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  • Butterflies have existed far longer than we have. They first appeared 100 million years ago, whereas Man has been here for a mere five million years. They are found almost everywhere, from sea level to mountain top, from Arctic Tundra through the deserts of Africa and Asia, to the lush tropical regions where they are most abundant and brilliant. Butterflies come in a variety of shapes and sizes. The largest have wingspans of up to 300 mm (12 in), while the smallest pygmy moth has a wingspan of only 3 mm(0.1 in). And their colours are just as varied. In fact, no two butterflies are exactly alike. In this short presentation we will look briefly at the strange and wonderful life cycle of the butterfly.
  • Butterflies

    1. 1. The Life Cycle of the Butterfly by Catherine Carabott Metamorphosis
    2. 2. Phase 1:The Egg <ul><li>After mating the female butterfly lays eggs on the underside of a leaf. </li></ul><ul><li>The eggs are about the size of a pinhead. </li></ul><ul><li>They can be round, oval or cylindrical. </li></ul><ul><li>They are usually white, cream or light green. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Phase 2:The Caterpillar <ul><li>The tiny worm like insect hatches out of the egg. </li></ul><ul><li>It first eats the egg shell then turns to the surrounding leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>It eats enormously and grows to 100 times its original size. </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>The caterpillar has a head and 13 body segments. </li></ul><ul><li>3 real legs and 5 false legs (suckers) </li></ul>The Caterpillar’s Body
    5. 5. Phase 3:The Pupa or Chrysalis <ul><li>When it is time, it attaches itself upside down to a branch. </li></ul><ul><li>It changes colour and its body contracts. </li></ul><ul><li>It spins a girdle of silk round its middle for support. </li></ul><ul><li>It stops feeding, splits its skin for the last time to reveal the pupa. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Phase 4:The butterfly <ul><li>When the changes are complete the case of the pupa splits. </li></ul><ul><li>The butterfly struggles out of the shell. </li></ul><ul><li>Its wings are small and soft at first. </li></ul><ul><li>When these harden, expand and dry the butterfly is ready to fly! </li></ul>
    7. 8. Click on the image to view the video. Click on the arrow or on the white space to go to the next slide.
    8. 9. Life Cycle of the Butterfly Click on the image to view the video. Click on the arrow or on the white space to go to the next slide.
    9. 10. The adult butterfly <ul><li>The butterfly lives only for a few days or weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>The body of the butterfly is divided into 3: the head, thorax and the abdomen. </li></ul><ul><li>It has a pair of compound eyes and two long antennae which help it to smell and touch. </li></ul><ul><li>It has a long tube called the proboscis for sipping nectar. </li></ul>
    10. 12. Coloration <ul><li>The wings are covered by: </li></ul><ul><li>thousands of tiny scales arranged like tiles on a roof and </li></ul><ul><li>they have short stalks which fit into minute sockets on the wing. </li></ul>These create wonderful colours and patterns which produce striking colourful effects.
    11. 13. …… ..why? <ul><li>Colour to recognise: </li></ul><ul><li>other butterflies of their own kinds </li></ul><ul><li>males from females butterflies </li></ul><ul><li>find a mate of their own species </li></ul><ul><li>Colour as a warning: </li></ul><ul><li>Some poisonous and bad-tasting butterflies use their bright colours to advertise they are not eatable </li></ul><ul><li>Colour as a camouflage: </li></ul><ul><li>To protect themselves from enemies by blending into the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Colour as a mimicry device: </li></ul><ul><li>To imitate another insect which is dangerous so that they are avoided by their enemies </li></ul>
    12. 14. Different types of butterflies Queen Alexandras Birdwing The biggest butterfly The Dwarf Blue The smallest butterfly The Painted Lady A migrating species The Cabbage White butterfly The most common butterfly found in Malta.
    13. 15. Some Butterflies of the Maltese Islands Swallow Tail Farfett tal-Fej[el Plain Tiger Farfett ta’ Danaus
    14. 16. Some Butterflies of the Maltese Islands Pigmy Skipper Ba]ri Common Blue Farfett ta’ l-An[lu
    15. 17. Some Butterflies of the Maltese Islands Red Admiral Farfett tal-}urrieq Painted Lady Farfett tax-Xewk
    16. 18. A butterfly’s day ……. <ul><li>Butterflies are usually active only during the day. </li></ul><ul><li>They are cold-blooded, like reptiles. </li></ul><ul><li>They need to get their body heat </li></ul><ul><li>from the sun. </li></ul>
    17. 19. A butterfly’s day ……. <ul><li>They lie in the sun with their wings outstretched. </li></ul><ul><li>They cool themselves by finding shade. </li></ul><ul><li>They shelter under leaves in rain and at night. </li></ul>
    18. 20. How does a butterfly spend its day? <ul><li>They seem to flutter around aimlessly in the sun however their main task is to search for food. </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of food? </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly nectar from flowers however some also feed on </li></ul><ul><li>Rotting fruit </li></ul><ul><li>Aphid’s honeydew </li></ul><ul><li>Tree sap and </li></ul><ul><li>Animal debris </li></ul>
    19. 21. One purpose………… <ul><li>Their main objective is: </li></ul><ul><li>To mate </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>Lay eggs </li></ul>
    20. 22. Friends and Enemies <ul><li>They are our friends because: </li></ul><ul><li>they are very efficient flower pollinators. </li></ul>
    21. 23. Friends and Enemies <ul><li>They are our enemies because: </li></ul><ul><li>hungry caterpillars devour garden and field vegetables. </li></ul>
    22. 24. Friends and Enemies Birds, spiders and wasps feed on caterpillars, pupae and eggs. Spiders also hunt butterflies. Butterflies also have their own enemies.
    23. 25. Migration <ul><li>They stop to rest in trees in bad weather and at night. </li></ul><ul><li>The direction and strength of the wind determines where they end up. </li></ul>Some butterflies migrate: they fly from one part of the world to another. Why? <ul><li>Lack of food </li></ul><ul><li>Overcrowding </li></ul><ul><li>Some cover remarkable distances. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes they arrive in enormous numbers and in other years only a few arrive. </li></ul><ul><li>Cold weather </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in the </li></ul><ul><li>environment </li></ul>
    24. 26. Danger…………..extinction? <ul><li>The numbers of butterflies are sadly decreasing! </li></ul><ul><li>Why? Their habitat is threatened by man! </li></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation : wild areas are being cleared and replanted with agricultural crops </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution : crops are sprayed with pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of specific food plants </li></ul>
    25. 27. A world without butterflies? So what can be done? We can protect them by: <ul><li>Not </li></ul><ul><li>collecting </li></ul><ul><li>butterflies. </li></ul><ul><li>using pesticides. </li></ul>
    26. 28. A world without butterflies? <ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>to </li></ul><ul><li>Planting nectar- </li></ul><ul><li>producing flowers </li></ul><ul><li>Preserving their </li></ul><ul><li>natural habitat. </li></ul>
    27. 29. The End