10 Things To Do When Integrating a Commercial off-the-Shelf Video Game   Dennis Charsky, Ph.D. Clif Mims, Ph.D.
Notes and Suggestions from: <ul><li>Charsky, D. & Mims, C. (2008). Integrating commercial off-the-shelf video games into s...
Background <ul><li>Growing popularity in integrating games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DeKanter, 2005,  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Background <ul><li>Rich history of integration  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer based instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
1. Play the game – extensively  <ul><li>Mastering the game is a must </li></ul><ul><li>Play in a variety of ways  </li></u...
2. Learn the game – extensively <ul><li>You will not know everything there is to know about the game </li></ul><ul><li>Var...
3. Get administrator support <ul><li>Crucial task  </li></ul><ul><li>Need the administrator to assist with getting assista...
4. Get the software <ul><li>Biggest hurdle to jump over </li></ul><ul><li>Beg the game distributors </li></ul><ul><li>Emai...
5. Get technology support <ul><li>“ tech person” to help unlock the computer  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>administrative rights ...
6. Contact parents and faculty  <ul><li>Immediately dispel the notion that students will be playing video </li></ul><ul><l...
7. Plan an adequate amount of time <ul><li>COTS games are designed to take about 40 – 60 hours to play to completion.  </l...
7. Plan an adequate amount of time <ul><li>Using the COTS game for six weeks is good,  </li></ul><ul><li>Many months are b...
8. Design instructional activities  <ul><li>Connect the game to the content   </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating a COTS game is...
Type I: Facts, concepts, principles <ul><li>Basic activities to help students learn the game </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write a...
Type II: Strategies and events <ul><li>Compliment the events and game play  </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant extension of the ga...
Type III: Theories and Models <ul><li>Help students critique the entire game as theory or model of the content under study...
9. Evaluate learning <ul><li>Use a wide variety of assessment methods </li></ul><ul><li>Type I activities  </li></ul><ul><...
10. Enjoy <ul><li>In the end all the effort and work will move most instructors further towards a constructivist view of l...
References <ul><li>Charsky, D. (2004). Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Integrating Concept Maps and Computer Games to T...
References <ul><li>Hannafin, M. J., & Peck, K. L. (1988). The Design, Development and Evaluation of Instructional Software...
References <ul><li>Kirkley, S. and Kirkley, J. (2005) Creating next generation blended learning environments using mixed r...
References <ul><li>Reiser, R. A., & Gerlach, V. S. (1977). Research on simulation games in education: A critical analysis....
<ul><li>Dennis Charsky </li></ul><ul><li>Ithaca College </li></ul>
<ul><li>Clif Mims </li></ul><ul><li>clifmims.com </li></ul><ul><li>ID: clifmims </li></ul><ul><li>Join my PLN and let’s le...
clifmims.com/ccl
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10 Things To Do When Integrating a Commercial off-the-Shelf Video Gam

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Notes and suggestions from the following publication.

Charsky, D. & Mims, C. (2008). Integrating commercial off-the-shelf video games into school curriculums. TechTrends. 52(6), 38-44.

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10 Things To Do When Integrating a Commercial off-the-Shelf Video Gam

