  (yearly  increase) Disk  (PB) 235  PB  (+69%) Tape  (PB) Value  (yearly  increase) 176  PB  (+32%) !17 XSEDE/EGI BoF - XSEDE 2013 EGI-­‐InSPIRE  RI-­‐261323
  13. 13. Science Virtual Organizations on the OSG • Astrophysics   • Biochemistry   • Bioinformatics     • Earthquake  Engineering   • Genetics   • Gravitational-­‐wave  physics     • Mathematics   • Nanotechnology   • Nuclear  and  particle  physics
  14. 14. LSN-MAGIC Meeting February 22, 2012 XSEDE: The Next Generation of US Supercomputing Infrastructure The Role of Standards for Risk Reduction and Inter-operation in XSEDE OGF standards power some of the largest supercomputing infrastructures in the world!
  15. 15. LSN-MAGIC Meeting XSEDE Services Layer:
 February 22, 2012 Simple services combined in many ways –Resource  Namespace  Service  1.1   –OGSA  Basic  Execu@on  Service   –OGSA  WSRF  BP  –  metadata  and  no@fica@on   –OGSA-­‐ByteIO   Examples – (not –GridFTP   a complete list) –JSDL,  BES,  BES  HPC  Profile   –WS  Trust  Secure  Token  Services   –WSI  BSP  for  transport  of  creden@als   –…  (more  than  we  have  room  to  cover  here) XSEDE represents a phase change in the engagement of modern computing standards with US cyberinfrastructure. !20
  16. 16. Standardization Benefits p Having an organized set of acceptance criteria 
 can improve business value to members in the following ways: n For VENDORS, ensures that their product passes test acceptance conditions, leading to fewer customer complaints in the field. n For PROVIDERS, ensures that products they are hosting are wellbehaved, with fewer unexpected error or service failure conditions. n For USERS, ensures that the products and services they use will be interoperable with the API, framework or standard they are using as the basis for their purchased services, p Pre-purchase specification for products and services can be done on a rational basis. p Productivity of programmer teams is maximized by having welldefined workflows for scenario and unit testing. Alan Sill, TTU November 20, 2013 !21
  17. 17. About the Open Grid Forum: Open Grid Forum (OGF) is a leading global standards organization cooperating with many partners in the areas of cloud, grid and related forms of advanced distributed computing. The OGF community and its partners pursue these topics through an open process for development, creation and promotion of relevant specifications and use cases. The central feature of this work is open forum with open processes to champion architectural blueprints related to cloud and grid computing. The resulting specifications and standards enable pervasive adoption of advanced distributed computing techniques for business and research worldwide. Alan Sill, TTU November 20, 2013 !22
  18. 18. History and Background • • • • • • OGF began in 2001 as an organization to promote the advancement of distributed computing worldwide. Grid Forum --> Global Grid Forum --> GGF + Enterprise Grid Alliance --> formation of OGF in 2005. Mandate is to take on all forms of distributed computing and to work to promote cooperation, information exchange, best practices in use and standardization. OGF best known for a series of important computing, security and network standards that form the basis for major science and business-based distributed computing (BES, GridFTP, DRMAA, JSDL, RNS, GLUE, UR, etc.). Have also been working on cloud and Big Data standards (OCCI, WS-Agreement, DFDL, etc.) for several years. Cooperative work agreements with other SDOs in place. Alan Sill, TTU November 20, 2013 !23
  19. 19. OGF and the Pursuit of Open International Standards: • OGF views its mission as integrally tied to the creation and implementation of practical standards of use across a wide variety of boundaries. • Interoperability and utility for implementation across multiple projects is essential • Interoperability and usability across international boundaries on a global basis is desired • OGF’s approach to standards creation and curation promotes development of standards that will be of use to the large-scale infrastructure projects. • Standards are developed by participants in these projects. • For the past several years, active also in cloud computing. © 2013 Open Grid Forum
