Game speak id_m_broyles_salt2013

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Instructional designers are not typically trained in a game or simulation design and development. Designing and developing a simulation or game is not the same as designing and developing for an elearning course. Although some concepts are similar, there is one glaring difference – simulations are really 3 dimensional environments. It is this element that instructional designers do not have any experience. Creating a flash animation in an elearning course is not the same as creating a 3 dimensional world, where characters must interact, objects manipulated and how the player moves through and interacts with this environment. The result of not understanding 3D simulation design/development is cost overruns, staffing issues, and production delays that result in missing critical milestones.
Game Designers tend to freak out when instructional designers want to include terminal and enabling objectives. Both instructional and game designers use a process to develop media. Each process has merits and disadvantages. Instructional design/game design terminology is a major obstacle to successful game/simulation development. In some instances, the Instructional designer and the game designer are talking about similar concepts. There discussion needs to focus on to work together to produce a serious game/simulation that delivers training content as well as incorporate game design principles to make the serious game/simulation engaging.

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  • Today more and more instructional designers and game designers find themselves working together to design develop and produce games, serious games and/or simulations.
  • Let’s take a look some differences between games, serious games and simulations.
  • DefinitionsA game is structured playing, usually undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool. Games are distinct from work, which is usually carried out for remuneration, and from art, which is more often an expression of aesthetic or ideological elements. However, the distinction is not clear-cut, and many games are also considered to be work (such as professional players of spectator sports/games) or art (such as jigsaw puzzles or games involving an artistic layout such as Mahjong, solitaire, or some video games).Game’s key components are goals, rules, challenge, and interaction. Games generally involve mental or physical stimulation, and often both. Many games help develop practical skills, serve as a form of exercise, or otherwise perform an educational, simulation, or psychological role.Serious GamesA serious game or applied game is a game designed for a primary purpose other than pure entertainment. The "serious" adjective is generally prepended to refer to products used by industries like defense, education, scientific exploration, health care, emergency management, city planning, engineering, religion, and politics.SimulationsA simulation game attempts to copy various activities in "real life" in the form of a game for various purposes: training, analysis, or prediction. Usually there are no strictly defined goals in the game, just running around, playing as a character.Well-known examples are war games, business games, and role play simulation.Simulation games are derived from three basic types of strategic, planning and learning exercises: games, simulations and case studies, - a number of hybrids may be considered, among which simulation games and simulation games are used as case studies.References(2013, 23). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Game - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved May 26, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Game(2013, 23). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Serious Game - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved May 26, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serious Game(2013, 23). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Simulation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved May 26, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simulation(2013, May 26). The Oregon Trail Cover [Web Graphic]. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Oregon_Trail_cover.jpg DefinitionsA game is structured playing, usually undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool. Games are distinct from work, which is usually carried out for remuneration, and from art, which is more often an expression of aesthetic or ideological elements. However, the distinction is not clear-cut, and many games are also considered to be work (such as professional players of spectator sports/games) or art (such as jigsaw puzzles or games involving an artistic layout such as Mahjong, solitaire, or some video games).Key components of games are goals, rules, challenge, and interaction. Games generally involve mental or physical stimulation, and often both. Many games help develop practical skills, serve as a form of exercise, or otherwise perform an educational, simulation, or psychological role.Serious GamesA serious game or applied game is a game designed for a primary purpose other than pure entertainment. The "serious" adjective is generally prepended to refer to products used by industries like defense, education, scientific exploration, health care, emergency management, city planning, engineering, religion, and politics.SimulationsA simulation game attempts to copy various activities in "real life" in the form of a game for various purposes: training, analysis, or prediction. Usually there are no strictly defined goals in the game, just running around, playing as a character.Well-known examples are war games, business games, and role play simulation.Simulation games are derived from three basic types of strategic, planning and learning exercises: games, simulations and case studies, - a number of hybrids may be considered, among which simulation games and simulation games are used as case studies.References(2013, 23). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Game - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved May 26, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Game(2013, 23). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Serious Game - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved May 26, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serious Game(2013, 23). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Simulation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved May 26, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simulation(2013, May 26). The Oregon Trail Cover [Web Graphic]. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Oregon_Trail_cover.jpg
  • Most game designers have no understanding of the instructional design process and instructional designers have little understanding of what it takes to make a game or simulation. Instructional designers have little training in game design or 3 dimensional design and development.What both sides fail to see is how both processes have their strengths and weakness but that does not mean that they should be ignored. Instead, these should be examined to determine how to produce best possible serious game/simulation product. In addition, both processes do share common ground as well as key differences between the two as well as documentation and product deliverables.Instructional designers and game/simulation designers must have an understanding of the common elements shared by both processes as well what is unique to each process. But, each side lacks understanding regarding what it takes to produce a final product. 
