Pets and Exotics


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  • Damaging someone else’s property is a crime.Owners = Guardians – pets are wards or dependents
  • Socially UncomfortableEgo issuesEducationalSpiritual
  • The absence of pain and distress cannot be guaranteed.
  • No kill popular with public, critics think no kill label is misused
  • Maddie’s position:"No-kill means saving both adoptable (healthy) and treatable dogs and cats, with euthanasia reserved only for non-rehabilitatable animals. When we reach the point where the nation's healthy, adoptable animals can be guaranteed a home, Maddie's Fund will then focus its resources on funding programs to rehabilitate the sick, injured and poorly behaved, knowing that when these animals are whole again, there will be a loving home waiting for them."
  • Most of the animals who find their way to Best Friends have special physical or behavioral needs, and our expert staff of veterinarians, trainers and caregivers offer them all the help they require.  Most of them are ready to go to good new homes after just a few weeks of special care.  A few, who are too old or too sick, or who have suffered extra trauma, find a home and haven at the sanctuary, and are given loving care for the rest of their lives.
  • As of 2011, three states, Minnesota, Oklahoma and Utah REQUIRE publicly funded shelters to provide cats and dogs for research purposes. Most states ALLOW pound seizure but do not REQUIRE it. Or, the states do not address the issue. A few states require owners giving up animals to indicate whether or not they give permission for release to research institutions.
  • The AWA also includes record keeping requirements for dealers who sell shelter animals to research institutions.
  • Red – Require USDA License and Inspection
  • Each state in the U.S. has different laws regarding the ownership of exotic animals.
  • Pets and Exotics

    1. 1. Ch.9
    2. 2. & Care of Animals by Pet Dealers AGM 26-A
    3. 3.  Any person who sells more than 9 animals per year to the public ◦ Does not include humane societies ◦ Does not include breeders who sell less than 25 animals per year born and raised on the premises
    4. 4.  753A – Within 5 days of receipt of a dog, a pet dealer must have a veterinarian examine the dog for any health problems. ◦ A pet dealer cannot sell a dog or cat 18 months or older with a congenital problem unless the consumer is notified in writing.
    5. 5.  Section 754 ◦ Every pet dealer who sells an animal to a consumer must provide the consumer with written notice of his/her rights under this law at the time of sale.  Can be included in a written contract  Animal history certificate (must include rabies immunizations)
    6. 6. Your Checklist if Buying From a Dealer: GBL 35-D 753-b (page 5)
    7. 7. GBL 35-D 753-c Animal Pedigree Registration Page 6
    8. 8.  Section 753 – After the purchase of a cat or dog from a pet dealer, a consumer has 14 business days to obtain a certified statement from a veterinarian that the animal is unfit for purchase due to illness.
    9. 9.  Return animal and get refund for purchase price and cost of vet certification Return animal in exchange for another and cost of vet certification Keep animal and get reimbursed by dealer for vet costs for curing the animal, not to exceed purchase price ◦ Refund/reimbursement must be made by dealer within 10 business days of receipt of certification
    10. 10. Care of Animals by Pet Dealers New York
    11. 11.  Section 401 – Pet Dealers must provide the following standards of care for every animal in their custody: ◦ Enforced through Agriculture and Markets Inspections  1. Housing  2. Sanitation  3. Food and water  4. Handling  5. Vet Care
    12. 12.  Section 403 – A pet dealer in NYS must have a license issued by the NYS Dept. of Agriculture and Markets. ◦ Can be delegated by AGM to county or city where pet dealer is located  $100 fee ($25 if dealer sells less than 25 animals per year)  Helpful NYSHA Fact Sheet
    13. 13. Pet keeping began in the 1800s Keeping an animal for pleasure was the privilege of the upper class until a thriving middle class emerged.
    14. 14.  Pet Ownership ◦ American Pet Products Association (click for more statistics)  382.2 million animals kept as pets – 2008  377.4 - 2010 (economy?)
