OK: Landscaping to Attract Butterflies


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OK: Landscaping to Attract Butterflies

  1. 1. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service HLA-6430 Landscaping to Attract Butterflies, Moths, and SkippersStephanie A. Smith Tom RoyerEntomology and Wildlife Extension Extension Entomologist Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact SheetsProgram Assistant are also available on our website at: http://osufacts.okstate.eduRon Masters Don ArnoldExtension Wildlife Specialist Survey EntomologistDavid Hillock Mike SchnelleExtension Consumer Horticulturist Extension HorticulturistButterflies, Moths, and Skippers Butterflies, moths, and skippers are some of the mostbeautiful of all insects. Their striking appearance adds bothcolor and activity to the most pleasing of landscapes. Theymay also be observed more easily and closely than otherspecies of wildlife. Moths expand the enjoyment time of yourgarden because they are active primarily during the night,while butterflies and skippers are active during the day. Butterflies, skippers, and moths belong to the order Lepi-doptera. Virtually all members of this order are instrumentalin pollinating plants, some specific to a single plant species. Antenna ShapesLepidopterans should be conserved and managed becausethey are an essential component of both the animal foodchain and the reproductive process of plants. Locally, manysongbirds, reptiles, and amphibians depend upon these in-sects to survive. The best way to conserve Lepidopterans isto provide suitable habitats. This publication was developedto provide property owners or tenants the information neces-sary to create these habitats with the greatest ease.Lepidopteran Physical Characteristics A key method of determining Lepidopteran identity is Photo by Ron Mastersby observing antenna shape. A butterfly will have knobby orclubbed looking antennae while a moth’s antennae will befeathery, plumed, or threadlike. The antennae of the skipperwill appear to be clubbed, yet with a feathery “hook” at the end.The skipper appears to be an intermediate group between thebutterfly and moth. Remember, not all moths are active onlyat night. The Hummingbird Sphinx moth, for example, feeds Tiger Swallowtail (Papilio glaucus)during the day, and from a distance, looks and sounds like ahummingbird. Lepidopterans are known for their ability to undergo itself through the next stage of development. Next, the pupametamorphosis — a change in form and function. This change or chrysalis stage occurs when the caterpillar finds a suitableoccurs through the completion of four stages. First, the but- plant on which to weave a small silk patch for attachment andterfly begins as a fertilized egg. It is laid inconspicuously in a complete growth of a pupal skin.group or singly, usually under a leaf, around a stem, or in leaf The chrysalis matures in about two weeks. At that time,litter. Depending upon environmental conditions, the egg will the adult butterfly emerges with wet, folded wings. After dry-hatch in about five to ten days. The next stage is the larval ing, the wings are ready for flight. The adult lifespan, barringor caterpillar stage. During this time, the caterpillar feeds predation, is about six days for males and nine days foron plant material to gain enough energy reserves to sustainDivision of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources • Oklahoma State University