  • Instructional designers use instructional design systems to guide them through the design and development process. Many times instructional designers refer to the ADDIE model that consists of the following: analysis, design, develop, implement and evaluate. Molenda (2003), states that the ADDIE model is a systematic approach to instructional development. Novak (2008) discusses the game development processes as: concept, preproduction, prototype, production, alpha, beta, candidate release, and gold.
  • Let’s take a closer look at the typical game development phases.Concept Phase –is where you come up with your game idea and ends when a decision is made to begin planning for the project. Here you create your High Concept Document and the Concept Document. (Documents – High Concept Design Document, Concept Design Document) PowerPoint – High Concept PitchPre-Production Phase – once you have interest in the game now it is time to plan: develop a game proposal and planning for pre-production; the art style guide is developed and the production plan. It ends with the creation of the Game Design Document and the Technical Design Document.Prototype Phase – here is your opportunity to create a prototype of the game; working software that captures onscreen the essence of your game and what sets it apart from other games and what will make it a winner. It is usually a great idea to make a paper version before moving into the digital mode. It allows you to think through your ideas and how will work.Production Phase – this is usually the longest phase that often lasts from 6 months to over 2 years and the end result is a completed game.
  • Alpha Phase – here your game should be playable from beginning to end; you might have some gaps and missing stuff but the engine and user interface are complete. This phase is about polishing the game… then test, test and then some more.Beta Phase – now that you have tested the game; it is now time to work out all the bugs you found.Gold Phase – the game has been tested and found to be acceptable. Sr. Managers review the game and agree that the game is ready for manufacturing.Post-Production Phase – you may several releases or versions of the game. I am sure all of you have heard about patches.
  • ADDIE  (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) framework—that is rooted in sound adult learning theory—to (after analysis) design, develop, and deliver all educational and training products and services with Evaluation being conducted throughout each step of the process to ensure a higher quality product the first time with fewer revisions during its life-span. ADDIE provides a systematic structure that allows instructional designers to design and develop all instructional materials. Throughout this process, the end-learner is the instructional focus, so that effective learning occurs. This means that every instructional component is governed by the learning outcomes that have been determined thorough analyzing learner needs. These phases sometimes overlap and can be interrelated; however, they provide a dynamic, flexible guideline for developing effective and efficient instruction.ADDIE – Analysis: The Analysis phase serves as the foundation for all other instructional design phases. During this phase, educational and training team must define the problem, identify the source of the problem and determine possible solutions. The Analysis phase may include specific research techniques such as front-end analysis, job analysis, needs analysis, and task analysis that reveal instructional gaps. Analysis outputs include the instructional goals, and instructional tasks lists. These outputs become the Design phase inputs.ADDIE – Design:The Design phase involves using the outputs from the Analyze phase to plan a strategy for developing the instruction. During this phase, you must outline how to reach the instructional goals determined during the Analyze phase and expand the instructional foundation. Some of the elements of the Design Phase may include writing a target population description, conducting a learning analysis, writing terminal and enabling objectives and test items, selecting a delivery system (elearning, instructor-led, simulation, etc.) and instructional sequencing. The outputs of the Design phase will be the inputs for the Development phase.ADDIE – Development: The Development phase builds upon the Analyze and Design phase’s outputs. During this phase the educational training team develops all the instruction, all media that will be used in the instruction, and any supporting documentation. This may include hardware (e.g., simulation equipment) and software (e.g., computer-based instruction).ADDIE – Implementation: The Implementation phase refers to the instructional product delivery, whether it's classroom-based, lab-based, computer-based or simulation-based. This phase primary purpose is the effective and efficient instructional product delivery. This phase must promote the students' understanding of material, support the students 'mastery of objectives, and ensure the students' transfer of knowledge from the instructional setting to the job.ADDIE – Evaluation:Evaluation is not a separate phase in the Oak Grove approach but rather a process that is sewn into each of the other phases. In Evaluating throughout the production of training materials, we are able to make smaller, more deft corrections that result in a more tailored training product that was built with fewer “off target” components. In the Evaluation process, the primary focus is to measure instructional product effectiveness. These Evaluations typically are one or both of two possible types: Formative and/or Summative Evaluation. The Formative Evaluation improves the instructional product prior to releasing the final product. This is typically completed by conducting pilot-tests with the target audience.Summative Evaluation occurs after the instructional product has been implemented. The primary purpose is to evaluate the overall instructional effectiveness; after the training has been implemented. 
