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Russian Emeralds & Alexandrites From Myth to Reality Presented – January 2010 Warren F. Boyd  Gemmologist / Geologist Pres...
FAMOUS RUSSIAN EMERALDS WORLD’S LARGEST EMERALD PRODUCER 1830 -1917   t TYPE LOCALITY FOR ALEXANDRITES
World Emerald Occurrences
World Emerald Deposits Brazil Pakistan Colombia Zambia Zimbabwe Afghanistan Tanzania Madagascar Russia
Significant Emerald Producers Brazil Colombia Zambia Russia
Major Emerald Producers
<ul><li>Ekaterinburg - Russia’s third largest city, with 1.4 million people. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During the Cold War, it...
LOCATION MAP – MALYSHEV EMERALD MINE
Excellent Transport Links  <ul><li>Malyshev is situated 56 km north-east of Ekaterinburg in the economic heartland of the ...
Regional Geology  - Near Malyshev
Urals Emeralds – Discovery 1831 <ul><li>Forest Worker Maxim Stefanovitch Kozhevnikov </li></ul><ul><ul><li>discovered the ...
MANY YEARS OF HISTORY  1930’S 1980’S 1970’S
<ul><li>Western Jewellers, Gemmologists and Labs have rarely heard of “Russian” emeralds on the market in recent times – W...
Malyshev - Recent History <ul><li>In 19 th  Century Russian emeralds were the “property of the Russian crown” and not comm...
Malyshev Emeralds - Quotations <ul><li>“ In terms of quality, the best Uralian emeralds compare favourably with the finest...
Malyshev Emeralds - Quotations <ul><li>Malyshev emerald crystal presented by Tsar Nicolas I in 1832 to Alexander von Humbo...
Famous Malyshev Emeralds <ul><li>“ President” from underground 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>In excess of 5000 carats </li></ul><...
Malyshev from Space - Google
Malyshev Mine Plan <ul><li>Open Pit Mine  </li></ul><ul><li>Middlings Dumps </li></ul><ul><li>Shaft Locations </li></ul><u...
Worlds largest emerald mine <ul><li>Current Open Pit is over 1.4 kilometers long and 400 meters wide  - 1830s to 1940s (?)...
Malyshev Middlings  <ul><li>Ore that was previously worked for beryllium </li></ul><ul><li>Being reworked since 1993  </li...
Malyshev Underground Workings <ul><li>Open Pit & Back-fill dumps </li></ul><ul><li>Shaft Locations & Admin Buildings </li>...
Existing Mining Levels 15-Year Mine Life  is based only on existing Levels Baltic Sea Level Surface Level Elevation - 238 ...
Underground Mining Operation <ul><li>Over 10 kilometers access rails </li></ul><ul><li>Developed to -500 meters  </li></ul...
Malyshev in Ore - Underground Emeralds in Working Face at the -30 level (-250 meters)
Mine Rehabilitation - Headframe BEFORE AFTER
Marketing Office  Soviet Style - Before 2005 A Completed Oct 2007
Mine Rehabilitation 10 Km OF UNDERGROUND RAILS BEFORE  2005 AFTER  2007
Russian Emerald People From 1990s to 2005 – Care & Maintenance <20 Up until 2007 – 500 employed December 2007 – All unempl...
Gemstone Classification & Valuation E xamining emerald and alexandrite production in July 2007 at the Sorting Office besid...
World Emerald Market Penetration <ul><li>Global Coloured Gemstone Market – est to be $ 8-10 Billion </li></ul><ul><li>Emer...
Emerald Pricing History <ul><ul><li>“ After plunging in the late ’90s, prices are moving up   again”   </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Emeralds in History <ul><li>Emeralds in ancient jewellery from the time of the Pharaohs – the “Mines of Cleopatra”  </li><...
Emerald Production Worldwide <ul><li>Egypt  and Middle East  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ancient times BC – variously ascribed t...
Emerald Production Worldwide <ul><li>Other sources – Not significant in larger stones </li></ul><ul><li>Thus only signific...
