Bona SforzaBona Sforza dAragona was born on February 2, 1494 in Vigevano. She was the daughter of Isabellaof Aragon and Sforza Galeazza Gani – the Duke of Milan. Although her father in line to be the leaderof Milan, he was defeated by Ludovika il Malo. From that moment a string of disasters and family tragedies began During this time, the Italian kingdoms were trying to survive waves of invasion. During one of them the French-Spanish troops conquered Naples, where Duchess Isabella and her two daughters found refuge after escaping from Milan. Soon the mother turned to the Catholic King of Spain, this allowed them to return from exile. In 1501 Isabella got power over the duchies of Bar and Rossan. Isabella of Aragon was a resourceful woman, she quickly made considerable profits. This allowed the mother to provide her daughter a good education. In her youth, Bona gained a good education. Her teacher Crisostomo Colonna was a member of the Academy of Pont. Isabella of Aragon was the heir of a big family, so she looked carefully for a worthy candidate for her daughter. In the end the choice fell on the Polish King and Grand Duke of Lithuania Sigismund At the age of 24, during the spring of 1518, Bona married him. This was the third important woman in his life. The first, was an illegal connection with Catherine Ochstat-Telniczanką, after that he married Barbara Zapolya. when she died in 1512, leaving two daughters, Jadwiga and Anna, the 51- year-old ruler found himself a second wife, which was togive him an heir.Since the beginning of her stay in Poland, Queen Bona tried toget a strong political position. So she began to create her ownparty and also benefited from the influence they had on theking. She believed that one of the most important thingsneeded for the effective implementation of policies and plansfor strengthening royal authority, is access to lots of money.Therefore she set herself a goal: maximizing her assets, whichwould give Jagiellos financial independence. In 1524 Bonaalready had principalities, a very large belt of forest and theduchy of Bari and Rossano, which she began to managethrough her proxies. Bona was a faithful wife and exemplarymother. In 1519, her first daughter, Isabella, was born. In 1520Sigismund Augustus the eagerly awaited successor was born .All of Europe cheered, the pope sent his congratulations fromNaples Preszburgu. Two years later, Sophia was born and ayear later, Anna. In 1526 Bona gave birth to another daughter -Catherine. In 1527, while in the fifth month of pregnancy, thequeen gave birth prematurely while hunting, to Albert, whodied the same day. She fell ill never got pregnant again QueenBona put effort into accelerating the development of cities.She brought famous Italian and Polish builders to buildfortified headquarters, fortified cities, churches, monasteries,bridges and canals. Bona Sforza, showed a completelydifferent way of life to the one led by most Polish people then/An undoubtable merit of the queen was bringing many
elements of Italian culture to the Polish one,.Bona brought Italian architects who contributed to thedevelopment of Renaissance style in architecture. She brought furniture, paintings, tapestries and otherworks of art to the Wawel Castle. Her economic and political activity were completely new on thePolish scene.During the monarchs reign there was a significant development of musical culture. This happenedthanks to the patronage of the bills and her court. She brought a well;known Italian musicianAlexander Pasenti. Finally has brought new things to the courts kitchen, where in addition topreviously preferred fatty meat dishes vegetables began to play a prominent role, previously unknownto the Polish tables, such as cauliflower, spinach, tomatoes, green beans, artichokes, broccoli, celery,parsley, leeks and cabbage. She also imported Italian pasta. The queen brought to the many Italiangardeners who founded the great gardens in Krakow and its private estates in the Crown andLithuania.Bona died on the 19th of November, 1557.Nikifor KrynickiNikifor Krynicki, real name Epifaniusz Drowniak, was born on May 21, 1895 in Krynica,Poland, into an extreme poor family. His mother, Evdokia Drowniak, of Lemko descent raised him on her own, hiring herself out for various household jobs. He inherited from her a hearing and speech impediment. That resulted in difficulties with talking and illiteracy. It is not known who his father was, the legend has it that his father was Polish. Nikifor spent most of his life alone, isolated both emotionally and physically. Orphaned during World War I and unable to communicate with people, often relied on the kindness of others. Little is known when he started to draw and paint. Art was his refuge provading him with emotional release. He used discarded pieces of paper, scraps, chocolate wrappers, cigarette boxes, used school copybooks. There are numerous self-portraits left, landscapes, sketches of church interiors, images of saints and healso liked to .portray acquaintances and passers-by. He tried to sell them on the boardwalk buthe could not find buyers for his works. Additionally, he did not know the value of money oreven office forms.Nikifor was a local patriot –deportet twice to a remote cornerof Poland the Akcja Wisla (the1947 deportation of southeasternPolands Ukrainian, Boyko andLemko populations, carried outby the Polish Army), each timehe returned to his home town,Krynica.