  2. 2. Photo by Mike Masters Photo by Stephanie SmithLuna Moth (Actias luna) Monarch Butterfly (Danaus plexippus) Photo by Ron Masters Photo by Ron MastersPainted Lady (Vanessa cardui), puddling Black Swallowtail (Papilio troilus)females. Silk moths such as the beautiful Luna moth, do not locate nectar in flowering plants. Unseen to humans, somefeed as adults. Rather, their sole function as adults is to find blossoms have “directions” to nectar painted in ultravioletpartners and mate. light upon the petals of the flower. Males use ultraviolet light Lepidopterans display their most noticeable attributes during courtship by reflecting it from their rapidly flutteringby reflecting light. Light is reflected by the thousands of tiny wings. This display action produces a kaleidoscope effectscales that cover their four wings. Each scale grows from a intended to catch the attention of a nearby female.single cell and has several important functions. Scales rub off Lepidopterans are adept at detecting plants with suitableeasily, aiding the butterfly in escape from predators. Scales nectar in two ways, other than visually. First, they use theiralso enable the butterfly to absorb light, which is essential for antennae, which serve as the primary olfactory receptor, tomaintaining body temperature. Some scales, usually in males, sample the essence of a plant. Second, on some femaleproduce scents during courtship. Finally, scales produce the butterflies, their two front legs have adapted for the purposebrilliant or sometimes dull colors of butterflies and moths. The of “tasting” a plant to determine if it is the correct species oncolors can be the result of pigmentation or scale structure. which to lay eggs.Often, scales are shaped like small prisms that diffract light Some species of butterflies exhibit cryptic, or camouflag-into iridescent colors. Some scales that appear to be white ing colors. Moths, for instance, may be dull across all bodyare actually hollow and clear, allowing light to be reflected surfaces while some butterflies have only a dull appearanceand scattered. Structurally created colors are enhanced by on the underside of their wings. In this instance, the brilliantfluttering of the wings, which continually changes both the colors above function to communicate with other butterfliesangle of light and intensity of reflection. while the plain sides function to hide them from predators. Lepidopteran wings display some colors of light beyond Some butterflies mimic color patterns of poisonous butterflies,the human range of visual perception. Ultraviolet rays are cru- and others may have false antennae on the posterior end ofcial for survival because they guide feeding and reproductive their body, giving them a higher chance of surviving a “frontal”behavior. Lepidopterans use ultraviolet rays as visual cues to predator attack. 6430-2
  3. 3. Attracting Lepidopterans (butterflies, moths, and skippers) to your garden A successful butterfly garden will have: • A mixture of perrenials and annuals, including native plants. • Nectar plants (such as marigolds, petunias, and asters). • Plants for larvae (such as tomatoes and herbs). • A sunny location. • Shelter from the wind. • Other features, such as mud puddles or fruit, to attract Lepidopterans. • Few insecticides and no bugzappers.Behavior The second essential component to provide is plants for Lepidopteran larvae. This will also keep the adults in your In addition to interesting physical characteristics, Lepidop- area. However, most larvae do not feed on the same plantsterans also exhibit several unique behavioral characteristics, as adults; therefore you must provide appropriate vegetationone of which is puddling. This occurs when many butterflies or for females to lay their eggs upon. This is an excellent waymoths gather around a puddle of water or a damp area from to incorporate additional native plants into your landscapingwhich water has evaporated and created a concentration of theme, because most larval-food plants are native plants.minerals that they need. Sodium is the primary attractant. For You should note that many larval-food plants are unsuitablethis reason they can be seen gathering on carrion, animal for a showy flower border and would serve better as a largefeces, urination sites, and old campfires. Males exhibit this collection in a separate area of your yard.behavior more than females because they require additional One possibility is to maintain an herb garden. Herbs suchsodium for reproduction. as dill, fennel, parsley, and chives provide excellent food for Another