Famous Malyshev Emeralds Underground Mining – Rough Only * Partial List Only – Many named & unnamed large fine stones foun...
Historical Malyshev Emeralds <ul><li>The “Vitaly Emerald” </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered in 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Polished ...
Large Emerald Crystal 2105 Carat (421 Gram) Malyshev Emerald Specimen
Assortment Russian Gems
Russian Emerald - Largest 31.50 Carat Russian Emerald
Recent Russian Emerald Gems <ul><li>In 2007 rough brought to Canada from a complex export procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Cont...
Rare & Spectacular Gems <ul><li>94.13 carats. Dimensions: 36 x 25 x 12 mm </li></ul><ul><li>Engraved “All is from God” in ...
“ All is from God” – Carved Emerald 94.5 Ct. - Mined in Russia, Engraved in Israel, Sold to Bahrain Royalty in Dubai
Multi-National Marketing Effort ICA Congress in Dubai 2007 – Sheikh Fawaz Al Kalifa, Warren Boyd & Oren Eliezri
Famous Malyshev Alexandrites <ul><li>British Museum Collection </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired 1850 </li></ul><ul><li>Source: M...
Alexandrite Crystal Specimen 16 Gram Fine Colour Change Alexandrite Specimen
Alexandrite Specimens 13 Gram Cluster of Fine Colour Change Alexandrite
Malyshev Emeralds – The Benefits <ul><li>Fine Clarity generating Bright Clean gems </li></ul><ul><li>Crystallization is be...
Malyshev Alexandrites – Benefits <ul><li>World famous source for one of the rarest of gemstones </li></ul><ul><li>Named in...
Malyshev Emeralds vs Colombian <ul><li>Similar to Cosquez mine – bright and light material </li></ul><ul><li>Malyshev able...
Malyshev Emerald Inclusions Inclusion Photos: John Koivula @ AGTA GTC Thin Liquid Films – Basal Plane Phlogopite Mica Incl...
The Tsars of Russia – Nicholas I 1825-1855 <ul><li>Malyshev mine discovered in 1832 during the reign of Tsar Nicholas I </...
The Tsars of Russia – Alexander II 1855-1881 <ul><li>Tsar Alexander II </li></ul><ul><li>Born in 1818 </li></ul><ul><li>Ca...
The Tsars of Russia – Alexander III 1881-1894 <ul><li>Tsar Alexander III born in 1845 </li></ul><ul><li>Second son of Alex...
The Tsars of Russia – Nicholas II 1894-1917 <ul><li>Tsar Nicholas II was born in 1868 </li></ul><ul><li>Not prepared by hi...
Antique Russian Emeralds  Manufactured by Bolin – Contemporary of Faberge – Russia Circa 1880s to early 1900s
Antique Jewellery with Russian Emeralds Fine emerald and diamond design pieces by Cartier, Harry Winston, Van Cleef & Arpe...
Designer Names – Prestige  Value - Added
Russian Jewellery & Gems
Russian Emeralds  1.12 Carat Emerald 8.00 Carat Emerald
Russian Emeralds & Alexandrites 2007 - ??? Current Ownership – Alrosa   From Reality to Myth Again ?
