Dr. Marie Broyles
Oak Grove Technologies
Concept

Analysis

Preproduction

Design

Prototype

Development

Production

Implement

Evaluation

Alpha

Beta

Gold

Po...
Team develops
the game idea
and ends when
a decision is
made to begin
planning for the
project.

High Concept
Document
Con...
Game is
playable from
beginning to
end and has
some gaps &
missing assets.
Engine & user
interface
complete.

Bug Lists
Be...
Identify
knowledge/skills
/attitudes need
to be learned.
Target
audience

Knowledge/skills/a
ttitude Gap
Analysis
Target A...
Concept

Preproduction

Analysis

Prototype

Design

Production

Development

Alpha

Implement

Beta

Evaluation

Gold

Po...
Game
• Engagement
(gameplay/interactivity)
• Bounded by rules or sets of
rules
• Challenges
• Goals, objectives, conflict,...
Game
Design
Document

Game Design
• Graphic Base
• Player Interaction
• Animations
• Audio

Instructional
Design
• Text Ba...
Game Design
• Graphic Base
• Player Interaction
• Animations
• Audio

Instructional
Design
• Text Base
• Specifies Graphic...
Scenario

Mission

Task
Conditions
Your platoon is defending key terrain in the southern part of the
platoon area of responsibility. Enemy contact is expecte...
You are a member of a platoon that has been ordered to
establish a defensive perimeter for a logistics base in an urban
ar...
Task Conditions Standards
The task for this mission is to prepare positions for
individual and crew-served weapons during
...
Dr. Marie Broyles
Oak Grove Technologies
marie.broyles@oakgrovetech.com
810.637.8084
Game speak for instructional designers game tech2013-fin
Game speak for instructional designers game tech2013-fin
Game speak for instructional designers game tech2013-fin
Game speak for instructional designers game tech2013-fin
Game speak for instructional designers game tech2013-fin
Game speak for instructional designers game tech2013-fin
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Game speak for instructional designers game tech2013-fin

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Instructional designers are not typically trained in a game or simulation design and development. Designing and developing a simulation or game is not the same as designing and developing for an elearning course. Although there are some similar concepts, there is one glaring difference – simulations are 3 dimensional environments. It is this element that instructional designers do not have any experience. Creating a flash animation in an elearning course is not the same as creating a 3 dimensional world, where characters must interact, objects manipulated and how the player moves through and interacts with this environment. The result of not understanding 3D simulation design/development is cost overruns, staffing issues, and production delays that result in missing critical milestones.
Game Designers tend to freak out when instructional designers want to include terminal and enabling objectives. Both instructional and game designers use a process to develop media. Each process has merits and disadvantages. Instructional design/game design terminology is a significant obstacle to successful game/simulation development. In some instances, the Instructional designer and the game designer are talking about similar concepts. There needs to be a discussion that focuses on working together to produce a serious game/simulation. This product must deliver training content as well as incorporate game design principles to make the serious game/simulation engaging.

