Human Anatomy
(Tissue Level of Organization)
By:
Yogananta Ramadhan, MD
1
Tissue Level of Organization
• Tissues are groups of similar cells and
extracellular products that carry out a
common func...
4 Types of Tissues
– epithelial tissue
– connective tissue
– muscle tissue
– nervous tissue

4-3
Epithelial Tissue
• Lines every body surface and all body cavities.
• Forms both the external and internal lining of
many ...
5
Characteristics of Epithelial
Tissue: Cellularity
• Composed almost entirely of cells bound
closely together by different ...
Characteristics of Epithelial
Tissue: Polarity
• Apical surface (free, or top, surface)
• Intercellular junctions
• Basal ...
Characteristics of Epithelial
Tissue: Attachment
• The basal surface of an epithelium is
bound to a thin basement membrane...
Characteristics of Epithelial
Tissue: Avascularity
• Lack blood vessels.
• Nutrients obtained either directly across
the a...
Characteristics of Epithelial
Tissue: Innervation
• Some epithelia are richly innervated to
detect changes in the environm...
•

Characteristics of Epithelial
Tissue: Regeneration
Frequently damaged or lost by abrasion
Capacity

and is replaced via...
Functions of Epithelial Tissue
• Protection
• Regulation of materials into and out of the
organ or tissue
• Produce secret...
Functions of Epithelial Tissue
• Nerve endings detect changes in the
external environment at their surface.
• Continuously...
Junctions
– There are four types of cell junctions:
• tight junctions
• adhering junctions
• desmosomes
• gap junctions

4...
Endocrine Glands
• Lack ducts and secrete their products
directly into the interstitial fluid and
bloodstream.
• Hormones ...
Exocrine Glands
– Usually maintain their contact with the
epithelial surface by means of a duct.
– Duct secretes materials...
Classification of Exocrine
Glands
– Form and structure (morphology)
• simple glands vs. compound glands

– Type of secreti...
Secretion Types
– Serous glands produce and secrete a nonviscous,
watery fluid, such as sweat, milk, tears, or digestive
j...
Merocrine Glands
– Also called eccrine glands, package their
secretions in structures called secretory
vesicles which trav...
Holocrine Gland
• Secretion is produced through the
destruction of the secretory cell.
– Lost cells are replaced by cell d...
Apocrine Gland
• Secretion occurs with the “decapitation” of
the apical surface of the cell and the
subsequent release of ...
Connective Tissue
• Most diverse, abundant, widely distributed,
and microscopically variable of the
tissues.
• Designed to...
Basic Components of CT
• All CT share three basic components:
– cells
– protein fibers
– ground substance

4-23
Components of CT: Cells
• connective tissue proper contains
fibroblasts,
• fat contains adipocytes,
• cartilage contains c...
Components of CT: Protein
Fibers
• Most contains protein fibers throughout
the tissue.
• Strengthen and support connective...
Components of CT: Protein
Fibers
• Three basic types of protein fibers:
– collagen fibers are strong and stretchresistant
...
Components of CT: Ground
Substance
• Cells and the protein fibers reside within a
material called ground substance.
• Nonl...
Functions of Connective Tissue
•
•
•
•
•

Physical protection
Support and structural framework
Binding of structures
Stora...
Development of Connective
Tissue
• The primary germ layer mesoderm forms
all connective tissues.
• There are two types of ...
Classification of Connective
Tissue
• The connective tissue types present after
birth are classified into three broad
cate...
The Resident Cells of the
Connective Tissue Proper
•
•
•
•

Fibroblasts
Adipocytes
Fixed macrophages
Mesenchymal cells

4-...
The Wandering Cells of the
Connective Tissue Proper
– Mast cells
– Plasma cells
• B-lymphocytes