  • Game/Simulation and Instructional Design Process Comparisons Both processes have their strengths and weakness but that does not mean that they should be ignored. Instead, these should be examined to determine how to produce best possible serious game/simulation product. In addition, both processes do share common ground as well as key differences between the two.There are similar elements within both processes, and each process does include document and product deliverables. Instructional designers and game/simulation designers must have an understanding of the common elements shared by both processes as well what is unique to each process.
  • Game Design DocumentThe game design document is one of the most important documents used by the design and development team. This document serves as the road map for game development. The design document is the designer’s entire vision spelled out in detail, which includes all of the storyline, character dialog, world maps, city views, and room specifications with sample wallpaper, artwork, characters etc. This is the game reference guide that the entire team must understand and follows to create the designer’s vision. The game design document basically should outline in detail how to create the game. So, when you turn in your final design document, I should be able to take that document and give it to another class mate and they should be able to construct your game board and all your components. A Game Design Document should include the following elements:StoryOutlinePlot pointsEnvironmentsScriptNon-interactive sequencesStoryboardsNon-linear storytellingPlayer Character (PC)Type CustomizationAbilitiesProgressionRewardsVulnerabilitiesInventoryNon-Player Characters (NPCs)FeaturesGameplay MechanicsLevel DescriptionUser InterfaceInstructional Design DocumentThe design document specifies all the decisions made about the course up to this time, including:• Purpose of the course• Intended outcome of the course (performance improvement objectives and measures)• Audience description• Delivery method(s)• What to train• High level outline• Detailed lesson outlines• Objectives of each lesson• Assessments/exercises for each taskIt can also include the following:• Document description• Purpose of the course• Audience description• Major course objectives• Learning assessment• Instructional strategies• Media• Time• Course structure description• Course scope (units, lessons, topics – often in outline form)• Development tools• Detailed outline by unit/module, including:• Introduction• Objectives• Methods of instruction• Practice• Time• Topic list• Ownership and maintenance• Development time• Support requirements
  • Another common element is storyboards. Instructional designers have worked with elearning storyboards. Some instructional designers create word-based documents that only indicate which graphics to display. Too many words do not work for game/simulation designers since many think in visuals. Many game/simulation designers create storyboards to show how game/simulations actions or events will look like. Game/simulation storyboards are sketches indicate how the sequence of events is to take place. Designers create game/simulation storyboards to show how an event or action will take place within a specific level/place and using a storyboard allows team members to develop action sequences enhancing the player experience.
  • Game developers often use classic story structures because these stories have already been successfully “tested” with mass audiences. Now that the market for games is expanding widely, developers feel that these stories are best because they have the potential of attracting a large consumer base and can be serve as a basis for serious games and simulations.Two storytelling techniques commonly used in books, games and movies are refer to as the Hollywood 3-act and “hero’s journey” structures – as well as specific plot devices such as balancing conflict, shifting focus, foreshadowing events, suspension of disbelief, and realism.
  • Traditional Story StructureMost books, films, and plays employ this format when developing books, play scripts or screen plays. Hollywood 3-ActBeginning (Act I) – The story begins by placing the character into the action or drama of the story. The primary goal is to capture the audience’s attention. In Act 1 the focus is on the character’s problem. You can present any backstory and background events later in the story.Middle (Act II) – During Act II the focus is on any obstacles that may stand in the way of the character ability to solve the problem that was introduced during Act 1. Usually there are a series of obstacles that the character must overcome or solve in order to move forward. Normally, Act II comprises a bulk of the dramatic tension used in the story.End (Act III) – The story ends once the character has solved the problem. In order to do this the character must systematically face and resolve each obstacle presented during Act II.Another creative ploy frequently in story development is that of the Hero’s Journey.