behavior exhibited by Lepidopterans is that of larvae and produce enough foliage to be harvested for yourcourting. Males, while patrolling or perching, are drawn to fe- kitchen. Some vegetable crops such as tomatoes, cabbage,males by detection of their movement and pheromones. When and broccoli are larval food plants. Consider sacrificing somethey have located a potential mate, males begin fluttering their of these from your garden for your Lepidopteran visitors.wings conspicuously and displaying their ultraviolet colors. Clover, which is both a nectar and larval-food plant, may oc- Butterflies also bask in the bright sun because they cannot cur in your yard already. When seeded to an area that is notfly with a body temperature below 85°F. Flight time affects feed- mowed, clover will become a beautiful flowering addition toing, mating, and egg laying productivity. Therefore, they must your garden. Many colorful species are now available at yourorient their wings, often colored black near the body for heat garden center.absorption, toward the sun. Because moths cannot undertake In order to have a successful butterfly garden, you mustthis procedure during night, they have adopted the practice of locate your plantings in a sunny location. This is importantshivering in order to warm their bodies enough to fly. for both plants and butterflies. Most blooming plants need exposure to lots of sun to undergo enough photosynthesisPlanning the Landscape to maintain nectar output. Also, butterflies need an open, Several key elements must be provided for success in sheltered area for basking in the sun in order to raise theirthe construction of your butterfly garden. Growing nectar body temperatures enough to fly. Egg development is alsoplants is the first essential component. These are a primary inhibited by cooler temperatures.food source for adults, and without them your garden will not Shelter is another essential ingredient for your garden.attract nearly as many Lepidopterans. Nectar plants should Taller plants and delicate butterflies need protection from strongbe planted in large groups according to color. Butterflies gusts of wind. Cooling winds lower the body temperature ofrecognize the blooms more quickly this way. Also, it is wise butterflies and limit blooming time of flowering plants. Shelterto select nectar plants that bloom over several seasons, so can be wind breaks in the form of deciduous plants, conifers,that a food source is provided over a longer period of time, or even heat absorbing rock fences. Vining plants on fencesincreasing feeding activity and your observing opportunity. can serve a dual role as both shelter and a food source whenWhen planting nectar plants, provide plants of different height. species such as blackberries, Dutchman’s pipe, and JapaneseNot only will your flower garden look more organized, it will honeysuckle are planted. Regardless of the type of sheltergive both you and the butterflies a wider visual picture of the used, it should be located on the north and west sides of yourcolorful blossoms. garden to block the colder winds. 6430-3
  4. 4. Components other than plants can be used to attract plants whenever possible because the Lepidopterans areLepidopterans to your yard. Try using other attractants such already familiar with these species and have had successas mud puddles, wet sand, fruit, sap, manure, or even car- with them in the past. In fact, butterfly declines are a directrion. There are also tried and true moth “brews” that can be result of loss of prime habitat that consists of native plantmade from simple ingredients and painted on tree trunks to species. Pollination of many native plant species requiresallow you to get a closer look at the often unseen night fly- specific adult Lepidopterans for the successful reproductioning moths. This technique is called “sugaring”. Most recipes of that species. Native plants are also beautiful, winter hardy,simply consist of mashed, fermented fruit, yeast, and alcohol. resistant to disease, low