Understanding of light sensing organs in biology creates opportunities for the development of novel optic systems that cannot be available with existing technologies. The insect's eyes, i.e., compound eyes, are particularly notable for their exceptional interesting optical characteristics, such as wide fields of view and infinite depth-of-field. While the construction of man-made imaging systems with these characteristics is of interest due to potential for applications in micro air vehicles (MVAs) and clinical endoscopes, currently available devices offer only limited capabilities due to their use of compound lens systems in planar geometries. In this presentation, I discuss a complete set of materials, design layouts and integration schemes for digital cameras that mimic fully hemispherical compound eyes. Certain of the concepts extend recent advances in ‘stretchable electronics’ that provide previously unavailable options in design. I also discuss another interesting hierarchical micro- and nanostructures that can be found in eyes of night-active insects such as moth and mosquito. I present research trends on fabrication methods, optical characteristics, and various applications for artificial micro-/nanostructures that resemble ‘moth eye’ structure.