  • Creating the Game WorldWorld building is the process of constructing an imaginary world, sometimes associated with an entire functional universe. The term world building was popularized by science fictions writers during the 1970’s.Developing an imaginary setting with a coherent elements such as history, geography, and ecology is a key task. World building involves creating maps, a backstory and people. Level design is defined as the creation of the environments, scenarios or missions in a game/simulation. Level designers construct the architecture and visuals of the game/simulation physical game environment. The designer is also responsible for dividing the game’s basic structure into different sections or levels.Game levels can be used to structure a game into manageable levels, organize player progression and enhance gameplay. The events or tasks is how the player must play the through the level in order to move to the next level or task.
  • World building is the process of constructing an imaginary world, sometimes associated with an entire functional universe. The term world building was popularized by science fictions writers during the 1970’s.Developing an imaginary setting with a coherent elements such as history, geography, and ecology is a key task. World building
  • Creating a Believable Game WorldOnce you have a defined storyline and the setting (locations where the game will be played. It is time to collect as many visual reference photos and graphics that will help you create a visually stimulating game world. As you collect images, you will learn more about the game’s subject matter. You will learn all about the intricacies, nuances and details that draws the player into the game world. It is all in the details. If you are creating, a game world for a military simulation then it is imperative that every detail is reviewed. Having a green tank instead of tan one is a show stopper for a soldier in today’s military. The green color tells the soldier that the vehicle was used in Vietnam and not currently used. The soldier will dismiss whatever is presented in simulation and totally tune out.This is also the time to start drawing concepts of what the game world will look like.
  • Thinking in the Third DimensionOne of the most difficult things for instructional designers to do is remember that it is not just designing a believe world environment. But, a 3 dimensional world where the player interacts with any objects placed in the world and be able to move through the world as realistically as possible. Everything in a game/simulation will have height, width and depth. This means that the character will be moving through a 3D environment. The character will be able to walk and run down streets. The level designer will decide which buildings will be accessible to character. What doors will be operational and how the player will move through the physical environment.Always keep in mind how the level is to played from beginning to end.
  • World Building ApproachesWorldbuilding can be designed from the top down or the bottom up, or by a combination of these approaches.Top Down ApproachA designer creates a general overview of the world – determining board characteristics such as world inhabitants, technology level, major geographic features, climate, and history. The designer then develops the rest of the world in increasing detail. In this approach that might involve creation of continents, civilizations, nations, cities and towns. Worlds built from the top down ten to be well-integrated, with all the components fitting together. This requires considerable work before enough detail is completed for the setting and this is usually done in the creating the story setting.Bottom-Up ApproachHere a designer focuses on one aspect of the world that is needed. In this approach, the location is given considerable detail such as: local geography, culture, social structure, government, politics, commerce, and history. Prominent characters may be described – including their relationships with each other. Surrounding areas then are described with less detail. Later the designer can enhance the description of other area. However, this approach usually results in a world with inconsistencies.Combined ApproachUsing both the top down and the bottom-up approach can be used but it is very difficult for a designer to accomplish developing a game world using this approach since the designer must approach the world from both perspectives at the same and that doubles the work effort and would take much longer to develop.
  • Level LayoutsGame/simulation designers create level layouts (top-down drawings that show the location of all buildings, major assets, puzzle placements, and character placement, etc.). Level layouts include level descriptions, obstacles, objectives, scope, and sequence. Game/simulation designer create game flow charts to show the game and level flow throughout the game and especially helpful when creating complex game/simulations.The player’s path is how the character is to move through the level (level flow) and where the enemy is to enter level and challenge the player. Level flow is also determined by gameplay as well.It is imperative that each level have a primary objective that the player must accomplish in order to move to the next level or mission. Level designers usually include sub-objectives which may open up gameplay possibilities in later levels.The designer also decides on what obstacles and/or challenges that the player will encounter in each level. This also means that the level designer must also think about what choices the player has and what decisions the player must make and what are the ramifications for each decision.