maintenance, and an important partMashed bananas and a small amount of stale beer alone will of our regional biodiversity.work extremely well. When trying to observe or photographmoths at night, keep in mind that they are usually inactiveon full moon evenings yet prefer hot, humid nights before a SYMBOL KEYstorm. Also, moths seem to have an affinity for white flowersand those emitting their fragrances at night. Intensely bright Plant type: S = Short TRE = Tree AN = Annuallights will drive them away whereas a simple flashlight filtered M = Medium SHR = Shrub BI = Biennial T = Tall VIN = Vine PR = Perennialwith a red, yellow, or even a paper-towel lens will not disturbthem very much. Some moths remain relatively active through Origin: E = Exotic N = NativeNovember. Blooming Season: E = Early SP = Spring WI - Winter When trying to attract insects to your yard, the broadscale M = Middle SU = Summeruse of insecticides is inappropriate. Additionally, bugzap- L = Late AU = Autumnpers, even though they are intended to control mosquitoes, Height/Width: FT. = Feetwill mainly attract and destroy male moths. Therefore, thesecontrol measures should not be a part of your landscaping Hardiness: 1-11 = Hardiness Zonesplan. As an alternative control measure, pheromone traps Sun: F = Full P = Partialare now available, and will successfully remove the males of S = Shade ALL = All exposuresmany unwanted pests from your yard. Moisture: D = Dry M = Moist When landscaping to attract Lepidopterans, keep in W = Wet WD = Well drainedmind these principles for formulating your garden plan. Besure to mix perennials and annuals. Annuals bloom for one Soil: ALL = Broad Ranges L = Loamy C = Clayey S = Sandyseason only and may have delayed blooming if grown fromseed. Perennials, however, already have established roots Color: BLU = Blue BRW = Brown GRE = Green LAV = Lavender MAN = Many colors ORE = Orangeand tend to bloom within a predictable time frame. Some PIK = Pink PUR = Purple RED = Redperennials may be annuals if they cannot survive the winter ROS = Rose TAN = Tan VIO = Violettemperatures in your area. Winter mulching may provide the WHT = White YEL = Yellowextra protection that they need from the cold. Use native * = Larval food plant alsoSource: UDSA U.S. Plant Hardiness Zone Map U.S. Plant Hardiness Zone Map 6430-4
  5. 5. LEPIDOPTERAN-NECTAR TREES AND SHRUBSName Plant Origin Blooming Height Width Hardiness Sun Moisture Soil Color type SeasonAzaleas SHR N ESP 4 FT. 6 FT. 7-10 PS MW SL REDRhododendron obtusum ‘Hino’Black willow TRE N SP 70 FT. 40 FT. 3-9 FP WM ALL GRESalix nigraBlackberry family VIN N MSP 6 FT. 20 FT. 6-9 FP MW SL WHTRubus trivialisBoxelder TRE N ESP 75 FT. 45 FT. 2-9 FP MD ALL GREAcer negundoButterfly bush SHR E M-LSU 15 FT. 8 FT. 5-9 F MD ALL MAN“Summer Lilac”Buddleia davidiBuckeye TRE N SP 15 FT. 12 FT. 5-9 PS WM ALL YELAesculus glabraButtonbush SHR N LSP-SU 12 FT. 9 FT. 6-10 FP WM ALL TANCephalanthus occidentalisCherry, wild* MTRE N LSP-ESU 50 FT. 20 FT. 2-9 F MW SL WHTPrunus serotinaCoralberry MSHR N SU 3 FT. 3 FT. 4-9 PS MD ALL GRE“Indian currant”Symphoricarpos orbiculatusCrape Myrtle STRE E SU 25 FT. 15 FT. 7-10 F M ALL MANLagerstroemia indicaDutchman’s pipe VIN E MSP 30 FT. 20 FT. 2-9 FP M ALL GREAristolochia duriorEastern redbud STRE N LW-MSP 25 FT. 20 FT. 4-9 FP MD L ROSCercis canadensisEnglish lavender SSHR E MSU-EAU 3 FT. 3 FT. 5-9 F MD L BLULavandula angustifoliaFlowering dogwood STRE N ESP-ESU 15 FT. 15 FT. 4-9 F MWD SL ROS‘Cherokee Chief’Cornus floridaGlossy abelia MSHR E M-LSU 10 FT. 10 FT. 5-10 FP MD ALL WHTAbelia x grandifloraHard hack SSHR N ESP 4 FT. 5 FT. 3-5 F MD ALL WHTSpiraea tomentosaHoneysuckle, Japanese VIN E SP-SU 8 FT. 8 FT. 6-9 FP M ALL WHTLonicera japonicaJasmine, winter SHR E ESP 5 FT. 10 FT. 7-10 F MD ALL YELJasminum nudiflorumLabrador tea SSHR N LSP 3 FT. 3 FT. 2-5 F W ALL WHTLedum groenlandicumLilac SHR E E-LSP 15 FT. 10 FT. 4-7 FP MD SL LAVSyringa vulgaris, and cultivarsNarrowleaf meadowsweet SSHR N ESP 4 FT. 3 FT. 3-5 F WM L WHTSpiraea albaNew Jersey tea SSHR N SU 3 FT. 3 FT. 5-8 F D SL WHTCeanothus americanusOak family* TRE N E-LSP 50 FT. 50 FT. 3-9 F MD L GREQuercus spp.Paw paw* TSHR N E-LSP 30 FT. 15 FT. 5-8 P MW L BRWAsimina triloba 6430-5
