1The Teaching of Picture-Based Writing to The Eighth Grade Junior HighSchool Students of SMP N 1 Purwodadi in Academic Year 2011/2012ByNunung Dwi OktaviaResumed by : Umie ListiyoriniABSTRACTWriting is one of four importants language skills. Most of students get difficultiesin learning writing. The teacher can not make their writing classes more interesting tostimulate the students to improve their ability. Teaching writing will be much moreeasier if use media. One of them is picture. Picture is a drawing of some simple action,object, or something that is shown. The writer uses pictures as the media of teachinglearning writing. The students will arrange word by word and sentence by sentenceeasily by looking at the picture.Key words : Based Writing, Picture. Student’s AbilityINTRODUCTIONWriting is one of four importants language skills. Learning writing can used theaudio visual and the visual aid. One of the visual aids that can be used in learningwriting is pictures. Pictures are used to remind us of a real life experience or to suggestsuch an experience to us. They can help the students associate what they hear real lifeexperience.There are still many English teachers who just focus on task book that they use toteach. They jus ask the students to answer the question that is on the task book. If theteacher does it every day, the students will be bored. The effect is classess will be noisyand the teaching learning will not become maximal. The teacher should select the
2creative ways to make the classes more enjoy and the students will stay pay attention.One of them is using pictures as media in teaching writing.This study investigated the writing ability of the studens who are taught by usingpictures, the writing ability of the students who are taught without using pictures andthe significant difference in writing ability between students who are taught by usingpictures and without using pictures.REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATUREA. WritingWriting is one of four basic language skills and writing is difficult. So, itshould be introduced to students from elementary school age. It is an important asother skills. Skills of language are related to another. Definition of writing can besame in any language. Generally, it is a written form to express something in whichthere are many rules to build it. Vorak (1986), Kraples (1990), and Silva (1993)suggest both first and second language writing involve essentially similar process,but that second language writing is complexitified by the addition of new resourcesand norm (Kern, 2000:177).Writing is same with other language skills that gives benefits. Writing has itsown important values for both writers and readers. Reinking (1991:4) categorizesfour general writing purposes. That are to inform, to persuade, to express ourselvesand to entertain.The result of wriing activity can be an enduring work in many forms. It can beread by next generation. F course, it depends on the quality, quantity, and kind ofwriting. There are kind of writing based on the design model. The various of it sform are letter writing, journal writing, free writing, creative writing, overtinstruction, and mapping.Hedge (2003:21-23) states at least there are three elements of writing that hasto master in writing. The three elements are :1. Pre-writing
32. Writing and rewriting3. EditingB. MediaAccording to Azhar Asyar (2005:3), definition of media came from Latinlanguage “medius” which middle, mediator or agent. In definition, teacher,textbook, and schol environments are media. Especially, definition of media in theteaching learning process is more to be meant as tools, grapics, photograph, orelectronics, to catch, to process and rearange visual and vrbal information.Hamalik (1989) in Azhar asyad 91995) atates that the using teaching media inthe teaching learning process can rise new ddesire and draw interest, risemotivation, and stimulus in learning activity, and event it can give psychologisteffects towards the students. The using of teaching learning in the orientation levelwill help the effectiveness of teaching process and conveying information andlesson content very much in the same time. Except rising motivation and students’interest, teaching media can also help the students to increase understanding, topresent the data attractively and accurately, to facilitate the data explanation andstuff the information.C. PictureThe use of picture can give a great help to the teacher in the class. A picturethat suggests a story or a situation can be very valuable in the language class.Picture is not new thing in the instructional word. It is a thing to convey idea.Picture are usually in color of black and white. A teacher should be able to selectpicture that will be more appropiate.Finocchiaro (1974 : 101-102) state that the using of pictures in teaching is first,to give more varied practice, pictures of boy, girls, men, and woman can be placedone behind the other and pictures of means of transportation can also be stacked.Second, situational picture should be used to stimulate ideas for the “freer”composition we discussed.