  • Game designers begin creating the game/simulation world by blocking in (using boxes and placing them in the game editor). Here the level designer is creating the 3 dimensional structure using just basic cubes, cylinders. There is are no details shown. The designer is just working on proportions and scale. The designer works on dimensions and scale (details, textures, and lighting – all missing) and with blocking completed, the designer plays tests gameplay. Once the block-in the level designer, then begins to build the buildings, applies materials to the surfaces of the buildings, adds props, places lights and adds triggers to turn on lights and make doors open when the player approaches. So, now ---
  • Character development is essential to the game/simulation. Game/simulations employ several character types: character playable or non-player characters (NPCs). An example of a player controlled character is an avatar character that the player/learner controls throughout the game/simulation. NPCs controlled by the game/simulation and interact with the player character. NPCs controlled by the game/simulation and interact with the player character (avatar). Character models cannot just be placed in a game/simulation. Major characters require visual, psychological development that derived from the storyline as well as adds to the player experience.Game/simulation designers prepare character descriptions, visual treatment (age, appearance, clothing/uniform/rank), backstory (personality, position background, etc. that leads to how the character will act in the game/simulation.
  • ModelingThese 3D objects constructed using polygons (a polygon is an area defined with lines often referred to high or low poly count). Each polygon contains a set of vertices that define its shape. It also needs information that tells the shape what it looks like (called “texture mapping”). A designer applies a texture/material (made up of many textures) to a box that now appears as a building, a character or any game object and completed for all buildings, characters and object placed in the game/simulation. With the character created and textured, the character still cannot do anything. The character model needs a digital exoskeleton with joints (referred to as rigging) think of it as a human skeleton. An animator programs the character to walk, run, crouch and roll or any number of positions or position sequences.
  • Game speak id_m_broyles_salt2013

    1. 1. 2
    2. 2. Game • Engagement (gameplay/interactivity) • Bounded by rules or sets of rules • Challenges • Goals, objectives, conflict, and competition • Storytelling and narrative • Outcomes and feedback Serious Games Simulations • Purpose other than entertainment • Uses game technology and game design • Presented as significant/realistic personal challenge • Seeks sensory or physical authenticity; requiring a suspension of disbelief • Fun, process oriented, skills based • Always explicit; real world ('authentic') significance, presented as realistic challenge • More intellectual than physical; even social realism, but rarely time critical; 'intellectual authenticity' • Outcome, product oriented; creating a product for future use 4
    3. 3. 5
    4. 4. Concept Analysis Preproduction Design Prototype Development Production Implement Alpha Beta Gold Post Production Evaluation 6
    5. 5. Team develops the game idea and ends when a decision is made to begin planning for the project. High Concept Document Concept Document (Documents – High Concept Design Document, Conc ept Design Document) PowerPoint – High Concept Pitch Team works on the game proposal and pre-production planning. Game Proposal Preproduction Plan Art Style Guide Production Plan. Game Design Document started Technical Design Document started Team makes a paper-based game. This is used to test game idea. A game digital prototype is made tests look and feel.. Paper-based Prototype Digital Prototype Art Style Guide Game Design Document Technical Design Document Storyboard Game development goes into full production. Game Design Document Alpha Version 7
    6. 6. Game is playable from beginning to end and has some gaps & missing assets. Engine & user interface complete. Bug Lists Beta Version A Beta release is for consumer testing. Beta Release Testing is either open or closed. Closed (open to fanbase and Open (anyone can sign up), Bug List Gold Version The game has been tested and found to be good to go manufacturing. Sr. Managers review the game and agree. Game Released Reviews what was eliminated due to constraints. Review Patches Release Upgrades 8
    7. 7. Identify knowledge/skills /attitudes need to be learned. Target audience Knowledge/skills/a ttitude Gap Analysis Target Audience Identify terminal & enabling objectives, iden tify learning activities, delive ry method, testing , etc. Production plan. Instructional Design Document Storyboards Team develops all the instructional materials . Instructional Materials Elearning Course CBT Simulation Serious Game Pilot Test Deploy the training and/or courseware. Train-the-Trainer Training Plan Formative/Summa tive evaluation)– learner feedback, perfor mance outcomes & make recommendations for improvements. Training Evaluation Reports 9