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Russian Emerald Presentation

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This is a presentation about a project I worked on from 2004 to 2007 for a Canadian company that was interested in mining and exploiting the famous emeralds from the Ural Mountains of Central Russia

Published in: Education

Russian Emerald Presentation

  1. 1. Russian Emeralds & Alexandrites From Myth to Reality Presented – January 2010 Warren F. Boyd Gemmologist / Geologist President – R. T. Boyd Limited
  2. 2. FAMOUS RUSSIAN EMERALDS WORLD’S LARGEST EMERALD PRODUCER 1830 -1917 t TYPE LOCALITY FOR ALEXANDRITES
  3. 3. World Emerald Occurrences
  4. 4. World Emerald Deposits Brazil Pakistan Colombia Zambia Zimbabwe Afghanistan Tanzania Madagascar Russia
  5. 5. Significant Emerald Producers Brazil Colombia Zambia Russia
  6. 6. Major Emerald Producers
  7. 7. <ul><li>Ekaterinburg - Russia’s third largest city, with 1.4 million people. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During the Cold War, it was a critical part of the Soviet Military-Industrial Complex. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A leading academic, industrial, transport and cultural hub. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urals State Academy of Mining and Geology is Russia’s leading centre of learning for the mining industry . </li></ul></ul>Malyshev Mine Location Ekaterinburg
  8. 8. LOCATION MAP – MALYSHEV EMERALD MINE
  9. 9. Excellent Transport Links <ul><li>Malyshev is situated 56 km north-east of Ekaterinburg in the economic heartland of the Russian Federation. It is linked to the city by good quality sealed roads. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Regional Geology - Near Malyshev
  11. 11. Urals Emeralds – Discovery 1831 <ul><li>Forest Worker Maxim Stefanovitch Kozhevnikov </li></ul><ul><ul><li>discovered the first green stones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jan 23, 1831 in roots of a fallen tree </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taken to Ekaterinburg for identification </li></ul><ul><li>Thus the Sverdlovsky discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Malyshev mine found in 1833 just north </li></ul>Modern Natural Gemstone Carving Produced by Skilled Artisans in Ekaterinburg
  12. 12. MANY YEARS OF HISTORY 1930’S 1980’S 1970’S
  13. 13. <ul><li>Western Jewellers, Gemmologists and Labs have rarely heard of “Russian” emeralds on the market in recent times – Why?? </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the Russian emeralds (& diamonds) entered the world market with other labels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold War issues resulted in “sanitizing” the country of origin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Value-Added by calling the emeralds “Colombian” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Since the 1960s the sales have been via Soviet state enterprises or via Indian rough gemstone buyers where “branding” and “origin” were non-issues </li></ul><ul><li>Only India is the source of the fabled “Old Mine Colombian” emeralds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some experienced dealers have speculated that these “Old Mine Colombian” are in fact Malyshev emeralds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Kremlin in Moscow - the “Armory Collection” has many world class Russian emeralds on display – along with the Russian diamonds </li></ul><ul><li>Russian-Israel venture in the early 90s was short lived but created a strong specialized demand for “Known” Malyshev emeralds in recent years </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequent underground development attempts in the 1990s and early 2000s have been plagued with corporate disputes, corruption, and under capitalization </li></ul>Malyshev – Recent History
  14. 14. Malyshev - Recent History <ul><li>In 19 th Century Russian emeralds were the “property of the Russian crown” and not commercially exploited but mined continuously since 1832 </li></ul><ul><li>The first commercial enterprise “New Emerald Company” from 1898 to 1916 – over 40 million cts exported </li></ul><ul><li>Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 terminated the foreign leases </li></ul><ul><li>Until 1930s State production from Malyshev was important in the world market exceeding Colombia in some years with as many as 2.5 million cts of gems recovered in some years </li></ul><ul><li>At this time emerald rough was cut and polished in Ekaterinburg, Paris, London, Berlin, and New York </li></ul><ul><li>Marketed by famous jewellers Cartier, Tiffany, Chaumet and Faberge </li></ul><ul><li>1940s and 1950s beryllium ore production was a priority with as much as 3-4 million cts of emeralds produced per year as a by-product </li></ul><ul><li>Since the early 1970s the focus was on emerald production again with annual production as high as 8-10 million carats until the collapse of the USSR </li></ul>