  6. 6. Name Plant Origin Blooming Height Width Hardiness Sun Moisture Soil Color type SeasonPlums; Chickasaw, Sand, etc. SHR N ESP-LSU 6 FT. 6 FT. 3-8 F MD SL WHTPrunus angustifoliaPrivet, common TSHR E SU 20 FT. 20 FT. 4-9 FP MD ALL WHTLigustrum vulgareRed mulberry MTRE N SP 50 FT. 30 FT. 4-9 F M ALL PURMorus rubraRiver Birch TRE N ESP 60 FT. 30 FT. 2-9 FP M SL GREBetula nigraRose, Japanese MSHR E SP 6 FT. 6 FT. 2-9 F MD SL ROSRosa rugosaRosemary SSHR E LSP-MSU 3 FT. 3 FT. 6-10 F MD L BLURosmarinus officinalisSilverberry* STRE E MA-LA 9 FT. 9 FT. 2-8 F WMD SL WHT“Russian Olive”Eleagnus angustifoliaSpicebush* SHR N ESP 12 FT. 12 FT. 5-9 FP M SL YELLindera benzoinSumac, shining, winged TSHR N LSP 15 FT. 10 FT. 4-9 FP MD SL REDRhus copallina & R. glabraSummersweet, Pepperbush SHR N SU 8 FT. 6 FT. 3-9 FP WM SL WHTClethra alnifoliaSweet mock orange SHR E MSP 9 FT. 9 FT. 4-9 FP M ALL WHTPhiladelphus coronariusWayfaring bush SHR E SP 8 FT. 12 FT. 3-7 FP WMD L WHTViburnum lantanaWeigela, old-fashioned SHR E LSP 9 FT. 6 FT. 5-8 FP MW L PIKWeigela floridaWillow, laurel TRE E ESP 36 FT. 20 FT. 5-9 FP WM ALL GRESalix pentandraWillow, prairie SHR N ESP 8 FT. 8 FT. 4-8 F W ALL GRESalix humilisWillow, pussy TSHR N ESP 20 FT. 15 FT. 2-8 F WM L TANSalix discolorWitchhazel, common TSHR N E-LAU 20 FT. 20 FT. 4-8 FP MW SL YELHamamelis virginianusWitchhazel, vernal MSHR N MW-ESP 10 FT. 10 FT. 4-8 FP W SL YELHamamelis vernalis LEPIDOPTERAN-NECTAR ANNUALSAnise or Anise-Hyssop AN E LSU 3 FT. 1 FT. 5-9 F MD SL BLUAgastache foeniculumAsters* AN N SU 3 FT. 3 FT. 5-8 F MD SL MANAster spp.Black-eyed Susan AN N MSU-MA 3 FT. 2 FT. 4-8 FP M ALL YELRudbeckia hirta pulcherrimaBegonia AN E ESU-LAU 1.5 FT. 1 FT. 3-9 PF M L RED‘Othello’Begonia semperflorensBorage AN E SU 3 FT. 3 FT. 3-8 FP MD SL BLUBoago officinalisCanterbury bells AN E SU 3 FT. 2 FT. 2-8 FP M SL BLUCampanula medium 6430-6
  7. 7. Name Plant Origin Blooming Height Width Hardiness Sun Moisture Soil Color type SeasonCosmos AN E E-LSU 3 FT. 2 FT. 3-9 F D ALL YELCosmos bipinnatus, ‘Sulphureus’Dill* AN E LSP 3 FT. 1 FT. 3-9 F MD ALL GREAnethum graveolensFlowering tobacco AN E ESU-EAU 2 FT. 2 FT. 4-9 FP M L WHTNicotiana alataFour O’Clock, Marvel of Peru PR E MSU-MAU 2.5 FT. 3 FT. 7-9 FP M ALL ROSMirabilis jalapaGeranium, zonal AN E LSP-MSU 2 FT. 2 FT. 3-9 FP MW L REDPelargonium x hortorumGladiolus AN E SU 3 FT. 1 FT. 3-9 F MD SL MANGladiolus spp.Heliotrope AN E LSP-SU 2 FT. 2 FT. 3-8 FP M SL LAVHeliotropium arborescensLantana AN E E-LSU 10 FT. 8 FT. 8-10 PF M L YELLantana camaraMarigold, african* AN E SU-EAU 3 FT. 2 FT. 3-9 F MD L YELTagetes erectaMarigold, french* AN E SU-EAU 1.5 FT. 2 FT. 3-9 F MD L YELTagetes patulaMarigold, pot* AN E MSP 2 FT. 1.5 FT 7-10 FP MD L ORECalendula officinalisMexican sunflower AN E SU 7 FT. 3 FT. 5-10 F MD L ORETithonia rotundifoliaNasturtium* AN E SU-LAU .5 FT. 1 FT. 5-9 FP MD SL MANTropaeolum majusParsley* AN E SP 1 FT. 1 FT. 3-8 FP M L GREPetroselinum crispumPentas AN E SP-AU 1.5 FT. 1 FT. 5-9 FP M L MANPentas lanceolotaPetunia AN E SU-EAU 1.5 FT. 2 FT. 2-8 FP M SL MANPetunia x hybridaPhlox AN,PR N SP-ESU 3 FT. 1 FT. 3-9 F M L MANPhlox spp.Scarlet star glory AN N ESU-MAU 8 FT. 2 FT. 5-9 F MD L RED“Cypress Vine”Quamoclit coccineaScarlet sage, salvia AN E SU 2.5 FT. 1 FT. 3-9 FP MD L REDSalvia splendensSpider flower AN E SU 5 FT. 4 FT. 3-9 FP MD L ROSCleome hassleranaSunflower, dwarf* AN N ESU-EAU 3 FT. 1.5 FT. 4-9 F MD ALL YELHelianthus annuusSweet pea AN E LSP-MAU 8 FT. 8 FT. 5-9 FP MW L PIKLathyrus odoratusSweet marjoram AN E SU 1 FT. 1 FT. 4-9 FP MD L WHTOriganum marjoranaSweet William AN E LSP-SU 1.5 FT. 1.5 FT. 4-9 FP MD ALL REDDianthus barbatusTouch-me-not, pale AN N ESU-AU .5 FT. 1 FT. 4-8 SP WM SL PIKImpatiens balsaminaTouch-me-not, spotted AN N ESU 2 FT. 1 FT. 3-9 S WM L PIKSpotted jewelweedImpatiens capensis 6430-7