    15. 15.  63% households – 2006 (up from 56% in 1988) Why do we have pets? ◦ Companionship ◦ Unconditional Love ◦ Adorable, funny, etc. Who is most likely to have a pet? -Between ages 18-49 -White -Incomes $75,000+
    16. 16. Why do we have pets? And the number one reason is: Companionship
    17. 17. Property? Dependents?
    18. 18. Pet Evacuation Transportation Act of 2006 Requires federal, state and local emergency preparedness officials to include pets in plans for emergency evacuation during disasters
    19. 19. HSUS Pet Overpopulation EstimatesHSUS estimates that 6-8 million animals are received by shelters each year
    20. 20.  1973 – cats and dogs euthanized – 13.5 million 2000 – 4-6 million ◦ Source: HSUS State of the Animals 2001 Over the same period the total number of cats and dogs nearly doubled.
    21. 21.  From ANIMAL PEOPLE, July/August 2008: U.S. progress vs. shelter killing Year Millions of Killed per dogs & cats 1,000 killed Americans 1950 - a time when animal control in much of the U.S. was still done by private contractors, who often simply killed strays or sold them to labs instead of taking them to shelters, and unwanted puppies and kittens were frequently drowned 1950 2.0 13.5 1970 23.4 115.0 1985 17.8 74.8 1997 4.9 21.1 1998 4.9 19.4 1999 4.5 16.6 2000 4.5 16.8 2001 4.4 15.7 2002 4.2 15.3 2003 4.5 14.8 2004 4.9 17.4 2005 4.4 14.8 2006 4.0 13.6 2007 4.2 13.8
    22. 22.  From ANIMAL PEOPLE, July/August 2008: Region Cats Dogs Ratio NORTHEAST 36,282 18,690 66/34 MID-ATLANTIC 137,050 80,490 63/37 SO. ATLANTIC 497,777 459,485 52/48 APPALACHIA 220,557 187,882 54/46 GULF COAST 444,203 378,395 54/46 WEST 156,911 184,200 46/54 MIDWEST 491,442 418,636 54/46 PACIFIC 308,271 145,069 68/32 U.S. TOTAL 2,292,493 1,872,847 55/45
    23. 23.  Northeast – Lowest ◦ Weather  Cold winters lower fertility rates and claim more lives ◦ Low cost spay neuter program availability ◦ Animal Control policies  Higher licensing fees for unaltered animals
    24. 24.  § 110. License fees. 1. The license fee for dog licenses issued pursuant to subdivision one of section one hundred nine of this article shall be determined by the municipality issuing the license, provided that the total fee for an unspayed or unneutered dog shall be at least five dollars more than the total fee for a spayed or neutered dog.
    25. 25. “Euthanasia techniques should result in rapid loss ofconsciousness followed by cardiac or respiratory arrest and the ultimate loss of brain function” - AVMA
    26. 26.  Intravenous injection (preferred) ◦ Sodium pentobarbital or potassium chloride Gassing ◦ Ether, carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide Electrocution and penetrating captive bolts ◦ Dogs only
    27. 27.  Rapid  But, requires animal be individually restrained Minimal physical distress  Requires training of Usually reasonably personnel low-cost  Since these are controlled substances, requires U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration registration and order form
    28. 28. ◦ Many U.S. shelters still use gas chambers.  Stop Gassing  During the process, which can take 30 minutes, panicked animals may gasp for breath, try to claw out of the chamber, and even attack each other.
    29. 29.  Banned the use of CO gas chambers to kill shelter animals and required shelters to dismantle and remove them Mandates the use of injection of sodium pentobarbital or a sodium pentabarbital solution to euthanize animals in public shelters ◦ It does NOT apply to research laboratories or dog breeders who may be using a gas chamber to euthanize unwanted, old or sick animals. Violations of this law could mean up to a year in jail and a $1000 fine.