  15. 15. Malyshev Emeralds - Quotations <ul><li>“ In terms of quality, the best Uralian emeralds compare favourably with the finest stones from any source….” </li></ul><ul><li>quote from: </li></ul><ul><li>John Sinkankas – Emeralds and Other Beryls, 1981, p 529 </li></ul>Malyshev Fine Emerald Specimen 2800 cts – American Museum Nat. History
  16. 16. Malyshev Emeralds - Quotations <ul><li>Malyshev emerald crystal presented by Tsar Nicolas I in 1832 to Alexander von Humboldt in Berlin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately 13 cm long </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Malyshev was…”the largest emerald producer in the world ..by 1918” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quote from Glas 2002 </li></ul></ul>Courtesy: Humboldt Museum
  17. 17. Famous Malyshev Emeralds <ul><li>“ President” from underground 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>In excess of 5000 carats </li></ul><ul><li>Finest colour and good clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Sold for $150,000 to the Gohkran in 1996 </li></ul>
  18. 18. Malyshev from Space - Google
  19. 19. Malyshev Mine Plan <ul><li>Open Pit Mine </li></ul><ul><li>Middlings Dumps </li></ul><ul><li>Shaft Locations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South Shaft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North Shaft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital Shaft </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Administration Buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Malysheva Worker’s Settlement </li></ul>
  20. 20. Worlds largest emerald mine <ul><li>Current Open Pit is over 1.4 kilometers long and 400 meters wide - 1830s to 1940s (?) </li></ul><ul><li>Replacement Cost of Infrastructure - $100 Million </li></ul>180 Degrees Panorama Malyshev Mine Looking west near Capital Shaft – North Shaft on the right
  21. 21. Malyshev Middlings <ul><li>Ore that was previously worked for beryllium </li></ul><ul><li>Being reworked since 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>Emeralds & Alexandrites were poorly recovered when first worked </li></ul><ul><li>Marginally viable to re-work the old dumps </li></ul><ul><li>Never-the-less many fine gems have been recovered since 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>Ore Grade is <30% of underground ore grades </li></ul>
  22. 22. Malyshev Underground Workings <ul><li>Open Pit & Back-fill dumps </li></ul><ul><li>Shaft Locations & Admin Buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Worked out levels </li></ul><ul><li>Developed Levels – 15 years reserves </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed Levels - future </li></ul>
  23. 23. Existing Mining Levels 15-Year Mine Life is based only on existing Levels Baltic Sea Level Surface Level Elevation - 238 m Level - 30 m - Major Working Level Level - 120 m - Partially developed Level - 165 m - Proposed Future Level Level - 200 m - Proposed Future Level Level -75 m - Largely developed working area Level +90 m - Worked out Level +60 m - Worked out Level +15 m - Largely Worked out
  24. 24. Underground Mining Operation <ul><li>Over 10 kilometers access rails </li></ul><ul><li>Developed to -500 meters </li></ul><ul><li>15 years mine life on current development </li></ul><ul><li>Indicated reserves to over 1000 meters </li></ul><ul><li>No other emerald mining operation in the world comes close </li></ul>
  25. 25. Malyshev in Ore - Underground Emeralds in Working Face at the -30 level (-250 meters)
  26. 26. Mine Rehabilitation - Headframe BEFORE AFTER
  27. 27. Marketing Office Soviet Style - Before 2005 A Completed Oct 2007
  28. 28. Mine Rehabilitation 10 Km OF UNDERGROUND RAILS BEFORE 2005 AFTER 2007
  29. 29. Russian Emerald People From 1990s to 2005 – Care & Maintenance <20 Up until 2007 – 500 employed December 2007 – All unemployed again
