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Animal Law: Reducing Euthanasia in City Shelters

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Animal shelter policies can be better. Particularly as regards replacing Euthanasia with No-Kill policies.

Published in: Law
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Animal Law: Reducing Euthanasia in City Shelters

  1. 1. ANIMAL LAW: REDUCING EUTHANASIA IN CITY SHELTERS By Suzana Gartner
  2. 2. DEFINITIONAL CONFUSION NO KILL  A term for a method of animal sheltering that does not sanction any method of killing of adoptable companion animals  And only to relieve irremediable suffering or destroy behaviorally vicious animals
  3. 3. DEFINITIONAL CONFUSION Euthanasia  Dictionary: Taking the life of one for whom no reasonable alternative exists in as painless and compassionate a fashion as possible for the good of the one whose life it is  In sheltering, ending a companion animal’s life for various other reasons.
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION: 1) Overview 2) Best Practice Models 3) Legislation and Policy 4) ACAP Model 5) Consensus
  5. 5. BEST PRACTICES SHELTERING MODELS: 1. Responsible Pet Ownership Model 2. No Kill Equation Model
  6. 6. CALGARY ANIMAL SERVICES 2011 RESULTS  Funded entirely by animal related revenues  Primarily from licensing  Receives no tax revenue.  High license compliance  90% dogs licensed  45% cats licensed  Low euthanasia rates  Highest return-to owner-rate in North America.
  7. 7. PRINCIPLES OFPRINCIPLES OF RESPONSIBLE PET OWNERSHIP: 1. License and provide permanent identification for pets; 2. Spay or neuter pets; 3. Provide training, physical care, socialization and medical attention for companion pets; 4. Do not allow pets to become a threat or nuisance in the community; and 5. Ethical procurement of companion animals.
  8. 8. PRINCIPLES OF NO KILL EQUATION MODEL  Feral Cat TNR Program  High-Volume, Low- Cost Spay/Neuter  Rescue Groups  Foster Care  Comprehensive Adoption Programs Pet Retention  .Public Relations/Community Involvement  Volunteers  Proactive Redemptions  A Compassionate Director
  9. 9. DISTINCTIONS IN ADMISSIONS POLICIES: Open Admission Shelters No Kill Equation Model  (Toronto Animal Services) vs. Limited Admission Shelters Responsible Pet Ownership Model  (Toronto Humane Society)
  10. 10. LIMITATIONS OF BOTH MODELS No Kill Equation Model relies on private philanthropy instead of licensing fees and relies on a shelter that operates as open admission.  Too specific legislation and not enough flexibility for adaptive policy changes.  Responsible Pet Ownership Model relies too heavily on shelter policy and lacks strong bylaw protection.  Relies on shelter that operates as limited admission.
  11. 11. CHAPTERCHAPTERCHAPTER 349349349 -ANIMALS OF CITY OFOF CITY OF TORONTOTORONTO MUNICIPAL CODE 1) REGULATES THE OWNERSHIP OF ANIMALS, INCLUDING LICENSING, NUMBER OF PERMISSIBLE ANIMALS, RESTRICTED ANIMALS AND THE REQUISITE STANDARD OF CARE. 2) THE BYLAW ALSO GOVERNS THE AUTHORITY IN REGARDS TO IMPOUNDED AND SEIZED ANIMALS. 3) CURRENTLY, THIS BYLAW IS UNDER REVIEW.
  12. 12. JURISDICTION TO PASS BYLAWS: The Municipal Act, S.O. 2001, CHAPTER 25 Sections: 10 (2) (9) and 103 (1). City of Toronto Act, S.O. 2006, CHAPTER 11 Sections: 8 (2) (9) and 106 and 107.