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  • Instructional designers use instructional design systems to guide them through the design and development process. Many times instructional designers refer to the ADDIE model that consists of the following: analysis, design, develop, implement and evaluate. Molenda (2003), states that the ADDIE model is a systematic approach to instructional development. Novak (2008) discusses the game development processes as: concept, preproduction, prototype, production, alpha, beta, candidate release, and gold. Understanding how these two processes are similar will go a long way in bringing instructional and game/simulation designers together.
  • Typical Phases are:Concept Phase –is where you come up with your game idea and ends when a decision is made to begin planning for the project. Here you create your High Concept Document and the Concept Document. (Documents – High Concept Design Document, Concept Design Document) PowerPoint – High Concept PitchPre-Production Phase – once you have interest in the game now it is time to plan: develop a game proposal and planning for pre-production; the art style guide is developed and the production plan. It ends with the creation of the Game Design Document and the Technical Design Document.Prototype Phase – here is your opportunity to create a prototype of the game; a working software that captures onscreen the essence of your game and what sets it apart from other games and what will make it a winner. It is usually a great idea to make a paper version before moving into the digital mode. It allows you to think through your ideas and how will work.Production Phase – this is usually the longest phase that often lasts from 6 months to over 2 years and the end result is a completed game.
  • Alpha Phase – here your game should be playable from beginning to end; you might have some gaps and missing stuff but the engine and user interface are complete. This phase is about polishing the game… then test, test and then some more.Beta Phase – now that you have tested the game; it is now time to work out all the bugs you found.Gold Phase – the game has been tested and found to be acceptable. Sr. Managers review the game and agree that the game is ready for manufacturing.Post-Production Phase – you may several releases or versions of the game. I am sure all of you have heard about patches.
  • ADDIE  (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) framework—that is rooted in sound adult learning theory—to (after analysis) design, develop, and deliver all educational and training products and services with Evaluation being conducted throughout each step of the process to ensure a higher quality product the first time with fewer revisions during its life-span. ADDIE provides a systematic structure that allows instructional designers to design and develop all instructional materials. Throughout this process, the end-learner is the instructional focus, so that effective learning occurs. This means that every instructional component is governed by the learning outcomes that have been determined thorough analyzing learner needs. These phases sometimes overlap and can be interrelated; however, they provide a dynamic, flexible guideline for developing effective and efficient instruction.ADDIE – Analysis: The Analysis phase serves as the foundation for all other instructional design phases. During this phase, educational and training team must define the problem, identify the source of the problem and determine possible solutions. The Analysis phase may include specific research techniques such as front-end analysis, job analysis, needs analysis, and task analysis that reveal instructional gaps. Analysis outputs include the instructional goals, and instructional tasks lists. These outputs become the Design phase inputs.ADDIE – Design:The Design phase involves using the outputs from the Analyze phase to plan a strategy for developing the instruction. During this phase, you must outline how to reach the instructional goals determined during the Analyze phase and expand the instructional foundation. Some of the elements of the Design Phase may include writing a target population description, conducting a learning analysis, writing terminal and enabling objectives and test items, selecting a delivery system (elearning, instructor-led, simulation, etc.) and instructional sequencing. The outputs of the Design phase will be the inputs for the Development phase.ADDIE – Development: The Development phase builds upon the Analyze and Design phase’s outputs. During this phase the educational training team develops all the instruction, all media that will be used in the instruction, and any supporting documentation. This may include hardware (e.g., simulation equipment) and software (e.g., computer-based instruction).ADDIE – Implementation: The Implementation phase refers to the instructional product delivery, whether it's classroom-based, lab-based, computer-based or simulation-based. This phase primary purpose is the effective and efficient instructional product delivery. This phase must promote the students' understanding of material, support the students 'mastery of objectives, and ensure the students' transfer of knowledge from the instructional setting to the job.ADDIE – Evaluation:Evaluation is not a separate phase in the Oak Grove approach but rather a process that is sewn into each of the other phases. In Evaluating throughout the production of training materials, we are able to make smaller, more deft corrections that result in a more tailored training product that was built with fewer “off target” components. In the Evaluation process, the primary focus is to measure instructional product effectiveness. These Evaluations typically are one or both of two possible types: Formative and/or Summative Evaluation. The Formative Evaluation improves the instructional product prior to releasing the final product. This is typically completed by conducting pilot-tests with the target audience.Summative Evaluation occurs after the instructional product has been implemented. The primary purpose is to evaluate the overall instructional effectiveness; after the training has been implemented. 