  20. 20. OGF Standards Strengths § OGF has an extensive set of applicable standards related to federated community grid and cloud computing: § § § § § § § § § § § § § Federated Identity Management (FedSec-CG) Managing the Trust Eco-System (CA operations, AuthZ and AuthN tools) Virtual Organizations (VOMS) and related authorization tools Job Submission and Workflow Management (JSDL, BES, HPC Profile) Network Management (NSI, NML, NMC, NM) Secure, fast multi--party data transfer (GridFTP, SRM) Data Format Description Language (DFDL) Service Agreements (WS-Agreement, WS-Agreement Negotiation) Cloud Computing interfaces (OCCI family of specifications) Distributed resource management (DRMAA, SAGA, etc.) Firewall Traversal (FiTP); Usage Accounting (UR, GLUE) Others under development through ISOD-RG, DCIFed-WG, etc. Working to gather this information to form an organized description of OGF work - an OGF “Cloud Portfolio”. Alan Sill, TTU November 20, 2013 !25
  21. 21. OGF Standards In Use In Industry: • DRMAA: Distributed Resource Management Application API Grid Engine, Open Grid Scheduler: (open source); TORQUE and related products: Adaptive Computing; PBS Works: Altair Engineering; Gridway: DSA Research; Condor: U. of Wisconsin / Red Hat; • OGSA® Basic Execution Service Version 1.0 and BES HPC Profile: BES++ for LSF/SGE/PBS: Platform Computing; Windows HPC Server 2008: Microsoft Corporation; PBS Works - (client only): Altair Engineering; • JSDL: Job Submission Description Language (family of specs): BES++ for LSF/SGE/PBS and Platform LSF: Platform Computing; Windows HPC Server 2008: Microsoft Corporation; PBS Works - (client only): Altair Engineering; • WS-Agreement (family of specifications): ElasticLM License-as-a-Service: ElasticLM; BEinGrid SLA Negotiator, 
 LM-Architecture and Framework: (Multiple partners); BREIN SLA Management Framework: (Multiple partners); WSAG4J, Web Services Agreement for Java (framework implementation): Fraunhofer SCAI. Alan Sill, TTU November 20, 2013 !26
  22. 22. OGF Infrastructure Area The OGF Infrastructure groups explore and define what is needed to interface physical and virtual resources to higher level constructs. These include networks and network devices, computers and virtual machines, storage, visualization devices, instruments, and sensor technologies. • • • • • • Network Measurements Working Group (NM-WG) • • Firewall Virtualization For Grid Applications Working Group (FVGA-WG) Network Measurement And Control Working Group (NMC-WG) Network Mark-Up Language Working Group (NML-WG) Network Service Interface Working Group (NSI-WG) Open Cloud Computing Interface Working Group (OCCI-WG) Infrastructure Services On-Demand Provisioning Research Group (ISOD-RG) Grid High-Performance Networking Research Group (GHPN-RG) Alan Sill, TTU November 20, 2013 !27
  23. 23. Infrastructure Area: The Groups Network Measurements NM-WG Network Measurement & Control NMC-WG Network Mark-up Language NML-WG Network-Network DNMR-BOF merge spawn Grid-Network Grid High Performance GNI-BOF Networking GHPN-RG DICE Use Cases Best Practices Standards Network Service Interface NSI-WG Firewall Virtualisation WG Firewall RG Open Cloud Computing Interface OCCI-WG On-demand Infrastructure Services Provisioning ISOD-RG 2 © 2011 Open Grid Forum OGF32, Salt Lake City, July 2011
  24. 24. InterCloud-Related Standardization Activities • NIST Cloud definition (NIST SP 800-145), NIST Special Publication 500-291 version 2, NIST Cloud Computing Standards Roadmap, July 2013and Cloud Computing Reference Architecture (CCRA), v1.0 (NIST SP 500-292) • ITU-T Focus Group on Cloud: Technical Report (Part 1 to 7) • IEEE - WGs on InterCloud issues and Cloud Profiles 
 – IEEE ICWG/2302 WG - Intercloud WG (ICWG) Working Group
 – IEEE P2301, P2302 Projects, 2302.html • OGF ISOD-RG
 – On-Demand Infrastructure Services Provisioning Best Practices: • IETF Internet Drafts –  Cloud Reference Framework. Internet Draft, by B. Khasnabish, J. Chu, S. Ma,Y. Meng, N. So, P. Unbehagen, M. Morrow, M. Hasan,Y. Demchenko –  Cloud Service Broker, Internet Draft by Shao Weixiang, Hu Jie, Bhumip Khasnabish. Alan Sill, TTU November 20, 2013 !29
  25. 25. Open Cloud Computing Interface® OCCI® by OGF • OCCI is an API and Protocol • Sits on the boundary of a Service Provider and Service Consumer • No assumptions about the boundary Many real-world implementations! Alan Sill, TTU November 20, 2013 !30