  8. 8. Name Plant Origin Blooming Height Width Hardiness Sun Moisture Soil Color type SeasonVerbena AN E SP-AU 1 FT. 1 FT. 3-9 F M SL MANVerbena hybridaWinter Savory AN E MS-EAU 1 FT. 1 FT. 5-8 FP MD SL WHTSatureja montanaZinnia AN E SU-LAU 3 FT. 1 FT. 4-9 FP M L MANZinnia elegans LEPIDOPTERAN-NECTAR BIENNIALS/PERENNIALSAdam’s Needle Yucca PR N SU 3 FT. 8 FT. 6-10 FP MD ALL WHTYucca filimentosaAmerican columbine PR N MSP 3 FT. 2 FT. 3-9 PF M L MANAquilegia canadensis, hybridsAsters, New England* PR N LSU 4 FT. 2 FT. 4-8 FP MD L MANAster novae-angliae, A. belgiiBoneset PR N LSU-EAU 3 FT. 1 FT. 4-9 FP MD L BLU“Joe-Pye weed”Eupatorium perfoliatumBouncing bet PR E MSU-EAU 3 FT. 3 FT. 3-7 F WD SL PIK“Soapwort”Saponaria officinalisBush clover PR N SLP-SU 4 FT. 2 FT. 6-9 F D SL PIKLespedeza capitataButterfly weed* PR N SU-MAU 2 FT. 2 FT. 4-9 F MD SL OREAsclepias tuberosaCentaurea PR E MSP-MSU 4 FT. 1 FT. 3-8 F WMD L BLU‘Cornflower, bachelor button’Centaurea macrocephlalaCommon evening primrose PR N ESU 2 FT. 2 FT. 3-8 F WM ALL WHTOenothera speciosaCoreopsis PR N ESU-EAU 2 FT. 1 FT. 3-9 F MD SL YELCoreopsis auriculataChrysanthemum PR E AU 3 FT. 3 FT. 5-8 FP M SL MANDendranthema x grandifloraCrimson clover* BI E SU 1.5 FT. 2 FT. 4-8 F MD L REDTrifolium incarnatumDaffodil PR N ESP 1.5 FT. .5 FT 4-9 FP M SL YELNarcissus spp.Dame’s violet, Sweet rocket BI E SP 4 FT. 2 FT. 3-8 PS MD ALL PURHesperis matronalisDocks* PR E LSU 2 FT. 2 FT. 3-9 FP D ALL BRWRumex spp.Dogbane, intermediate PR N SU 4 FT. 2 FT. 4-8 FP MD L WHTApocynum mediumDogbane, Siberian PR E SU 4 FT. 2 FT. 2-7 FP MD L WHTApocynum sibiricumFireweed PR N MSU-EAU 4 FT. 3 FT. 3-8 PF MD SL REDEpilobium angustifoliumFleabane BI N LSP-SU 2 FT. 2 FT. 2-8 F M L BLUErigeron spp.Foxglove, purple BI E LSP-MSU 3 FT. 2 FT. 4-9 FP M LS PURDigitalis purpurea 6430-8
  9. 9. Name Plant Origin Blooming Height Width Hardiness Sun Moisture Soil Color type SeasonGaillardia, Blanket flower PR N SU-AU 2 FT. 2 FT. 3-10 F MD SL REDGaillardia x grandifloraGarden sage PR E ESU-MSU 1 FT. 1 FT. 4-8 FP MD ALL BLUSalvia officinalisGayfeather, dotted PR N LSU-MAU 2 FT. 1 FT. 5-9 FP MD SL PURLiatris punctataGayfeather, Kansas PR N LSU-MAU 2 FT. 1 FT. 4-9 FP D L LAV“Prairie Button Snakeroot”Liatris pycnostachyaGayfeather; tall, spiked PR N LSU-MAU 3 FT. 1 FT. 3-9 F M SL PURLiatris scariosa, L. spicataGlobe thistle, dwarf PR E SU 4 FT. 2 FT. 3-8 FP MD SL BLUEchinops ritroGoldenrods PR N LSU-MAU 3 FT. 2 FT. 2-8 F DM ALL YELSolidago spp.Grape hyacinth PR E ESP-MSP .5 FT. .5 FT. 3-8 F M SL BLUMuscari neglectumHollyhock BI E SU 3 FT. 1 FT. 5-9 F MD ALL MANAlcaea roseaHyssop PR E LSP-MSU 2 FT. 1.5 FT. 4-9 F D ALL BLUHyssopus officinalisIndian hemp PR N SU 3 FT. 2 FT. 4-9 F MD L WHTApocynum cannabinumIris; German, Dutch PR E SP-ESU 3 FT. 1 FT. 5-8 FP MD L MANIris germanica, I. xiphiumLeadplant PR N SU 3 FT. 5 FT. 4-8 F MD L PURAmorpha canescensLemon balm PR E SU 2 FT. 2 FT. 4-9 FP MW L WHTMelissa officinalisLovage PR E SU 6 FT. 4 FT. 5-7 FP M L YELLevisticum officinaleLupine, wild* PR N LSP-MSU 2 FT. 2 FT. 3-9 ALL MD L WHTLupinus perennisMadonna lily PR E MSU-LSU 6 FT. 1 FT. 4-8 FP M SL MANLilium candidumMaltese Cross PR E SU 2 FT. 3 FT. 3-9 FP MD L ORELychnis chalcedonicaMaximillian sunflower* PR N LSU 6 FT. 1 FT. 4-8 F MD ALL YELHelianthus maximilianiMilkweed, common* PR N LSP-LSU 3 FT. 2 FT. 3-8 FP MD ALL GREAsclepias latifoliaMilkweed, prairie* PR N LSP-SU 5 FT. 2 FT. 4-8 F M ALL WHTAsclepias viridisMilkweed, showy* PR N LSP-ESU 3 FT. 3 FT. 4-9 FP M ALL ROSAsclepias speciosaMilkweed, swamp* PR N SU 4 FT. 2 FT. 3-9 FP MW ALL WHTAsclepias incarnataMound Lily Yucca PR N SU 6 FT. 8 FT. 6-10 FP MD ALL WHTYucca gloriosaMountain bluet PR E LSP-MSU 2 FT. 1 FT. 3-8 F MD L BLU“Bachelor’s Button”Centaurea montana 6430-9