    30. 30. Animal Shelter Workers and StressMany people get into this work because they love animals. It can be verydifficult to try to grasp that millions of unwanted pets never find homes.
    31. 31.  Sterilization campaigns Education of pet owners Adoption programs ◦ For every single animal euthanized in a shelter, there is a person OUTSIDE of that shelter responsible for it. The responsibility to keep shelters from euthanizing animals lies with each of us as pet owners. If we adopt through rescue, choose a good match, spay and neuter, and keep our animals for their lifetimes, the shelters will be near empty, not overfull, and euthanasia can become a tragedy of the past.
    32. 32. Medical, behavioral and social benefits
    33. 33. Stop Pet OverpopulationSpay USA – Benefits of Spaying and Neutering
    34. 34.  Article 7 of Agriculture and Markets Law ◦ 1. The license fee for each dog license issued pursuant to subdivision one of section one hundred nine of this article shall be: (a) two dollars and fifty cents for each spayed or neutered dog and seven dollars and fifty cents for each unspayed or unneutered dog licensed for one year.
    35. 35. Enacted in 1995, the APCP was initially created toreduce the population of unwanted animals in New York State by encouraging adoptions from animal shelters. This was accomplished by providinglow‐cost spay and neuter procedures for dogs and cats adopted from shelters, pounds, SPCAs, humane societies and animal protective associations.
    36. 36.  The New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets (NYSDAM) issued vouchers to these entities, that in turn provided them to pet adopters for spay/neuter services from participatingveterinarians for $30. In 2006, this law was amended to offer such services to eligiblelow‐income residents for $20, regardless of where they obtained their pet.
    37. 37.  Due to the unprecedented demand created by the 2006 law, the balance in the dedicated APCP Fund – fortified primarily by a $3 surcharge on licenses issued for unaltered dogs – depleted quickly. By August 2009, NYSDAM stopped issuing vouchers for the APCP, setting a limited redemption period for vouchers already issued and suspended the program. While Governor Paterson’s initial budget plan proposed the elimination of the APCP, it was restored in the final 2010‐2011 State Budget.
    38. 38.  New York State Animal Population Control Program ◦ Low-cost spay/neuter grant program administered by the ASPCA on behalf of the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets.
    39. 39.  (1) Non-profit or government animal welfare organization applies for grant from ASPCA (2) Must demonstrate a plan to provide low- cost spay/neuter services (3) Project must target New York State residents who qualify for public assistance or who have adopted their animal(s) from a non- profit or governmental animal welfare organizations located in New York State
    40. 40.  (1) Irresponsible Breeding ◦ Despite increased public awareness over the past 40 years about the need to spay and neuter pets, 35 percent of pet owners in the U.S. still choose not to do so.  Many among this group intentionally choose to breed their pets, either for profit or for what they mistakenly believe to be a “fun” experience.  Others choose not to spay or neuter out of ignorance, believing that their pets won’t breed accidentally.  Source: information/pet-overpopulation.html
    41. 41.  (2) Choosing Not to Adopt ◦ It is a common myth that pet overpopulation means there are “not enough” homes for all the shelter animals. In reality, there are more than enough homes, but not enough people are choosing to adopt from a shelter.  Seventeen million Americans acquire a new pet each year -- that is more than double the number of shelter animals!  Only 3.5 million people, or about 20 percent, choose to adopt their new pet..Source:
    42. 42.  (3) Disposable Pets ◦ Hundreds of thousands of pets are relinquished to shelters each year simply because they have become an inconvenience or because the owner did not consider the time and financial commitment required to properly train and care for them.
    43. 43.  (1) Always spay and neuter your pets. (2) Always adopt your pets from a legitimate shelter or nonprofit rescue group. (3) Consider all the responsibilities and consequences of pet ownership before deciding to get a pet and always make a lifetime commitment to your pet. (4) Educate your children, friends, family members and co-workers about pet overpopulation, adoption and the importance of spaying and neutering.