  26. 26. Federation Test bed – September 2013 FedCloud Core Services AAI EGI Production Infrastructure Service Availability SAM Configuration GOCDB DB Accounting APEL External Services Certification Authorities Image Metadata Marketplace VOMS Proxy User Interfaces OCCI Clients rOCCI; WNoDeS-CLI CDMI Clients Libcdmi-java Information System Top-DBII Resource Providers VOMS proxy OCCI server CDMI server ! OpenNebula OpenStack StratusLab WNoDeS Marketplace client Appliance Repository SSM Vmcatcher Vmcaster LDAP Monitoring Nagios VO VOMS server Credit: David Wallom Chair EGI Federated Cloud Task Force
  27. 27. Task Force – Sept 2013 Cyfronet FZJ OeRC CESNET GWDG IN2P3 CNRS KTH FCTSG Members Technologies •OpenNebula. •StratusLab. •OpenStack. •Synnefo. •WNoDeS. •70 individuals •40 institutions •13 countries CETA Masaryk INFN CESGA SARA IGI RADICAL STFC TUD Stakeholders IFCA •23 Resource Providers •10 Technology Providers •7 User Communities •4 Liaisons SZTAKI BSC GRNET Imperial DANTE LMU IPHC IISAS SixSq 100%IT IFAE SRCE Credit: David Wallom Chair EGI Federated Cloud Task Force
  28. 28. Multiple Organizations Have Cloud Standards Multiple organizations have their own APIs, and real work has been done by standards organizations to catch up and offer common standards and products that can work across these. Now is the time to do this! Recent work has brought several cloud-related standards into frameworks that can be used to implement them (for example, CloudStack, OpenStack, Open Nebula, and several others) and are mature enough to apply: n n n n n n n Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI) from OGF Cloud Data Management Interface (CDMI) from SNIA Data Format Description Language (DFDL) from OGF Open Virtualization Format (OVF) from DMTF and ISO Cloud Application Management Protocol (CAMP) from OASIS Cloud Infrastructure Management Interface (CIMI) from DMTF WS-Agreement and WS-Agreement Negotiation from OGF Alan Sill, TTU November 20, 2013 !33
  29. 29. Standards Organizations Active in Cloud Computing: (Some of many...) • It is often said that there are “too many standards organizations”. This is a lot like saying there is “too much software”. • Each has its own area of specialty, its own contributor base, and its own method of funding to develop its work products. • How best to work with these organizations? (Our answer: Cooperatively!) Alan Sill, TTU November 20, 2013 !34
  30. 30. OGF Cooperative Agreements In Place as of Feb. 2013 OGF and ETSI: Cooperative MoU in place; contributing to ETSI CSC effort. Co-host Cloud Plugfest series (cooperative with SNIA). OGF and TM Forum: Memorandum of Understanding in place; ongoing cross-SDO document on End-to-End Management of Cloud Service Agreements, including SLAs, in progress. OGF and CSA: Cooperative agreement between OGF and CSA in place. OGF and IEEE: OGF co-sponsored IEEE CloudCom 2011 (Athens) and Cloudcom 2012 (Taipei); open to other engagements. © 2011 Open Grid Forum Cloudscape V LSN-MAGIC Meeting February 22, 2012 OGF and SIENA, NIST, GICTF, Canada Cloud, etc.: Contribute actively to to ongoing global standards roadmapping efforts. OGF and DMTF: Joint work register on OCCI and CIMI with DMTF Cloud Management WG. OGF and ISO; OGF and ITU-T: OGF has a formal liaisons with ISO/ IEC JTC1 SC38 on Cloud Computing and with ITU-T JCA Cloud. OGF and SNIA (CDMI): Cooperative agreement w/SNIA Cloud on CDMI and has held 7 jointly hosted Cloud Standards Plugfests so far (cooperative now with ETSI). Brussels, Belgium Feb. 28, 2013 !35
  31. 31. DMTF
 Cloud Management Standards
 Slides prepared by
 Winston Bumpus – VMware

  32. 32. Who is DMTF • Established in 1993 to enable more effective management of millions of IT systems worldwide by bringing the IT industry together to collaborate on the development, validation and promotion of systems management standards. • The group spans the industry with 160 member companies and organizations, and more than 4,000 active participants crossing 43 countries. • Strong Alliance Partnership with GICTF and other Organizations • The DMTF board of directors is led by 17 innovative, industry-leading technology companies. They include; Broadcom Corporation; CA Technologies.; Cisco; Citrix Systems, Inc.; Fujitsu; HP; Hitachi, Ltd.; Huawei; IBM; Intel Corporation; Microsoft Corporation; NetApp; Oracle; Software AG; SunGard Availability Services; Telecom Italia and VMware, Inc.