Underestimated for most of his life, in his late days he became one of the worlds finest naïve(primitive) painters.His talent was discovered 1930 by the Ukrainian painter Roman Turyn, the first collector ofNikifors watercolours. Nikifor found a daily companion and dedicated caretaker in painterMarian Włosiński.He died October 10, 1968, in a health resort in Folusz near Jasło. He was buried in Krynica.The powerful impact of his art can be seen in works of many artists, such as Edward Dwurnikand often compared by critics to Henri Rousseau, a painter in the Naïve or Primitive manner.Nikifor painted at least ten thousand pictures. His ‘little pictures’ are known in manycountries and have been on display in many international exhibitions.Janusz KorczakJanusz Korczak was born on 22nd July 1878 or 1879 (the year is uncertain became of a missing birth certificate) in Warsaw. His birthname was Hersz Goldszmit, but they all called him Henryk. He was a writer and an outstanding teacher of Jewish origin. Korczak introduced progressive orphanages designed as just communities into Poland. He also changed the attitude of adults towards children claiming that a child has a right to be respected; any child has his own way, his own path. Henryk was tutored at home by governesses until he was seven and then sent to a Russian elementary school where Polish language and history were forbidden subjects. The time at the Augustyn Szmurło school was a severe experience for a sensitive child. He was so distressed by corporal punishment, applied by the school teachers, that his parents had him signed off the student list.Later, he attended the Praskie Middle School, where the official language was Russian. From1898 to 1905, he was studying medicine. In 1905, he became a doctor. In 1900, Korczakattended courses at the Flying University. It was a kind of a college, so named becausestudents and professors had to keep moving from one location to another to escapesurveillance by the police. The University attracted the finestminds in the country determined to keep alive Polish history andculture, which the Czar was determined to stamp out.From 1903 to 1912 he worked as a physician. Korczak treatedpoor families free of charge, often leaving money to pay for aprescription at the same time charging the rich high fees fortreatments.In 1912 Korczak became director of The Home for Orphans. Itwas an orphanage of his own design for Jewish children inWarsaw. It existed from 1912 to 1942.Janusz Korczak died on 6th or 7th August 1942 in a concentrationcamp in Treblinka. His death was tragic as he had a chance to
escape from the camp but he decided to stay with the Jewish orphans. He didn’t want to leavethem.WORKS:Janusz Korczak wrote many novels and stories such as: A novel ‘Children of the Streets’ (1901) A novel ‘Child of the Drawing Room’ (1906) A story ‘Fame’ (1913) A guide book ‘How to love child. Child in family’ (1919) Guides ‘How to love children. A boarding school. Summer colony’ and ‘How to love children. Orphan’s house. Resumption’ (1920) Novels ‘King Matt the First’ and ‘King Matt on a desert island’ (1923) A novel ‘Bankruptcy of Little Jack’ (1924) A guide book ‘When I am little again’ (1925) A guide book ‘The Childs Right to Respect’ (1929) A novel ‘Kajtus the Wizard’ (1935) A guide book ‘Playful pedagogy’ (1939)Photos:Bona Sforza:http://pl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plik:Bona_Sforza.jpg&filetimestamp=20060222102612http://pl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plik:Portrait_of_Lady,_1500_(Philadelphia).jpg&filetimestamp=20120108232813Nikofor Krynicki:http://artstore.pl/sztuka-prymitywizmuhttp://kultura.lublin.eu/wiadomosci,1,3901,Nikifor_i_Kashinath_-_dwa_nie_tak_odleg%C5%82e_%C5%9Bwiaty.html?locale=pl_PLJanusz Korczak:http://pl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plik:Janusz_Korczak.PNG&filetimestamp=20050417223701http://www.pskorczak.org.pl/strony/korczak_foto.htm