    44. 44. Model Spay Neuter Laws From SPAY USA – nationwide referral service
    45. 45. 1990s
    46. 46. In reality, most no kill shelters euthanizeanimals that are unadoptable due to illness, or temperament.
    47. 47. Maddie’s FundGoal: reach the goal of a no-kill nation by 2015 Father of No Kill Movement: Richard Avanzino
    48. 48. Maddie’s Fund = GrantsProvides grants to community coalitions, veterinary medical associations, and colleges of veterinary medicine for programs that advance no-kill. Funded by billionaire Dave Duffield and his wife Cheryl for the dog Maddie who died of cancer in 1997.
    49. 49. Mayor’s Alliance for NYC’s Animals, Inc. In 2003 NYC officials announced plans to convert all of the city’s shelters to no- kill. In 2005 Maddie’s Fund pledged $15 million toward that goal.
    50. 50. Mayor’s Alliance for NYC’s Animals Funded mostly by Maddies Fund, The Pet Rescue Foundation, with somesupport from the ASPCA, the Mayor’s Alliance is a coalition of more than 150 animal rescue groups and shelters work with Animal Care & Control of NYC (AC&C) to end the killing of healthy and treatable cats and dogs at AC&C shelters.
    51. 51. Nathan WinogradYou can hear Nathan every week on the nationally syndicated radio show Animal Wise Radio (, learn more through his work with the No Kill Advocacy Center (, or read his popular blog on this website.
    52. 52.  The very first national Ad Council campaign focused on pets urges people who are looking for a companion animal to make shelters and rescue groups their first choice for adoption. ◦ Click here for slide show
    53. 53. Problems
    54. 54. Shelters can become overwhelmed and animal welfare can suffer.
    55. 55. Well-meaning rescues…
    56. 56. …can get overwhelmedNo inspections or license requirement for 501c3
    57. 57. Mohawk Hudson Humane Society
    58. 58. Best Friends Animal Sanctuary- UtahThe sanctuary defines no-kill to mean that animals are only destroyed if there is terminal and painful illness “when compassion demands euthanasia because there is no reasonable alternative”.
    59. 59. Best Friends also has adoptable animals.
    60. 60. PETA and Euthanasia PETA takes the position that euthanasia is a necessary evil in a world full of unwantedpets and the key is to address the root of the overpopulation problem. The group has some well-known allies, including the Humane Society of the United States.
    61. 61. National Council on Pet Population Top Ten Reasons People Relinquish PetsIn general, researchers found that owners had unrealistic expectations for their pets and lacked the knowledge or will to work out problems.
    62. 62.  The use of animals from pounds and shelters in laboratories has been a controversial issue in the animal advocacy and research communities since the late 1800s. ◦ After World War II, as the use of animals in research began to boom. Scientists turned first to pounds and shelters, which were places full of surplus animals who could be acquired cheaply.
    63. 63.  Beginning in the 1940s, laws were passed that required pounds and shelters to release dogs and cats to research laboratories. The majority of laws regarding animals in laboratories passed between 1945 and 1960 were generated by the National Society for Medical Research, which eventually evolved into the National Association for Biomedical Research (NABR).
    64. 64.  Minnesota, Wisconsin, and New York were among the first states that enacted laws requiring the release of animals in shelters or pounds to dealers. Though these laws were enacted in the 1940s and 1950s, some of them still exist today. Others have been repealed or amended, as a result of demands of the animal protection community. ◦ Click here to find out whether or not a state prohibits, mandates, allows, or has not dealt with the issue of pound seizure.