  33. 33. Open Virtualization Format (OVF) XML myapp.ovf A standard packaging format for virtual machines A distribution format for VMs Supports single VM & multiple VM configurations Optimized for distribution & simple automation Vendor and platform independent Now an ANSI and ISO standard myapp.cert An OVF package consists of One OVF descriptor with extension .ovf zero or one OVF manifest (w/ extension .mf) zero or one OVF certificate (w/ extension .cert) zero or more disk image files zero or more additional resource files (such as ISO images) images.iso OVF Package (myapp.ova) OVF 2 (Recently Released): brings an enhanced set of networking capabilities making it applicable to a broader range of use cases that are emerging as industry enters the Cloud era.
  34. 34. Cloud Infrastructure Management Interface (CIMI) Model Scope: Core IaaS functionality Deploying and managing: Machines, Volumes, Networks, Monitoring, etc. Client: VM/application developer, deployer and administrator Server: IaaS Cloud Provider Version 1.1 is released and implemented CIMI REST/HTTP-Based Protocol Specification currently describes a REST/HTTP binding to the model. Other bindings are Considered. Follows REST principles and describes mapping of the HTTP protocol verbs to operations on the model. Standard HTTP status codes are used to convey the results of the operations. Serialization formats for the message body include JSON and XML Other features: Cloud Entry Point to manage Systems, Machines, Volumes, and Networks; Grouping of resources meant to be managed as a single unit; Metering and Monitoring support; Resource metadata; Events and event logging; Jobs; Dynamic Discovery of a provider’s resources characteristics; Entity creation using Templates
  35. 35. Cloud Auditing Data Federation (CADF) Working Group Scope / Objectives Develop Standards for the Federation of Cloud Auditing Data By Specifying a Normative, Prescriptive Auditing Event Data Format along with Interface Definitions and a compatible Component and Interaction model. The Data Model will include support for: Classification by Extensible Event Taxonomies to categorize cloud provider IT Resources, event Actions and Outcomes. Federation of Customized Auditing Reports and Logs - event data will support federation and be composable into customizable reports and logs. The Interface Model includes: Definition of Service Methods to Manage and Federate the Data Model’s Events, Logs and Reports Interfaces will support audit data Submission, Import and Export, Query and Subscription. The Component and Interaction Model will Demonstrate how the Interfaces and Data Format can be used by Cloud Providers and Consumers to Support Cloud Auditing use cases. Future work may include Profiles that extend the core data and interface specifications to accommodate particular methods of consumption
  36. 36. DMTF NSMWG Focus: Virtualized and Hybrid Network Environment Management Apps  and  Services  that  Utilize   Virtualized  L3  Resource/Entities     Apps  and  Services  that  Utilize   Virtualized  Network  Entities     Management  of  Virtualized   Network  Entities vNE  Management  API Virtualized  Network  Entities Network  Entities  Abstraction Edge/Core/Border                                      Router Fire  Wall * AAA   Server … DNS D N S … Balancer Load   Physical    and  Virtual  Network  Entities    
  37. 37. Software Entitlement Working Group Purpose: To extend the Common Information Model to capture software entitlement and usage metrics and to deliver the associated profile. Based on ISO/IEC 19770-2 Software Identification Tags Driven by a request for JP Morgan Chase. 1. Update CIM to support Software Entitlement and Usage Metrics – Q4 2013 2. Create CIM Software Entitlement and Usage Metrics Profile - Q1 2014 For more information 7