  1. 1. 10 Things To Do When Integrating a Commercial off-the-Shelf Video Game Dennis Charsky, Ph.D. Clif Mims, Ph.D.
  2. 2. Notes and Suggestions from: <ul><li>Charsky, D. & Mims, C. (2008). Integrating commercial off-the-shelf video games into school curriculums. TechTrends . 52 (6), 38-44. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background <ul><li>Growing popularity in integrating games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DeKanter, 2005, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kirkley & Kirkley, 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kirriemuir, J, 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>COTS games are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>computer or video games created for entertainment purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SimCity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age of Empires </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ZooTycoon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Railroad Tycoon </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Background <ul><li>Rich history of integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer based instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edutainment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructional games & simulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hannafin & Peck, 1988 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kryukov & Kryukova, 1986 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laveault & Corbeil, 1990 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lepper & Malone, 1987 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reiser & Gerlach, 1977 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>PURPOSE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combine existing research with current COTS games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set of guidelines for integration </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. 1. Play the game – extensively <ul><li>Mastering the game is a must </li></ul><ul><li>Play in a variety of ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attempt different strategies, goals, win conditions, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Your play is invaluable in helping students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>overcome frustration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>troubleshoot issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create a accompanying instructional materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tutorials or job aides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may help lessen the time it takes to learn how to play. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>create a custom guide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pinpoint problem areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight instructional goals </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. 2. Learn the game – extensively <ul><li>You will not know everything there is to know about the game </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of things take a lot of time to find or learns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strategies, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cheats, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Easter eggs” (hidden treasures), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To save time visit a variety of venues devoted to the game </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ fan sites” (websites developed by a fan(s) about the game) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discussion boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>game review sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>purchase a strategy book </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Begin Brainstorming Ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid idea of what instructors would like to happen and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How instructors think learning will be facilitated. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 3. Get administrator support <ul><li>Crucial task </li></ul><ul><li>Need the administrator to assist with getting assistance from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>technology support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>purchasing the software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help with skeptical parents and colleagues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Write a high concept statement including </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why the game is appropriate for learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your ideas for integrating the game </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimates of how much computer laboratory time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sufficient amount of computers in the classroom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right specifications (RAM, processor, video card) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding instructors may need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrator should sign verifying approval </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 4. Get the software <ul><li>Biggest hurdle to jump over </li></ul><ul><li>Beg the game distributors </li></ul><ul><li>Email your “high concept statement”; contact public relations </li></ul><ul><li>Team up with a local graduate student or professor </li></ul><ul><li>Research maybe more appealing to the software companies. </li></ul><ul><li>Look for discounts. </li></ul><ul><li>After about six weeks, COTS game prices can drop considerably </li></ul><ul><li>Student Copies </li></ul><ul><li>Be willing to install it at school, leaves less to purchase </li></ul><ul><li>Team students </li></ul><ul><li>Lessen the need to purchase a game for each station </li></ul><ul><li>Teaming non-gaming or reluctant students </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease skepticism and frustration while improving their learning (Johnson & Johnson, 1996). </li></ul>
  9. 9. 5. Get technology support <ul><li>“ tech person” to help unlock the computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>administrative rights maybe needed to install the game </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Install some additional plug-ins </li></ul><ul><li>Tweak the computer settings to make the game run smoothly </li></ul>
  10. 10. 6. Contact parents and faculty <ul><li>Immediately dispel the notion that students will be playing video </li></ul><ul><li>games in class!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Well, they will be, but you must convey that playing the game is </li></ul><ul><li>part of the larger curriculum and class activities </li></ul><ul><li>Let all interested parties know the </li></ul><ul><li>purpose of the activity/unit, </li></ul><ul><li>detail specific class activities that will relate the game to the content </li></ul><ul><li>cite research to help justify using the game. </li></ul><ul><li>CC your administrator(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Share your evidence/learning artifacts </li></ul><ul><li>Yet, be prepared to assign alternative activities </li></ul>