  10. 10. Name Plant Origin Blooming Height Width Hardiness Sun Moisture Soil Color type SeasonObedient plant PR N EAU 2.5 FT. 1 FT. 3-9 FP MD ALL LAVPhysostegia virginianaOriental poppy PR E LSP-ESU 3 FT. 1 FT. 3-8 F MW SL MANPapavar orientaleOxeye sunflower* PR N MSU-AU 3 FT. 1 FT. 3-9 F M ALL YELHeliopsis helianthoidesOzark Sundrop PR N SP 2 FT. 2 FT. 4-8 F D L YELOenothera macrocarpaPeony, Garden PR E MSP 3 FT. 4 FT. 3-8 FP MD L MANPaeonia latifloraPearly everlasting, cudweed PR N LSU-EAU 2 FT. 1 FT. 3-8 F MD L WHTAnaphalis margaritaceaPeppermints PR E SU 2 FT. 2 FT. 5-9 FP MW L WHTMentha piperita, etc.Persian cornflower PR E SU 1.5 FT. 1 FT. 4-7 FP M L PIKCentaurea dealbataPincushion flower PR E SU 2 FT. 1 FT. 3-7 F MW SL BLUScabiosa caucasicaPrairie blazing star PR N SU-EAU 4 FT. 1 FT. 3-9 FP M L LAVLiatris pycnostachyaPrairie thistle* PR N SU-EAU 2 FT. 1 FT. 4-8 F MD ALL LAVCirsium undulatumPurple coneflower* PR N SU 4 FT. 2 FT. 3-8 F MD ALL PUREchinacea purpureaQueen Anne’s lace* BI E SU 2 FT. 2 FT. 4-8 FP MD ALL WHT“Wild carrot”Daucus carotaRed Valerian PR E ESP-ESU 3 FT. 2 FT. 4-8 F MW SL REDCentranthus ruberRock cress PR E ESP 1 FT. 1.5 FT. 4-7 FP WD SL WHTArabis caucasiaRosemary PR E ESP-MSU 2 FT. 3 FT. 6-9 F M L BLURosemarinus officinalisSelfheal PR E ESU 1 FT. 1 FT. 4-8 FP W L BLUPrunella grandifloraShasta Daisies PR E ESU 3 FT. 3 FT. 5-8 FP M L WHTLeucanthemum x superbumShowy sunflower* PR N MSU-AU 4 FT. 2 FT. 4-8 F MD LS YELHelianthus multiflorusSnapdragon* PR E LSP-SU 2.5 FT. 1 FT. 3-9 F MD L MANAntirrhinum majusSoloman’s seal PR N LSP 2 FT. 2 FT. 3-9 S MW L WHTPolygonatum biflorumSedum, showy stonecrop* PR E LSU-LAU 2 FT. 2 FT. 3-9 FP D SL ROSHylotelephium spectabileSweet Violet* PR N SP .5 FT. .5 FT 4-8 S M ALL VIOViola odorataTawny daylily PR E ESU-EAU 3 FT. 3 FT. 3-9 FP MD ALL OREHemerocallis fulvaThyme, common PR E SU 1 FT. 1 FT. 5-8 F MD SL PIKThymus vulgarisTickseed sunflower PR N ESP-SU 4 FT. 1 FT. 6-9 F MW SL YEL“Western tickseed”Bidens aristosa 6430-10
  11. 11. Name Plant Origin Blooming Height Width Hardiness Sun Moisture Soil Color type SeasonTorch lily PR E SU 3 FT. 1 FT. 5-9 F WD SL OREKniphofia uvariaTurtlehead* PR N SU 2 FT. 1 FT. 3-8 F WM L PIKChelone glabraVetches* PR N SU 3 FT. 5 FT. 4-8 F MD ALL PURVicia spp.Western sunflower* PR N SU-EAU 3 FT. 2 FT. 4-8 F MD SL YELHelianthus occidentalisWild marjoram, Oreganum PR E MSU-LSU 2 FT. 2 FT. 4-8 F MW SL PIKOriganum vulgareWild bergamot or Beebalm PR N SU 3 FT. 6 FT. 4-9 FP M L REDMonarda didymaYarrow PR N E-MSU 2 FT. 1 FT. 4-8 F MD L WHTAchillea millefolium LEPIDOPTERAN-LARVAL TREES AND SHRUBSBlueberry, “Rabbit-eye” SSHR N ESU 10 FT. 10 FT. 7-10 FP M L PIKVaccinium asheiCottonwood TRE N ESP 80 FT. 40 FT. 3-10 F D ALL WHTPopulus deltoidesElm, winged TRE N ESP-LAU 50 FT. 50 FT. 5-8 F D ALL GREUlmus alataHackberry STRE N ESP 60 FT. 40 FT. 5-10 F MW L GRECeltis spp.Leadplant SSHR N LSU 3 FT. 3 FT. 2-9 F D ALL PURAmorpha canescensLocust, black STRE N ESP 50 FT. 40 FT. 4-10 FP D ALL WHTRobinia pseudoacaciaPassion vine VIN N SU 20 FT. 10 FT. 7-10 FP MD SL LAVPassiflora incarnataTulip tree TRE N ESU 60 FT. 40 FT. 4-9 FP WM L RED/GRELiriodendron tulipifera LEPIDOPTERAN-LARVAL ANNUALSCabbage, flowering AN E SP 1 FT. 1 FT. 2-9 F M SL MANBrassica oleracea capitataBalsam, white AN N LSU 3 FT. 3 FT. 5-8 F D SL WHTGnaphalium obtusifoliumBeans AN E ESU 7 FT. 2 FT. 3-8 F M L WHTPhaseolus spp.Broccoli AN E SP 3 FT. 2 FT. 2-9 F M SL GREBrassica oleracea italicaEverlasting, cudweed AN N LS-EAU 1.5 FT. 1.5 FT. 4-8 F D SL PURGnaphalium purpureumMallow tree AN E SU 5 FT. 3 FT. 5-8 F MD ALL ROSMalva lavantera thuringiacaSmartweed AN N SU-AU 2 FT. 2 FT. 4-8 F M CL PIKPolygonum spp.Sneezeweed AN N SU-EAU 2 FT. 2 FT. 4-9 F D ALL YELHelenium spp.Tomato AN E SU 5 FT. 3 FT. 3-10 F M L YEL/REDSolanum esculentum 6430-11