    8. 8. Concept Preproduction Analysis Prototype Design Production Development Alpha Implement Beta Gold Post Production Evaluation 10
    9. 9. Game Design Document Game Design • Graphic Base • Player Interaction • Animations • Audio Instructional Design Instructional Design Document • Text Base • Specifies Graphic • Course Structure • Methods of Instruction 11
    10. 10. Game Design • Graphic Base • Player Interaction • Animations • Audio Instructional Design • Text Base • Specifies Graphic • Describes Animation • Audio 12
    11. 11. Act 1 Act 2 Act 3 Capture Attention Provide Tension Provide Closure Introduce Problem Present Obstacles Resolve Problem 14
    12. 12. Your platoon is defending key terrain in the southern part of the platoon area of responsibility. Enemy contact is expected at 1500 hours. At 1200 hours your platoon sergeant gave the order to position your team’s assets to cover the enemy’s likely avenue of approach. Did your team prepare individual and crew-served weapons positions to allow for accurate fire to be placed on the enemy with the least possible exposure and maximum protection from return fire? It is now 1500 hours; your success in this situation depends on your ability to place accurate fire upon the enemy with the least possible exposure to return fire. 15
    13. 13. You are a member of a platoon that has been ordered to establish a defensive perimeter for a logistics base in an urban area in the southern part of the platoon area of responsibility. You will provide security for this logistics base for five days. Enemy contact is probable. 16
    14. 14. The task for this mission is to prepare positions for individual and crew-served weapons during MOUT. The conditions and standards for this task are listed here. Task • Prepare positions for individual and crew-served weapons during MOUT. Conditions • As a firer or crew member of a crew-served weapon, given a firing position within a building, sector of fire, and material to reinforce the position. Standards • Prepare positions for individual and crew-served weapons during MOUT. Prepared the position to allow accurate fire to be placed on the enemy with the given sector of fire, with the least possible exposure and maximum protection from return fire. 17
    15. 15. 19
    16. 16. 20
    17. 17. 21
    18. 18. A designer creates a general overview of the world – determining board characteristics such as world inhabitants, technology level, major geographic features, climate, and history. In this approach, the location is given considerable detail such as: local geography, culture, social structure, government, politics, com merce, and history. Using both the top down and the bottom-up approach can be used. Designer must approach the game world from both perspectives at the same and that doubles the work effort and would take much longer to develop. 22
    19. 19. 23
    20. 20. 24
    21. 21. Sergeant P. Jackson of the USMC 1st Force Recon is a shining paragon of the US infantry. This is a man who never hesitates to put his body on the line for his country; even when it involves facing an atomic bomb head-on. He is deployed to the Middle East. 25
    22. 22. 26
    23. 23. Examine key differences between games, serious games and simulations. Compare and contrast game design and instructional design processes. Explain creating a believable game world (game/simulation/virtual) methods and elements. Describe game/simulation design elements that require development. Explain that the storyline is critical to game/simulation development , level/mission goals. 27
    24. 24. Belanich, J., Orvis, K. B., Horn, D. B., & Solberg, J. L. (2011). Bridging Game Development and Instructional Design. Instructional Design: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications, 464. Crawford, C. (1984). The art of computer game design. Game engine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Game_engine Hirumi, A., Appelman, B., Rieber, L., & Van Eck, R. (2010). Preparing instructional designers for game-based learning: part 1. TechTrends, 54(3), 27-37. Hirumi, A., Appelman, B., Rieber, L., & Van Eck, R. (2010). Preparing instructional designers for game-based learning: Part 2. TechTrends, 54(4), 19-27. Hirumi, A., Appelman, B., Rieber, L., & Van Eck, R. (2010). Preparing Instructional Designers for Game-Based Learning: Part III. Game Design as a Collaborative Process. TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 54(5), 38-45. 28
    25. 25. Model, A. D. D. I. E. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, 2008. Retrieved August 1, 2008. Molenda, M. (2003). In search of the elusive ADDIE model. Performance improvement, 42(5), 34-37. Novak, J. (2011). Game development essentials. Delmar Pub. Oliver, R., Reeves, T. C., & Herrington, J. A. (2006). Creating authentic learning environments through blended-learning approaches. Perry, D., & DeMaria, R. (2009). David Perry on game design: a brainstorming toolbox. Charles River Media. 29
    26. 26. Dr. Marie Broyles Oak Grove Technologies marie.broyles@oakgrovetech.com Mibroyles@comcast.net 810.637.8084

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