    65. 65. 1990 – Animal Welfare Act was amended to set a minimum holding period of 5 days for shelter animals before release to research institutions
    66. 66.  Passionate about protecting certain qualities in the breed Demand for purebred puppies has created a multibillion dollar industry ◦ Breeding & Selling ◦ Showing
    67. 67. Track ancestry records based on info. provided by breeders . Does NOT track genetic disorders or verify health of dog. American Kennel Club 1884 - AKC United Kennel Club 1898 - UKC
    68. 68. Closely related dogs bred together raiseschance that puppies will get problem genes. Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) maintains a database of genetic disorders in purebreds so conscientious breeders can make informed decisions. Canine Eye Registration Foundation – database on purebred eye health
    69. 69. Competitions that exemplify breed standards Looks, agility, obedience, hunting ability,
    70. 70. Some registries allow crossbreeds and/or mixed breeds. Continental Kennel Club
    71. 71. Purebred parents of two different breeds
    72. 72. LabradoodleLabrador retriever and poodle
    73. 73. SchoodleSchnauzer and poodle
    74. 74. YorkiepooYorkshire Terrier and poodle
    75. 75. CockapooCocker spaniel and poodle
    76. 76. BugBeagle and pug
    77. 77. GoldendoodleGoldie and poodle (why not a “Goldiepoo”?)
    78. 78. ◦ Breeders   Class A – sell animals they have bred and raised (exempt if 3 or less breeding females or if selling directly to consumer)◦ Dealers (Middlemen)   Class B – purchase and resell◦ Pet Stores ◦ Public
    79. 79. Commercial Broker Breeder Wholesaler Regulated Research Facility by USDA Other Pet DealerLicenses and Inspections Dealers (Brokers) (Exempt from USDA (federal) licensing and Pet Store inspections if selling (Retail Dealer) to the public) (Excluded from AWA (federal) minimum It is the USDA’s position humane that these dealers are handling requirements) retail pet stores (unless selling to research, a dealer, or an exhibitor). Can also be Puppy Mills Puppy Mills Public
    80. 80. Let’s review what a puppy mill is. Puppy mills are facilities that breed puppies in inferior conditions and sell them incommercial markets. Characterized by inadequate vet care, poor food, poor shelter, and lack of socialization. Female dogs are repeatedly bred until destroyed. Transported over long distances in cramped inhumane conditions. Illness rampant.
    81. 81. Missouri leads the pack as the worst. “These problems have eroded the integrity of the inspection program which is designed to help ensure canines are safely and humanely treated.” Prop B
    82. 82. Exposes the Suffering Behind New York Pet Stores
    83. 83. 1,000 Freed from W. Va. Puppy Mill Lyles, TN 2008
    84. 84. Toronto Takes Charge.
    85. 85. “…have reverted to a semi-wild state (?) because of lack of human contact and socialization” p. 144
    86. 86. Feral cats are still domestic animals. Alley Cat Allies video: What is a feral cat?
    87. 87. Pet AbuseNo national or government database
    88. 88.  Neglect or abandonment – 32.2 % Shooting – 11.7 % Hoarding – 11.3 % Fighting – 8.9 % Beating – 6.9 % Dogs and cats most common victims
    89. 89. HoardingIllinois and Hawaii Laws
    90. 90. Wild animals that are not normally considered pets
    91. 91. Lions, tigers, wolves, bears, primates, rodents & reptiles Many people feel they have the right to keep any animal as long as they provide proper care for it. Critics believe that exotic animals belong in their natural habitats and not in cages where they can suffer abuse, neglect and boredom. And, their temperaments can be unpredictable.
    92. 92. National Alternative Pet Association Provides a list of breeders, dealers and shops
    93. 93. Summary of State Laws re: Private Possession of Exotic Animals New York
    94. 94. Tigers – Endangered Species – PrivateOwnership Prohibited under Endangered Species Act But some states allow ownership of captive-born endangered animals.Approx. 7,500 10,000 pet tigers in the U.S. (EXCEEDS # OF WILD TIGERS LIVING IN ASIA)
    95. 95. Nonhuman PrimatesConnecticut 2009: Woman Mauled by Chimpanzee Travis the Chimp
    96. 96. Would prohibit interstate commerce inmonkeys, apes and other primates in the exotic "pet" trade