  38. 38. 013.3 Landscape of Cloud SLA Management End User Requirements TMF TR174 ECLC VPC Requirements TMF GB963 Cloud SLA App. Note NIST CC RA/ Taxonomy/SLA ! TMF Multicloud catalyst CSCC – Practical Guide to Cloud SLA TMF GB917.V3 SLAM Handbook ! ITU-T FGCC Cloud Ecosystem Best Practices/Guidebooks Architecture Specification Key inputs to TMF061 SES RA TMF GB922 SID DMTF CMWG DSP-IS0103 DSP-IS0102 DSP-IS0101 ! TMF TR178 Enabling E2E Cloud SLA Management OGF GFD.192 WS-Agreement OASIS TOSCA DMTF CMWG DSP0263 TMF617 SES SMI DMTF CMWG DSP2027 DSP0263 Meta Models Interface Specification Cloud SLA Measurements OGF GFD.192 GFD.193 WS-Agreement WS-Agreement Negotiation DMTF CMWG & SVPC VN QoS Profiles SPEC OSG Cloud Benchmark TMF GB963 Cloud SLA App. Note ISMA CSMIC ! © 2013 TM Forum | 

  39. 39. Cloud Plugfest Developer Series: (Multiple Partners) Developer-oriented inperson standards and software testing series OPEN TO ALL! http:// Cloud Plugfest 10 just completed! Continuing series
 co-sponsored by OGF, DMTF, SNIA, OASIS, ETSI, OCEAN and OW2! 9 previous events held so far! Easy to get involved and join in events as developers or project researchers! Cloud Interoperability Week Sep. 2013! Alan Sill, TTU November 20, 2013 !44
  40. 40. NIST SAJACC Public Process Alan Sill, TTU November 20, 2013 !46
  41. 41. ( Internal(Group(Report( Feb(12,(2013 Special(Publication(5001273(Special(Publication(5001273 ! SAJACC Working Group Recommendations to NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST Cloud Computing Standards Acceleration to Jumpstart Adoption of Cloud Computing (SAJACC) Working Group Phase I group report and recommendations
  42. 42. NIST SAJACC Phase I Cloud Computing Use Cases • • • Public project to define testable use cases that can provide the basis for independent evaluation of cloud standards, products and processes. Phase I completed and working group report “SAJACC Working Group Recommendations to NIST” delivered Feb. 12, 2013. Working group continues with Phase II to define and refine use cases with greater technical detail.
  43. 43. Example Work In Progress: Reorganize and rewrite previous SAJACC Use Cases
  44. 44. Example Work In Progress: Incorporate input from other ongoing NIST cloud computing working groups
  45. 45. Example Work In Progress: Greatly improve content
  46. 46. Example Work In Progress: Include diagrams where appropriate to improve clarity of the logic sequence and workflow of a complex operation, step or procedure.
  47. 47. European Union “Standards & Interoperability for e-Infrastructure Implementation” (SIENA) Initiative (2010-2012) SIENA  (2010-­‐2012)  was  a  Support  AcAon  funded  by  the  European  Commission  under  FP7  (2007-­‐13)  CapaciQes  programme. Partners “A  coordinated  effort... Final Report: June 2012 ...towards  the  delivery  of  a  future                         e-­‐Infrastructures  Roadmap.... InternaAonal  Experts  REB  –  Roadmap   –  Special  Liaison   –  Industry  Expert   SLG   IEG   Editorial  Board GroupGroup ...aligned  with  the  needs  of  European  and  na>onal   ini>a>ves  and  the  evolving  world.” Standards  Development  OrganisaAons  (SDOs) Distributed  CompuAng  Infrastructure  (DCI)  IniAaAves Consolidated  Cloud  CompuAng  Workshops Alan Sill, TTU November 20, 2013 !53
  48. 48. European Cloud Standards Coordination (New) Multi-organization open survey commissioned by EC, coordinated by ETSI along same lines as GICTF, NIST ra D In ft ro P re g s! s Alan Sill, TTU November 20, 2013 !54
  49. 49. Summary p Many active projects are underway to document, map and extend the important role played by standards and software development with significant uptake in advanced distributed computing, including cloud, grid, networking and large-scale data processing, transfer and handling through innovative cooperation with many partners. p The CAC actively engages with partners and participants throughout the international arena to understand and promote best practices and standards in cloud and advanced distributed computing. p TTU is leveraging these standards to support a wide variety of flexible architectures for advanced scientific and business uses through the NSF Cloud and Autonomic Computing Center and is actively seeking international collaborators to extend this work more comprehensively through the cloud. Alan Sill, TTU November 20, 2013 !55