  • Game/Simulation and Instructional Design Process Comparisons Both processes have their strengths and weakness but that does not mean that they should be ignored. Instead, these should be examined to determine how to produce best possible serious game/simulation product. In addition, both processes do share common ground as well as key differences between the two.There are similar elements within both processes, and each process does include document and product deliverables. Instructional designers and game/simulation designers must have an understanding of the common elements shared by both processes as well what is unique to each process.
  • World building is the process of constructing an imaginary world, sometimes associated with an entire functional universe. The term world building was popularized by science fictions writers during the 1970’s.Developing an imaginary setting with a coherent elements such as history, geography, and ecology is a key task. World building
  • Game Design DocumentThe game design document is one of the most important documents used by the design and development team. This document serves as the road map for game development. The design document is the designer’s entire vision spelled out in detail, which includes all of the storyline, character dialog, world maps, city views, and room specifications with sample wallpaper, artwork, characters etc. This is the game reference guide that the entire team must understand and follows to create the designer’s vision. The game design document basically should outline in detail how to create the game. So, when you turn in your final design document, I should be able to take that document and give it to another class mate and they should be able to construct your game board and all your components. A Game Design Document should include the following elements:StoryOutlinePlot pointsEnvironmentsScriptNon-interactive sequencesStoryboardsNon-linear storytellingPlayer Character (PC)Type CustomizationAbilitiesProgressionRewardsVulnerabilitiesInventoryNon-Player Characters (NPCs)FeaturesGameplay MechanicsLevel DescriptionUser InterfaceInstructional Design DocumentThe design document specifies all the decisions made about the course up to this time, including:• Purpose of the course• Intended outcome of the course (performance improvement objectives and measures)• Audience description• Delivery method(s)• What to train• High level outline• Detailed lesson outlines• Objectives of each lesson• Assessments/exercises for each taskIt can also include the following:• Document description• Purpose of the course• Audience description• Major course objectives• Learning assessment• Instructional strategies• Media• Time• Course structure description• Course scope (units, lessons, topics – often in outline form)• Development tools• Detailed outline by unit/module, including:• Introduction• Objectives• Methods of instruction• Practice• Time• Topic list• Ownership and maintenance• Development time• Support requirements
  • Another common element is storyboards. Instructional designers have worked with elearning storyboards. Some instructional designers create word-based documents that only indicate which graphics to display. Too many words do not work for game/simulation designers since many think in visuals. Many game/simulation designers create storyboards to show how game/simulations actions or events will look like. Game/simulation storyboards are sketches indicate how the sequence of events is to take place. Designers create game/simulation storyboards to show how an event or action will take place within a specific level/place and using a storyboard allows team members to develop action sequences enhancing the player experience.
  • Character development is essential to the game/simulation. Game/simulations employ several character types: character playable or non-player characters (NPCs). An example of a player controlled character is an avatar character that the player/learner controls throughout the game/simulation. NPCs controlled by the game/simulation and interact with the player character. NPCs controlled by the game/simulation and interact with the player character (avatar). Character models cannot just be placed in a game/simulation. Major characters require visual, psychological development that derived from the storyline as well as adds to the player experience.Game/simulation designers prepare character descriptions, visual treatment (age, appearance, clothing/uniform/rank), backstory (personality, position background, etc. that leads to how the character will act in the game/simulation.
  • ModelingThese 3D objects constructed using polygons (a polygon is an area defined with lines often referred to high or low poly count). Each polygon contains a set of vertices that define its shape. It also needs information that tells the shape what it looks like (called “texture mapping”). A designer applies a texture/material (made up of many textures) to a box that now appears as a building, a character or any game object and completed for all buildings, characters and object placed in the game/simulation. With the character created and textured, the character still cannot do anything. The character model needs a digital exoskeleton with joints (referred to as rigging) think of it as a human skeleton. An animator programs the character to walk, run, crouch and roll or any number of positions or position sequences.
  • Game/simulation designers create level layouts (top-down drawings that show the location of all buildings, major assets, puzzle placements, and character placement, etc.). Level layouts include level descriptions, obstacles, objectives, scope, and sequence. Game/simulation designer create game flow charts to show the game and level flow throughout the game and especially helpful when creating complex game/simulations.
  • Game designers begin creating the game/simulation world by blocking in (using boxes and placing them in the game editor). The designer works on dimensions and scale (details, textures, and lighting – all missing) and with blocking completed, the designer plays tests gameplay.
  • Game speak for instructional designers game tech2013-fin