  12. 12. Name Plant Origin Blooming Height Width Hardiness Sun Moisture Soil Color type Season LEPIDOPTERAN-LARVAL BIENNIALS/PERENNIALSAlfalfa PR E SLP-ESU 2.5 FT. 3.5 FT. 4-8 F M L LAVMedicago sativaFalse nettle PR E LS-EAU 1.5 FT. 1.5 FT. 4-8 F S SL PURBoehmeria cylindricaHops, common PR/VIN E SPR 15 FT. 10 FT. 4-8 F M SL GREHumulus lupulusKnotweed PR/AN N SU-AU 2 FT. 2 FT. 4-8 F MW CL PIKPolygonum spp.Partridge pea, showy PR N SU-EAU 3 FT. 3 FT. 3-10 F D ALL YELCassia fasciculataSorrel, rosy canaigre PR N SP 3 FT. 3 FT. 4-8 F D ALL ROSRumex hymenosepalusWinter cress PR E LSP 3 FT. 3 FT. 3-9 F D ALL YELBarbarea vulgarisNative Plant Suppliers Dirr, Michael A. 1990. Manual of woody landscape plants. StipesAimers Quality Seeds & Bulbs Boothe Hill Wildflowers Publishing Co., Champaign. 937 pp.81 Temperance St. 23 B Boothe Hill Henderson, Carrol L. 1987. Landscaping for wildlife. Minnesota Dep’t.Aurora, ONT Chapel Hill, NC 27514 of Natural Resources, St. Paul. 144 pp.Canada L4G 2R1 Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Staff. 1976. Hortus third. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York. 1177 pp.W. Atlee Burpee Co. H.G. Hastings Co. Little, Elbert L. Jr. 1981. Forest trees of Oklahoma. Okla. State Dept.300 Park Ave. P.O. Box 115535 of Agriculture, Forestry Div. Publ. 1. Rev. ed. 12. 204 pp.Warminster, PA 18974 Atlanta, GA 30310 McCoy, Doyle. 1976. Roadside flowers of Oklahoma. Vols I, II. C and J Printing Co., Lawton. Vol I, 116 pp., Vol II, 60 pp.Larner Seeds Moon Mountain Wildflowers Mitchell, Paul J. 1985. Perennial flowers and bulbs for Oklahoma.P.O. Box 407 P.O. Box 34 Oklahoma State University. Horticulture - Landscape ArchitectureBolinas, CA 94924 Morro Bay, CA 93443 Dept. HORT 4-2. Perry, Frances. 1974. Simon and schuster’s complete guide to plantsNiche Gardens Native Gardens and flowers. Simon and Schuster, New York. 269pp.1111 Dawson Rd. 5737 Fisher Lane Scott, James A. 1986. The butterflies of north america: a natural his-Chapel Hill, NC 27516 Greenback, TN 37742 tory and field guide. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford. 10-82. Sedenko, Jerry. 1991. The butterfly garden. Villard Books, NewPark Seed Co. Prairie Nursery York. 144 pp.P.O. Box 46 P.O. Box 306-R Still, Steven M. 1994. Manual of herbaceous ornamental plants.Greenwood, SC 29647 Westfield, WI 53964 Stipes Publishing Co., Champaign. 702 pp. Stokes, Donald and Lillian, Ernest Williams. 1991. The butterfly book: an easy guideSunlight Gardens Inc. Sunshine Farm and Nursery to butterfly gardening, identification, and behavior. Little, Brown,Route 1, Box 600-OG Route 1, Box 4030 and Company. 1-33.Andersonville, TN 37705 Clinton, OK 73601 Tilden, James W., Arthur Clayton Smith. A field guide to western butterflies. 1986. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 5-32. Villiard, Paul. 1975. Moths and how to rear them. Dover Publications, Inc., New York. 16, 232-235. Whitcomb, Carl E. 1985. Know it and grow it. Vol. II. Lacebark Pub-References lications, Stillwater. 740 pp.Brewer, Jo, Dave Winter. 1986. Butterflies and moths: a companion Xerces Society/Smithsonian Institution. 1990. Butterfly gardening: to your field guide. Prentice Hall Press, N.Y. 194 pp. creating summer magic in your garden. Sierra Club Books, San Francisco. 192 pp.The information given herein is for educational purposes only. Reference to commercial products or trade names ismade with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement by the Cooperative ExtensionService is implied.Oklahoma State University, in compliance with Title VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Executive Order 11246 as amended, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, Americanswith Disabilities Act of 1990, and other federal laws and regulations, does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, age, religion, disability, or status as a veteran inany of its policies, practices, or procedures. This includes but is not limited to admissions, employment, financial aid, and educational services.Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Robert E. Whitson, Director of Cooperative Ex-tension Service, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma. This publication is printed and issued by Oklahoma State University as authorized by the Vice President, Dean, and Directorof the Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources and has been prepared and distributed at a cost of $2.22 per copy. 0604 6430-12