– Macrophages
– Leukocyte...
2 Broad Categories of CT
• Loose connective tissue
• Dense connective tissue
– based on the relative proportions of cells,...
Supporting Connective Tissue
• Cartilage and bone
• Form a strong, durable framework that
protects and supports the soft b...
Fluid Connective Tissue
• Blood is a fluid connective tissue composed of
cells called formed elements.
– erythrocytes (red...
Muscle Tissue
• Responds to stimulation from the nervous
system causing them to shorten.
• Produce voluntary and involunta...
Nervous Tissue
• Sometimes termed neural tissue.
• Consists of neurons, or nerve cells, and
glial cells that support, prot...
Neurons
• Detect stimuli, process information quickly, and
rapidly transmit electrical impulses from one
region of the bod...
Neurons
• Processes extend from the nerve cell
body.
– Dendrite
– Axon

4-39
40
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Tissue Level of Organization (Anatomy)

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Tissue Level of Organization (Anatomy)

  1. 1. Human Anatomy (Tissue Level of Organization) By: Yogananta Ramadhan, MD 1
  2. 2. Tissue Level of Organization • Tissues are groups of similar cells and extracellular products that carry out a common function. 4-2
  3. 3. 4 Types of Tissues – epithelial tissue – connective tissue – muscle tissue – nervous tissue 4-3
  4. 4. Epithelial Tissue • Lines every body surface and all body cavities. • Forms both the external and internal lining of many organs. • Constitutes the majority of glands. • Composed of one or more layers of closely packed cells that form a barrier between two compartments having different components. • Little to no extracellular matrix. • No blood vessels penetrate an epithelium. 4-4
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue: Cellularity • Composed almost entirely of cells bound closely together by different types of cell junctions. 4-6
  7. 7. Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue: Polarity • Apical surface (free, or top, surface) • Intercellular junctions • Basal surface (fixed, or bottom, surface) 4-7
  8. 8. Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue: Attachment • The basal surface of an epithelium is bound to a thin basement membrane. 4-8
  9. 9. Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue: Avascularity • Lack blood vessels. • Nutrients obtained either directly across the apical surface or by diffusion across the basal surface. 4-9
  10. 10. Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue: Innervation • Some epithelia are richly innervated to detect changes in the environment at that body or organ surface. • Most nervous tissue is in the underlying connective tissue. 4-10
  11. 11. • Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue: Regeneration Frequently damaged or lost by abrasion Capacity and is replaced via high regeneration capacity. • Continual replacement occurs through the divisions of the deepest epithelial cells (called stem cells) near its base. 4-11
  12. 12. Functions of Epithelial Tissue • Protection • Regulation of materials into and out of the organ or tissue • Produce secretions – Endocrine glands – Exocrine glands 4-12
  13. 13. Functions of Epithelial Tissue • Nerve endings detect changes in the external environment at their surface. • Continuously supply information to the nervous system concerning touch, pressure, temperature, and pain. 4-13
  14. 14. Junctions – There are four types of cell junctions: • tight junctions • adhering junctions • desmosomes • gap junctions 4-14
  15. 15. Endocrine Glands • Lack ducts and secrete their products directly into the interstitial fluid and bloodstream. • Hormones act as chemical messengers to influence cell activities elsewhere in the body. 4-15
  16. 16. Exocrine Glands – Usually maintain their contact with the epithelial surface by means of a duct. – Duct secretes materials onto the surface of the skin or onto an epithelial surface lining an internal passageway. 4-16
  17. 17. Classification of Exocrine Glands – Form and structure (morphology) • simple glands vs. compound glands – Type of secretion – tubular vs. acinar ducts – Method of secretion – tubuloacinar gland 4-17
  18. 18. Secretion Types – Serous glands produce and secrete a nonviscous, watery fluid, such as sweat, milk, tears, or digestive juices. – Mucus glands secrete mucin, which forms mucus when mixed with water. – Mixed glands, such as the two pairs of salivary glands inferior to the oral cavity, contain both serous and mucus cells, and produce a mixture of the two types of secretions. 4-18