  11. 11. 7. Plan an adequate amount of time <ul><li>COTS games are designed to take about 40 – 60 hours to play to completion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Completing the game maybe a priority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need to play a COTS for at least 15 hours in order to have a basic understanding of how to play </li></ul><ul><li>Many more hours would be needed to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>test and confirm/reject strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>effectively critique the game </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>understand the underlying simulation model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>critically analyze and understand how the game relates to the course/curriculum </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 7. Plan an adequate amount of time <ul><li>Using the COTS game for six weeks is good, </li></ul><ul><li>Many months are better </li></ul><ul><li>The whole year might be best </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start out playing a LOT - four days a week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale back the in-class playing time to one to two times per week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fit in the essential and extremely important instructional activities </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 8. Design instructional activities <ul><li>Connect the game to the content </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating a COTS game is similar to integrating an “idea technology” (Hooper and Riever,1995) </li></ul><ul><li>An idea technology provides learners with a </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Context, problem, scenario, or experience that is very difficult if not impossible to provide students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Going to Mars, becoming Mayor of Chicago, experimenting with hydrochloric acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three types of activities should be used </li></ul>
  14. 14. Type I: Facts, concepts, principles <ul><li>Basic activities to help students learn the game </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write a game review </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Write the rules of the game – journal </li></ul><ul><li>Write the results of their actions, how the rules play out </li></ul><ul><li>Write down strategy, predict what they think will happen, analyze why it did or did not </li></ul><ul><li>Compare: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definitions of terms in the game against the terms in a text or given by the instructor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context or setting </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Type II: Strategies and events <ul><li>Compliment the events and game play </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant extension of the game </li></ul><ul><li>Writing tasks that utilizes some events in the game </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic organizers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data collecting and analyzing from events in game </li></ul><ul><li>Debriefing activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correct the errors and misconceptions that students may develop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus around analyzing events in the game and how they are similar or different from the “real” content. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Turn the game errors or oversimplifications into “teachable moments” (Gikas & Van Eck, 2004) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Type III: Theories and Models <ul><li>Help students critique the entire game as theory or model of the content under study </li></ul><ul><li>Assist students in developing their understanding of the game and the content </li></ul><ul><li>Concept mapping activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student generated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert generated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Writing Essays or Research Papers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-design of the game to make it more realistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critique of the game as theoretical model </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. 9. Evaluate learning <ul><li>Use a wide variety of assessment methods </li></ul><ul><li>Type I activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>multiple choice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>true-false </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>matching test </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type II activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short answers questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type III activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long research paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document based questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projects or presentations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pursue interest in an aspect of the game and/ content </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. 10. Enjoy <ul><li>In the end all the effort and work will move most instructors further towards a constructivist view of learning, which can better facilitate the integration of technology (Hooper & Rieber, 1995). </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating a COTS game into a classroom is a wonderful endeavor that can produce an engaging and valuable learning experience for both students and instructors. </li></ul>
  19. 19. References <ul><li>Charsky, D. (2004). Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Integrating Concept Maps and Computer Games to Teach Historical Understanding. Unpublished Dissertation, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO. </li></ul><ul><li>DeKanter, N. (2005). Gaming redefines interactivity for learning. TechTrends. 49 (3) 26-31. </li></ul><ul><li>Dempsey, J. V., Lucassen, B. A., Haynes, L. L., & Casey, M. S. (1996). Instructional applications of computer games. Paper presented at the American Education Research Association, New York, NY. </li></ul><ul><li>Gikas, J., & Van Eck, R. (2004). Integrating Video Games in the Classroom: Where to Begin? Paper presented for the annual meeting of the National Learning Infrastructure Initiative, January 25-27, San Diego, CA. </li></ul>
  20. 20. References <ul><li>Hannafin, M. J., & Peck, K. L. (1988). The Design, Development and Evaluation of Instructional Software. New York: MacMillan Publishing Company. </li></ul><ul><li>Hooper, S., & Rieber, L.P. (1995). Teaching with technology. In A.C. Orstein (Ed.), Teaching: Theory into practice (pp. 154-170). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson, D., & Johnson, R. (1996). Cooperation and the use of technology. In D. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of research for educational communications and technology (pp. 1017-1044). New York: Simon and Schuster. </li></ul>
  21. 21. References <ul><li>Kirkley, S. and Kirkley, J. (2005) Creating next generation blended learning environments using mixed reality, video games and simulations. TechTrends, 49(3), pp. 42-53, 89. </li></ul><ul><li>Kirriemuir, J. (2006). Silversprite. Retrieved January 2, 2006, from http://silversprite.blogspot.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Kryukov, M. M., & Kryukova, L. I. (1986). Toward a simulation games classification and game dialogue types. Simulation & Games, 17(3), 393-402. </li></ul><ul><li>Lepper, M. R., & Malone, T. W. (1987). Intrinsic motivation and instructional effectiveness in computer-based education. In R. E. Snow, & Farr, M. J. (Ed.), Aptitude, learning and instruction: III. Cognitive and effective process analysis (pp. 255-286). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. </li></ul><ul><li>Laveault, P., & Corbeil, P. (1990). Assessing the impact of simulation games on learning: A step-by-step approach. Simulation/games for learning, 20(1), 42-54. </li></ul>
  22. 22. References <ul><li>Reiser, R. A., & Gerlach, V. S. (1977). Research on simulation games in education: A critical analysis. Educational Technology, December, 13-18. </li></ul><ul><li>Randel, J. M., Morris, B. A., Wetzel, C. D., & Whitehill, B. V. (1992). The effectiveness of games for educational purposes: A review of recent research. Simulation & Gaming, 23(3), 261-276. </li></ul><ul><li>Squire, K. (2004). Replaying history: learning world history through playing Civilization III. Retrieved January 2, 2006, from http://www.educationarcade.org/gtt/ </li></ul><ul><li>Thatcher, D. C. (1986). Promoting learning through games and simulations. Simulation/games for learning, 16(4), 144 -154. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Dennis Charsky </li></ul><ul><li>Ithaca College </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Clif Mims </li></ul><ul><li>clifmims.com </li></ul><ul><li>ID: clifmims </li></ul><ul><li>Join my PLN and let’s learn together. </li></ul><ul><li>clifmims.com/pln </li></ul>
  25. 25. clifmims.com/ccl

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