  30. 30. Gemstone Classification & Valuation E xamining emerald and alexandrite production in July 2007 at the Sorting Office beside the minesite
  31. 31. World Emerald Market Penetration <ul><li>Global Coloured Gemstone Market – est to be $ 8-10 Billion </li></ul><ul><li>Emerald estimated to be $1.6 to 1.8 Billion </li></ul>
  32. 32. Emerald Pricing History <ul><ul><li>“ After plunging in the late ’90s, prices are moving up again” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional Jeweler Magazine - January 2006 </li></ul></ul>US$/ct
  33. 33. Emeralds in History <ul><li>Emeralds in ancient jewellery from the time of the Pharaohs – the “Mines of Cleopatra” </li></ul><ul><li>Pliny the Elder (23-79 AD) cited “Scythian” emeralds coming from somewhere northeast of the Black Sea – possibly the Urals </li></ul><ul><li>No pre-historic evidence found in the Urals to support this </li></ul>Ancient Jewelley - Circa 1 st Century BC Photo Van Pelts
  34. 34. Emerald Production Worldwide <ul><li>Egypt and Middle East </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ancient times BC – variously ascribed to several sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentioned in the Bible as part of the Breastplate of Aaron </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colombia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15 th Century, lost for 500 years, commenced production again in 1920 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brazil – since the 1950s - </li></ul><ul><li>Zambia – since the 1970s – Indian & Israel controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Austria – worked since 1865 – but poor quality </li></ul><ul><li>Afghanistan – artisanal workings for centuries (?) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Emerald Production Worldwide <ul><li>Other sources – Not significant in larger stones </li></ul><ul><li>Thus only significant producer in 1800s until 1920s was Russia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of market share due to Bolshevik Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And sporadic foreign investment in mining & marketing during Soviet times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold War trade embargos resulted in “sanitized” origins being stated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New production from the re-discovered Colombian mine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Last century dominated by Colombia, Brazil and Zambia as sources which has allowed the emerald to become a gemstone owned by the common man </li></ul>
  36. 36. Famous Malyshev Emeralds Underground Mining – Rough Only * Partial List Only – Many named & unnamed large fine stones found as well 11000 2200 1831 Kochubey’s Emerald CARATS GRAMS YEAR NAME OF EMERALD* 7000 1400 1979 Shipanov 5800 1160 1993 President 4150 830 1990 Zvesdar 6900 1380 1990 New Year 32750 6550 1989 Miner’s Glory 6600 1320 1983 Beauty 1225 245 1982 Anniversary 4700 940 1981 Trilit 3370 674 1979 Glorious Urals 7000 1400 1978 60 th Year of the Red Army
  37. 37. Historical Malyshev Emeralds <ul><li>The “Vitaly Emerald” </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered in 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Polished in the same year </li></ul><ul><li>37.50 carats – Sold 1992 </li></ul>
  38. 38. Large Emerald Crystal 2105 Carat (421 Gram) Malyshev Emerald Specimen
  39. 39. Assortment Russian Gems
  40. 40. Russian Emerald - Largest 31.50 Carat Russian Emerald
  41. 41. Recent Russian Emerald Gems <ul><li>In 2007 rough brought to Canada from a complex export procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Contract Cut in Israel and Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>Cut and Polished 31.20 cushion ~ US$1200/ct </li></ul><ul><li>Also Cut and Polished 2.00 cushion ~ US$5000/ct which is now in the Smithsonian Collection </li></ul>
  42. 42. Rare & Spectacular Gems <ul><li>94.13 carats. Dimensions: 36 x 25 x 12 mm </li></ul><ul><li>Engraved “All is from God” in Arabic Calligraphy </li></ul><ul><li>Malyshev Emerald, polished in Israel, engraved in Germany, and sold in Dubai to a Sheihk from Bahrain . </li></ul><ul><li>An example of multi-faith co-operation in the Gem Trade </li></ul>
  43. 43. “ All is from God” – Carved Emerald 94.5 Ct. - Mined in Russia, Engraved in Israel, Sold to Bahrain Royalty in Dubai
  44. 44. Multi-National Marketing Effort ICA Congress in Dubai 2007 – Sheikh Fawaz Al Kalifa, Warren Boyd & Oren Eliezri