4Picture can play an important role in teaching learning process. Not only in thatmatter of writing, but also structure pronounciation and vocabulary. It will help thestudents master the material that is presented by the teacher.Picture used in formal instrument, however, it should be simple, clean, easilyseen the class and have one main point. Picture used for instrumental must be bigenough to be a great help to the teacher in the class. It can use by teachers duringteaching-learning process to support the presentation of the material by emphasizingthe student’s visual sense. Pictures are very simple visual aids. We can get thepictures everywhere. We can get them from books, magazine, newspapers,calenders, etc.Picture can be used as media for making writing especially writing describtivetext. For example, the students are asked to write about camel. Without any pictureof the material, they will get difficulty in writing sentences or paragraph aboutcamel. Because the students many need a long time to remember the things in detailfor them. With using pictures, it can help students to identify the characteristic ofthe camel and then make some sentences easily.There are board function of visual material for writing activity. Those are :• To motivate the students• To create a meaningful conext• To provide the students with information to refer to including objects, actions,and event relationship.• To provide non-verbal for relationship• To provide non-verbal prompt to written composition.From some functions above, picture has advantages to students. It does notonly help the students in creating in text, but also stimulate their idea and helpsthem to write the object specifically.METHOD OF THE RESEARCHA. Design of The Research
5The writer applies experiment-quantitative method. Hyland (2002 : 170) satesthat “experimental methods are often used to investigate the language behaviour ofsample groups under controlled condition” an experiment is conducted in order toknow the effect of treatment.According to Nunan (1993 :10), some characteristic of good experimentalresearch are :1. SystematicDoes the study follow clear procedural rules?2. LogicalDoes the study proceed in a clear step-by-step fashion, from question formationto data collection and analysis?3. TangiableAre data collected from the real world?4. ReplicableCould an independent researcher reproduce the study?5. ReductiveDoes the research establish patterns and relationship among individual variables,facts, and observable phenomenon?B. Subjects of The StudyIn this research, the researcher determines the subject of the study to be threecategories namely :1. PopulationPopulation is the entire people who are of interest in a particular survey(Brown 2001 : 71). In this research, the population is the second grade studentof SMP N 1 Purwodadi in academic year 2011/2012. The number of populationsometimes too big and the writer took the eighth years students based oncurriculum that direction has been taught to the eighth grades in the Junior HighSchool. It contains 7 classes and the total students are 280 students. Theaverage number of students of every class is 38-42 students.
62. SampleA sample is a part of the total and characteristic that had population.Sample enables a esearcher to collect and organize data efficiently andpractically. In this study, there are 7 classes and the total number of students is280 students. The writer have took 2 of 7 classes as sample. They are 8B and8D. It is because if the writer took all of the classess, it will be too big researchand not efficient.3. SamplingSampling is the way to take data from sample. In this researcher, theresearcher took purposive sampling by the recommendaton of the teacher basedon the teacher’s schedule. The researcher took the entire students class of twoclasses. They are class B and class D .Arikunto (2006:134) states that :If the subjects are less than 100, the researcher should take the entiresubjects. The research is a popu;ation research. If the population is morethan 100, the researcher should take 10%-15% or 20%-25% or more. Itdepends on the situation.in this case, the researcher will take 15% of the total population. So theresearcher will take 42 students from 2 classes. It will be experimental class andcontrol class.C. Instrument of The ResearchInstrument is a mean to collect data. This reseach is to measure student’sability to construct writing by using pictures as media. The main instrument is awriting test. The test consists of :1. Pre-testBefore the writer teaches by using pictures, the writer gave a test to the students.Pre test will be given to the experimental and control group with the same test,the score that is obtained will be analyzed from all the students test.2. Post-test
7To get the data, a post-test will be given to the experimental group and controlgroup. It will be given in order to know the ability of the students who are taughtby using pictures and without using pictures. The writing test includes theelements of writing which are content, organization, grammar, vocabulary, andmechanic.D. Technique of Data CollectionThe main purposes of this reseach is to know the student’s ability to constructwriting by using pictures as media. In order to get data, the researcher made somemeetings with the students and did some actions or steps as follows :1. The researcher came to SMP N 1 Purwodadi to find the information aboutstudents from a senior English teacher of eighth grade students and headmaster.2. The researcher begin the research by explaining what should the students with apictures.3. The researcher gave sheets of paper of pictures to students and gave examplehow to write by using picture as media.4. The researcher gave sheets of paper of an unfinished picture-based writing tostudents then ordered them to complete the writing.5. He final step is to order the students to construct writing by using pictureindividually. It’s scored for its content, organization, grammar, vocabulary, andmechanic.E. Technique of Data AnalysisThe researcher uses ‘t-test’ to analyze the significant of the differencesbetween that booth group to get result that teaching using can improve student’swriting ability.1. The researcher made an experimental group and control groupThe experimental group used to insert the scores of experimental group,these are about the score of post-test and the square of residual.The control group consist of :• Subject -
8• Pre-test• Post-test• Difference• Square differenceThe control group used to insert the scores of control group. These are aboutthe score of pre-test, the residual between pre-test and post-test and the square ofdifference.The experimental group consist of :• Subject -• Pre-test• Post-test• Difference• Square difference2. The writer calculated the mean of each group, according to Anas Sudijono(2010:76) :Mean is every number that can be used as a representative of the seriesof the average value was his form is just one number only, but with asingle number that can be reflected in a general overview about thecollection or material information in the form of a row of number.The following is the formula :a. Cont. Groupb. Exp. Group=Where :: The mean scores of the control group: Sum of deriviation of control group: The number of sample of the control group: The mean scores of the experimental group: Sum of deriviation of experimental group
