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Marketing Research - Walmart A Case Study

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Marketing Research - Walmart A Case Study

  1. 1. Research Design & Analysis “Walmart in Australia – A Case Study” Submission date: September 21, 2016 Submitted by Word Count – 4,000 Words Name Sakina Chappalwala Akash Sharma
  2. 2. Walmart in Australia - A Case Study2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. WAL-MART’SMANAGEMENTDECISION PROBLEM AND THE MARKETING RESEARCH PROBLEM FOR EXPANSION INTO AUSTRALIA
 .............................................................................................3 1.1 BRAND ORIGIN....................................................................................................................... 3 1.2 THE DECISION PROBLEM FACED BY MANAGEMENT ..........................................................................3 1.3 THE MARKETING RESEARCH PROBLEM.......................................................................................... 4 1.3.1 The Broad statement of the Market Research Problem................................................... 4 1.3.2 The Specific Componentsof the Market Research Problem.............................................. 4 2. IDEAL TYPE OF RESEARCH DESIGN.............................................................................................5 2.1 EXPLORATORY RESEARCH DESIGN................................................................................................ 5 3. RATIONALE FOR VARIABLES TO BE INVESTIGATED.....................................................................7 3.1 COMPETITION RESEARCH...........................................................................................................7 3.2 SEGMENTATION RESEARCH........................................................................................................7 3.2.1 Demographically Segmented Market............................................................................. 8 3.2.2 Behaviorally Segmented Market.................................................................................... 9 3.3 INSIGHTS ON EXISTING BRAND IMAGE........................................................................................... 9 3.4 KEY BRAND COMMUNICATION ELEMENTS.................................................................................... 10 3.5 DISTRIBUTION RESEARCH......................................................................................................... 10 4. ROLE OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH AND ITS TECHNIQUES ......................................................... 11 4.1 KEY BENEFITS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH FOR UNDERSTANDING THE MANAGEMENT PROBLEM................... 11 4.2 IDEAL QUALITATIVE RESEARCH TECHNIQUE .................................................................................. 11 4.2.1 Focus GroupsMethod................................................................................................. 12 4.2.3 Social Media Monitoring............................................................................................. 12 5. RECOMMENDED SURVEY METHOD ......................................................................................... 13 5.1 ELECTRONIC SURVEY METHODS ................................................................................................ 14 5.1.1 Email Surveys............................................................................................................. 14 5.1.2 Internet surveys using social media.............................................................................. 14 7. SUGGESTED SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE................................................................................ 15 8. SAMPLING PLAN FOR ADMINISTERING THE SURVEY ........................................................... 19 REFERENCES............................................................................................................................... 22 APPENDIX:................................................................................................................................. 26
  3. 3. Walmart in Australia - A Case Study3 1. WAL-MART’S MANAGEMENT DECISION PROBLEM AND THE MARKETING RESEARCH PROBLEM FOR EXPANSION INTO AUSTRALIA 
 1.1 BRAND ORIGIN Wal-Mart is an American Multinational Retail Chain that started as a single discount store, selling the idea of more at everyday low prices and has now grown into the world’s largest retail giant. With nearly 11,500 stores across 28 countries, it has become a known name in households across the world (Wal-Mart Store, Inc 2016). Walmart’s entry into the Australian market has been long due, however there are some considerations that need to be addressed with a thorough marketing research. 1.2 THE DECISION PROBLEM FACED BY MANAGEMENT As stated in Malhotra (2013), Marketing research implies the identification of the management decision problems raised by the decision makers, market experts, secondary data analysis and an in-depth qualitative research. The problem will then need to be solved by identification of relevant qualitative and quantitative data and its analysis. When entering Australia, the biggest challenge faced by Walmart’s management is that of identifying a strategy to survive in the world’s most concentrated supermarket industry where the duopoly of Coles and Woolworths threatens the entire retail industry (Chung 2015). In addition to focus on achieving ‘everyday low prices’ from its new Australian suppliers, Walmart will need to thoroughly research the market potential and market share statistics in order to compete with these two dominating companies (as seen in Figure 1, p.4). The duo commands unprecedented power in Australia, the kind that Walmart has in USA which will not be operationally viable if not dealt with strategic efficiency. The other major concern revolves around Walmart’s existing brand in Australia which is dampened by the accusations of underpaying employees, unfair customer management, exploitation of suppliers in developing countries as also predatory competitive strategies that are causing bankruptcy for most small-scale competitors (Morillo, Mcnally & Block 2015). The management’s positive attitude towards this research is imperative for a successful resolution of the identified problem.