  45. 45. Famous Malyshev Alexandrites <ul><li>British Museum Collection </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired 1850 </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Malyshev district (Tokovaya River) </li></ul><ul><li>+40 carat </li></ul><ul><li>Fine colour Change </li></ul><ul><li>Insured for $1.3 Million </li></ul>
  46. 46. Alexandrite Crystal Specimen 16 Gram Fine Colour Change Alexandrite Specimen
  47. 47. Alexandrite Specimens 13 Gram Cluster of Fine Colour Change Alexandrite
  48. 48. Malyshev Emeralds – The Benefits <ul><li>Fine Clarity generating Bright Clean gems </li></ul><ul><li>Crystallization is better on average than most other sources </li></ul><ul><li>Produces 0.50 to 3.00 carat polished gems – thus strong market demand </li></ul>
  49. 49. Malyshev Alexandrites – Benefits <ul><li>World famous source for one of the rarest of gemstones </li></ul><ul><li>Named in honour of Tsar Alexander II – came of age in 1830 & ruled 1855-1881 </li></ul><ul><li>Known as the “Tsar – Liberator” due to elimination of serfdom </li></ul><ul><li>Imperial Russian colours of red and green </li></ul><ul><li>Malyshev produces one of the finest colour change effects in the world </li></ul><ul><li>The fine gemstones are exceedingly rare and thus worth thousand $$ per carat </li></ul><ul><li>Weak supply on world markets from other sources mean prices are firm </li></ul><ul><li>200:1 Ratio of Emerald:Alexandrite production @ Malyshev </li></ul>$60K Alexandrite Ring Circa 1915 – Estate Piece 49 gram Rough Alexandrite – Est $12K
  50. 50. Malyshev Emeralds vs Colombian <ul><li>Similar to Cosquez mine – bright and light material </li></ul><ul><li>Malyshev able to produce goods as fine as Muzo or Chivor </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly sold as “Old Mine” Colombian </li></ul><ul><li>Both exhibit pink/red flourescence </li></ul><ul><li>Both exhibit two & three phase inclusions </li></ul>
  51. 51. Malyshev Emerald Inclusions Inclusion Photos: John Koivula @ AGTA GTC Thin Liquid Films – Basal Plane Phlogopite Mica Inclusions Amphibole Needles
  52. 52. The Tsars of Russia – Nicholas I 1825-1855 <ul><li>Malyshev mine discovered in 1832 during the reign of Tsar Nicholas I </li></ul><ul><li>Grandson of “Catherine the Great” </li></ul><ul><li>Born in 1796 </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled Russia from 1825 to 1855 </li></ul><ul><li>Emeralds belonged to the crown </li></ul><ul><li>Gifted Malyshev emeralds to many foreign dignitaries in Europe and India (Humboldt) </li></ul>
  53. 53. The Tsars of Russia – Alexander II 1855-1881 <ul><li>Tsar Alexander II </li></ul><ul><li>Born in 1818 </li></ul><ul><li>Came of age in 1832 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Alexandrite” named in his honour </li></ul><ul><li>Became known as the “Tsar-Liberator” due to his elimination of serfdom </li></ul><ul><li>Sold Alaska & Aleutians to the USA </li></ul><ul><li>Assassinated in 1881 by a bomb </li></ul>
  54. 54. The Tsars of Russia – Alexander III 1881-1894 <ul><li>Tsar Alexander III born in 1845 </li></ul><ul><li>Second son of Alex II </li></ul><ul><li>Oversaw the Russian industrial revolution </li></ul><ul><li>The last autocrat to rule Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Notoriously bigoted </li></ul><ul><li>Died of Nephritis in 1894 at the age of 49 </li></ul>
  55. 55. The Tsars of Russia – Nicholas II 1894-1917 <ul><li>Tsar Nicholas II was born in 1868 </li></ul><ul><li>Not prepared by his father to rule Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Inherited strife caused by his father Alex III & wars in Japan and Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Executed in 1918 in Ekaterinburg </li></ul><ul><li>Russia’s last Tsar and the one most remembered due to his families untimely execution </li></ul>
  56. 56. Antique Russian Emeralds Manufactured by Bolin – Contemporary of Faberge – Russia Circa 1880s to early 1900s
  57. 57. Antique Jewellery with Russian Emeralds Fine emerald and diamond design pieces by Cartier, Harry Winston, Van Cleef & Arpels…. Sold in Sotheby’s for between $60K to $350K Many Russian Emeralds incorrectly identified as Colombian
  58. 58. Designer Names – Prestige Value - Added
  59. 59. Russian Jewellery & Gems
  60. 60. Russian Emeralds 1.12 Carat Emerald 8.00 Carat Emerald
  61. 61. Russian Emeralds & Alexandrites 2007 - ??? Current Ownership – Alrosa From Reality to Myth Again ?

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