9: The number of sample of experimental group3. The sum of deviation each groupa. Cont. Groupb. Exp. GroupWhere :: Sum of the square of deviation of control group: Sum of the square of deviation of experimental group: The square of deviation of control group: The square of deviation of experimental group: The number of sample of control group: The number of deviation of sample of the control group4. The writer applies all of formula into t-testt-test =where :: Mean of deviation of control group: Mean of deviation of experimental group: The total of the square deviation of the control group: The total of the square deviation of the experimental group: The number of sample of control group: The number of sample of experimental group(Arikunto, 2006 :311)RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONA. Research FindingsAfter having observation and doing pre-test and post-test in the classroom, thewriter got data from the result of the test. The observation began on , the writer took
10permission from the headmaster of the SMP N 1 Purwodadi and English teacher ofeighth grades. The English teacher recommended the writer to teach two class thatis 8B and 8D. 8B is control group and 8D is experimental group. The Englishteacher given the schedule of each classes that is on Tuesday , 2011 for pre-test of8B and on Wednesday , 2011 for pre-test of 8D. On Tuesdy , 2011 for post-test of8B and on Wednesday , 2011 for post-test of 8D.In giving score the writer considered the score can be calculated with thefollowing formula :Score =a. The result of the testStudents’ score of control groupStudents : 42Pre-test : 2759Post-test : 3017Difference ( : 258Square difference ( : 4750Students’ score of experimental groupStudents : 42Pre-test ( : 2963Post-test : 3418Difference ( : 455Square difference ( : 10633b. The mean of each groupControl groupExperimental group=
11== 10.83c. The sum of deviation each groupControl groupExperimental groupd. Applies of formula into t-testt-test =t-test =t-test =t-test =t-test = 2.067To examine whether the difference between the means of the control groupand experimental group is satistically significant, t-obtaine be consulted with thecritical value in the t-table. The writer used the 5% (0.05) level of significant.The number of subjects from both groups is 84, so the degree of freedom is 82from ( . For 5% alpha level and 82 degree freedom, there is no definite criticalvalue in t-table. It is necessary to find the definite value using interpolation.t-table for : 60 = 167120 = 1.6682 = . . . ?
121.67 – t = 0.0037t = 1.6663The t-table is 1.6663, the obtained t-value is 2.067 so the t-value is higherthan the critical value on the table (2.067>1.6663).e. The different achievement between the experimental and control group• Control group (the average on pre-test )Control group ( the average on post-test)The rise of the average score on control group71.83 – 65.69 = 6.14• Experimental group (the average on pre-test)Experimental group (the average on post-test)The rise of the average score on experimental group
1381.38 – 70.54 = 10. 84 ( after giving pictures as media of writing)The experimental group gets better development, the average increase 10.84point, whereas the control group only increase 6.14 point.B. Discussion of Research FindingsIn the pre-test, the average score is 70.54, while in the post-test the averagescore is 81.83. So, the result shows that the post-test as better than the pre-test. Tocheck the significant effect of using pictures, the writer analyze by using t-testformula. The result of the t-test is 2.067. the writer consult the critical value on thet-table using the 5% (0.05) alpha level of significance and the degree of freedomwhich is 1.6663. since the obtained t-value is higher than the critical value on thetable(2.067>1.663), the difference between teaching writing by using pictures as amedia and without pictures.We also could look at the differences of pre-test and post-test of experimentalgroup. There was so significant difference between pre-test which is taught withoutusing pictures and post-test which taught using pictures as a media. And the controlgroup there was not so significant residual between pre-test and post-test which isboth taught without using pictures.CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONSA. Conclusions1. There is a significant difference of students’ achieement in teaching writing byusing pictures as a media and without using pictures for eighth grades studentsof SMP N 1 Purwodadi in academic years 2011/2012.2. The use of pictures in teaching writing is more effective than teaching writingwithout pictures. From the two classess, the experimental and the control group,the measurement shows that the increasing line of writing achievement of theexperimental group is higher then the control groups.3. The eighth grade students’ ability to improve writing skill using pictures as amedia. From the result of test done by the eighth grade students of SMP N 1
14Purwodadi, the writer had found the average score of post-test in experimentalgroup is 81.38. So, using pictures as a media in teaching writing of eighth gradeof SMP N 1 Purwodadi is good.4. The eighth grade students’ ability to mprove writing skill without using picturesas a media, the writer found the average score of post-test in control group is71.83. So, the teaching writing without pictures as a media is still not good.B. Suggestions1. To the TeacherEnglish teacher should realize that writing is important. From this statement,the teachers are hoped to know well how to teach and to choose the suitabletechnique for their students in teaching and learning process. The teacher shouldbe aware of the teaching and give more exercise and using other interestingmedia to the students in order to improve the students writing skill.2. To the StudentsThe atudents should pay attention to the teachers’ explanation during thelesson therefore the objectives of the study can be reached. The students can usepictures as a media in learning writing, it can help them to study how to arrangebetween content, organization, grammatical, vocabulary and mechanic to be agood sentence. This students also can study with happy, enjoy, and not bored.3. To the ReadersThe writer hopes that readers get information about how to use ictures asmedia and use the media as a strategy in writing section.4. To the WriterThe writer hopes that the result of the research can give input to the teachingand learning English, especially to teach how to improve students’ writing skillby using pictures as a media.BIBLIOGRAPHYArikunto, Suharsimi. 2006. Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Yogyakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta.
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