    1. 1. Dr. Marie Broyles Oak Grove Technologies
    2. 2. Concept Analysis Preproduction Design Prototype Development Production Implement Evaluation Alpha Beta Gold Post Production
    3. 3. Team develops the game idea and ends when a decision is made to begin planning for the project. High Concept Document Concept Document (Documents – High Concept Design Document, Concept Design Document) PowerPoint – High Concept Pitch Team works on the game proposal and pre-production planning. Game Proposal Preproduction Plan Art Style Guide Production Plan. Game Design Document started Technical Design Document started Team makes a paper-based game. This is used to test game idea. A game digital prototype is made tests look and feel.. Paper-based Prototype Digital Prototype Art Style Guide Game Design Document Technical Design Document Storyboard Game development goes into full production. Game Design Document Alpha Version
    4. 4. Game is playable from beginning to end and has some gaps & missing assets. Engine & user interface complete. Bug Lists Beta Version A Beta release is for consumer testing. Beta Release Testing is either open or closed. Closed (open to fanbase and Open (anyone can sign up), Bug List Gold Version The game has been tested and found to be good to go manufacturing. Sr. Managers review the game and agree. Game Released Reviews what was eliminated due to constraints. Review Patches Release Upgrades
    5. 5. Identify knowledge/skills /attitudes need to be learned. Target audience Knowledge/skills/a ttitude Gap Analysis Target Audience Identify terminal & enabling objectives, identify learning activities, delivery method, testing, etc. Production plan. Instructional Design Document Storyboards Team develops all the instructional materials . Instructional Materials Elearning Course CBT Simulation Serious Game Pilot Test Deploy the training and/or courseware. Train-the-Trainer Training Plan Formative/Summa tive evaluation)– learner feedback, performance outcomes & make recommendations for improvements. Training Evaluation Reports
    6. 6. Concept Preproduction Analysis Prototype Design Production Development Alpha Implement Beta Evaluation Gold Post Production
    7. 7. Game • Engagement (gameplay/interactivity) • Bounded by rules or sets of rules • Challenges • Goals, objectives, conflict, and competition • Storytelling and narrative • Outcomes and feedback Serious Games • Purpose other than entertainment • Uses game technology and game design • Presented as significant/realistic personal challenge • Seeks sensory or physical authenticity; requiring a suspension of disbelief • Fun, process oriented, skills based Simulations • Always explicit; real world ('authentic') significance, presented as realistic challenge • More intellectual than physical; even social realism, but rarely time critical; 'intellectual authenticity' • Outcome, product oriented; creating a product for future use
    8. 8. Game Design Document Game Design • Graphic Base • Player Interaction • Animations • Audio Instructional Design • Text Base • Specifies Graphic • Course Structure • Methods of Instruction Instructional Design Document
    9. 9. Game Design • Graphic Base • Player Interaction • Animations • Audio Instructional Design • Text Base • Specifies Graphic • Describes Animation • Audio
    10. 10. Scenario Mission Task Conditions
    11. 11. Your platoon is defending key terrain in the southern part of the platoon area of responsibility. Enemy contact is expected at 1500 hours. At 1200 hours your platoon sergeant gave the order to position your team’s assets to cover the enemy’s likely avenue of approach. Did your team prepare individual and crew-served weapons positions to allow for accurate fire to be placed on the enemy with the least possible exposure and maximum protection from return fire? It is now 1500 hours; your success in this situation depends on your ability to place accurate fire upon the enemy with the least possible exposure to return fire.
    12. 12. You are a member of a platoon that has been ordered to establish a defensive perimeter for a logistics base in an urban area in the southern part of the platoon area of responsibility. You will provide security for this logistics base for five days. Enemy contact is probable.
    13. 13. Task Conditions Standards The task for this mission is to prepare positions for individual and crew-served weapons during MOUT. The conditions and standards for this task are listed here. Standards Conditions Task • Prepare positions for individual and crew-served weapons during MOUT. • As a firer or crew member of a crew-served weapon, given a firing position within a building, sector of fire, and material to reinforce the position. • Prepare positions for individual and crew-served weapons during MOUT. Prepared the position to allow accurate fire to be placed on the enemy with the given sector of fire, with the least possible exposure and maximum protection from return fire.
    14. 14. Dr. Marie Broyles Oak Grove Technologies marie.broyles@oakgrovetech.com 810.637.8084

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