  19. 19. Merocrine Glands – Also called eccrine glands, package their secretions in structures called secretory vesicles which travel to the apical surface of the glandular cell and release their secretion by exocytosis. – The glandular cells remain intact and are not damaged in any way by producing the secretion. 4-19
  20. 20. Holocrine Gland • Secretion is produced through the destruction of the secretory cell. – Lost cells are replaced by cell division at the base of the gland. 4-20
  21. 21. Apocrine Gland • Secretion occurs with the “decapitation” of the apical surface of the cell and the subsequent release of secretory product and some cellular fragments. – Examples: the mammary glands and some sweat glands in the axillary and pubic regions 4-21
  22. 22. Connective Tissue • Most diverse, abundant, widely distributed, and microscopically variable of the tissues. • Designed to support, protect, and bind organs. • Binds body structures together. 4-22
  23. 23. Basic Components of CT • All CT share three basic components: – cells – protein fibers – ground substance 4-23
  24. 24. Components of CT: Cells • connective tissue proper contains fibroblasts, • fat contains adipocytes, • cartilage contains chondrocytes, and • bone contains osteocytes. – Many CT’s contain white blood cells such as macrophages, which phagocytize foreign materials. 4-24
  25. 25. Components of CT: Protein Fibers • Most contains protein fibers throughout the tissue. • Strengthen and support connective tissue. • Type and abundance of these fibers varies depending on function. 4-25
  26. 26. Components of CT: Protein Fibers • Three basic types of protein fibers: – collagen fibers are strong and stretchresistant – elastic fibers are flexible and resilient – reticular fibers form an interwoven framework 4-26
  27. 27. Components of CT: Ground Substance • Cells and the protein fibers reside within a material called ground substance. • Nonliving material produced by the connective tissue cells. • Primarily consists of molecules composed of protein and carbohydrate and variable amounts of water. • May be viscous (blood), semisolid (cartilage), or solid (bone). 4-27
  28. 28. Functions of Connective Tissue • • • • • Physical protection Support and structural framework Binding of structures Storage Transport 4-28
  29. 29. Development of Connective Tissue • The primary germ layer mesoderm forms all connective tissues. • There are two types of embryonic connective tissue: – mesenchyme – mucous connective tissue 4-29
  30. 30. Classification of Connective Tissue • The connective tissue types present after birth are classified into three broad categories: – connective tissue proper – supporting connective tissue – fluid connective tissue 4-30
  31. 31. The Resident Cells of the Connective Tissue Proper • • • • Fibroblasts Adipocytes Fixed macrophages Mesenchymal cells 4-31
  32. 32. The Wandering Cells of the Connective Tissue Proper – Mast cells – Plasma cells • B-lymphocytes – Macrophages – Leukocytes 4-32
  33. 33. 2 Broad Categories of CT • Loose connective tissue • Dense connective tissue – based on the relative proportions of cells, fibers, and ground substance 4-33
  34. 34. Supporting Connective Tissue • Cartilage and bone • Form a strong, durable framework that protects and supports the soft body tissues. • Extracellular matrix contains many protein fibers and a ground substance that ranges from semisolid to solid. 4-34
  35. 35. Fluid Connective Tissue • Blood is a fluid connective tissue composed of cells called formed elements. – erythrocytes (red blood cells) – leukocytes (white blood cells) – platelets • erythrocytes transport oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and the body tissues • leukocytes mount an immune response • platelets are involved with blood clotting 4-35
  36. 36. Muscle Tissue • Responds to stimulation from the nervous system causing them to shorten. • Produce voluntary and involuntary movement. 4-36
  37. 37. Nervous Tissue • Sometimes termed neural tissue. • Consists of neurons, or nerve cells, and glial cells that support, protect, and provide a framework for neurons. 4-37
  38. 38. Neurons • Detect stimuli, process information quickly, and rapidly transmit electrical impulses from one region of the body to another. • Prominent cell body functions in control; information processing, storage, and retrieval; internal communication. 4-38
  39. 39. Neurons • Processes extend from the nerve cell body. – Dendrite – Axon 4-39
  40. 40. 40

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