  13. 13. THE MUNICIPAL ACTTHE MUNICIPAL ACT, 2001 S.OS.O. 2001, CHAPTER 25  10 (2) A single-tier municipality may pass by-laws respecting the following matters:  9. Animals. Impounding animals  103. (1) If a municipality passes a by-law regulating or prohibiting with respect to the being at large or trespassing of animals, it may provide for,  (a) the seizure and impounding of animals being at large or trespassing contrary to the by-law; and  (b) the sale of impounded animals…..
  14. 14. THE CITY OF TORONTO ACT , 2006 S.O. 2006, CHAPTER 11 8. CITY BYBY-YYY LAWS (2)(2) THE CITY MAY PASS BYTHE CITY MAY PASS BY-THE CITY MAY PASS BY LAWS RESPECTING THE FOLLOWING MATTERS: 9.9. ANIMALS. IMPOUNDING ANIMALS 106.6. IF THE CITY PASSES A BYIF THE CITY PASSES A BY-IF THE CITY PASSES A BY LAW REGULATING OR PROHIBITING WITH RESPECT TO THE BEING AT LARGE OR TRESPASSING OF ANIMALS…. MUZZLING OF DOGS 107.7. (1)(1)(1) IF THE CITY REQUIRES THE MUZZLING OF A DOG UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES, CITY COUNCIL SHALL, UPON THE REQUEST OF THE OWNER OF THE DOG, HOLD A HEARING….
  15. 15. MODEL MUNICIPAL BYLAWSMODEL MUNICIPAL BYLAWS: 1) Companion Animal Protection Act; 2) Responsible Pet Ownership Bylaw; 3) Canadian Federation of Humane Society “Model “Bylaw.
  16. 16. RECOMMENDED MUNICIPAL BYLAW: ACAP 1) PREAMBLE; 2) ANIMAL CARE STANDARDS; 3) EUTHANASIA GUIDELINES; 4) COMMUNITY RULES; 5) FERAL CAT TNR; 6) PROCEDURAL RULES: 7) PET RETENTION; 8) FUNDING
  17. 17. PRINCIPLES OF THE ACAP MODELPRINCIPLES OF THE ACAP MODEL: 1)1) PREVENTIONNN; 2)2) PROACTIVE PROGRAMSSSS; 3)3) FERAL CATTTT TNR; 4)4) IRRESPONSIBLE PET OWNERSSSS; 5)5) LICENSINGGG ANDAND STERILIZATIONNN ; 6)6) BYLAWWWW ANDAND POLICY; 7)7) OWNER SURRENDERSSSS; 8)8) CONSENSUSSSS.
  18. 18. PERFORMANCE MEASURES:  Impound rates  Return to owner rates  Euthanasia rates  Aggressive animal incidents  Animals licensed  By-law infractions  Financial performance  Evaluation of Policies  Continuous Improvement
  19. 19. CONSENSUS BUILDINGCONSENSUS BUILDING: KEY STAKEHOLDERSKEY STAKEHOLDERS: 1)1) REGULATORYREGULATORY ––– THE CITY OF TORONTO, ANIMAL1)1) REGULATORYREGULATORYREGULATORY THE CITY OF TORONTO, ANIMALTHE CITY OF TORONTO, ANIMAL SERVICES, THE PROVINCE OF ONTARIO; 2)2) HUMANEHUMANE ––– TORONTO HUMANE SOCIETY (OSPCA),2)2) HUMANEHUMANEHUMANE TORONTO HUMANE SOCIETY (OSPCA),TORONTO HUMANE SOCIETY (OSPCA), ANIMAL RESCUES, 3)3) MEDICAL/SERVICE PROVIDERSMEDICAL/SERVICE PROVIDERS ––TORONTO VETS,3) O MEDICAL/SERVICE PROVIDERSMEDICAL/SERVICE PROVIDERSMEDICAL/SERVICE PROVIDERS –TORONTO VETS,TORONTO VETS,TORONTO VETS,3)3) MEDICAL/SERVICE PROVIDERS OOOVMA, BREEDERS, TRAINERS, PET STORES; AND 44)4) ANIMAL ADVOCATESANIMAL ADVOCATES-ANIMAL ADVOCATES-POLITICIANS, ANIMAL44) ANIMAL ADVOCATESANIMAL ADVOCATESANIMAL ADVOCATES WELFARE GROUPS.
  20. 20. ROOT OF THE PROBLEM: 1)1) IRRESPONSIBLE PET OWNERSHIP; 2) COMPANION ANIMAL OVERPOPULATIONNN.
  21. 21. RESPONSIBLE PET OWNERSHIP COMPANION ANIMAL POPULATION
  22. 22. Suzana Gartner is a Canadian Lawyer who focusses on Animal Law and Dispute Resolution. For further information: SuzanaGartner.com Gartner Kostanza Gartner’s Animal Law practice The Dispute Resolution Specialists Gartner’s Alternative Dispute Resolution practice

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