  4. 4. Walmart in Australia - A Case Study4 1.3 THE MARKETING RESEARCH PROBLEM Walmart began building Supercentres in 1988 in The US and grew to understand the market needs and demands gradually over a period of 50 years (Walmart Store, Inc 2016). On the other hand, Australian home brands like Coles and Woolworths founded in 1914 and 1924 respectively have a much deeper understanding of the Australian customers and are almost 100years ahead of Walmart in their market research. Adopting an analytical research model with verbal and graphic elements is the recommended research approach. 1.3.1 THE BROAD STATEMENT OF THE MARKET RESEARCH PROBLEM The marketing research aims at obtaining information required to combat the competitive strategies deployed in the market and how this information can be sourced from secondary data as part of the preliminary research. 1.3.2 THE SPECIFIC COMPONENTS OF THE MARKET RESEARCH PROBLEM The procurement of objective evidence required by the management at Walmart needs to be relevant, accurate, reliable and timely based on Malhotra’s Market research classification seen in figure 1 includes: 1. Competition Research about existing market share and consumer perceptions 2. Segmentation research in identifying the different potential segments for example – segments such as groups preferring locally sourced fresh produce, bakery, deli and dairy products as opposed to the apparel and electronic divisions which can be sourced internationally 3. Information studied from a cause-effect perspective to gain qualitative insights on existing Brand image 4. Brand Communication Elements that attract end consumers 5. Distribution Research to achieve lowest possible prices
  5. 5. Walmart in Australia - A Case Study5 2. IDEAL TYPE OF RESEARCH DESIGN In order to identify the most apt research design, construction of a marketing research design for developing an approach to the problem is important. This acts as a roadmap for conducting this marketing research project. Figure 2.1 illustrates the two basic research design options Malhotra (2013) gives us – Exploratory Research Design and Conclusive Research Design 2.1 EXPLORATORY RESEARCH DESIGN Where conclusive research would help Walmart understand the depth of the market competition it faces in Australia, the exploratory research design will be a more meaningful type of research owing to its flexibility and adaptability benefits. With the information needs loosely defined, exploratory research will allow the management to understand the reason for the nuances in the market as well as the points-of-difference banked by the competitors. As seen earlier, the problem of fierce competition identified is heavily researched and evidenced by industry experts like Roy Morgan, Business Insider and others of their like. As observed in figure 2.2, the duopoly of Coles and Woolworths commands a total of approximately 70% market share as of December 2015, with the German Aldi and Australian IGA standing at a distant 3rd and 4th spot. In a market as tightly held as this, Walmart will need to reinvent itself on various front.
  6. 6. Walmart in Australia - A Case Study6 Australia’s Supermarket’s Share of Market 2007 - 2015 Figure 2.2 – Australia Supermarket’s Share of Market 2007 – 2015 Source Roy Morgan 2016 The exploratory research should be followed by a conclusive research to assist the decision makers in evaluating the proposed research findings and implementing the most suited recommendation. It provides a cost effective platform for analyzing secondary data and preparing the foundations for qualitative primary research. Sizing up the market and its potential at the time of implementing an expansionist move to avoid any failures should be the primary objective of the research design. Surveys of online focus groups and examination of social media content are some of the recommended methods under exploratory research. This is aimed at formulating a well-defined management problem, develop hypothesis to prepare for any alternative courses of action, identification of variables that could help generate meaningful insights into the problem and make room for further research. The marketing research approach best suited for Walmart at this initial stage should comprise of external suppliers of information including – limited service suppliers that provide access to field services, focus groups, qualitative services and other analytical services (Eg. Published Material, Computer databases etc.) as also full service suppliers such as internet and social media platforms. Syndicated Service suppliers such as the Australian Market & Social Research Society, Roy Morgan Research, Australia and The Nielson Co, UK are to be utilized for gathering meaningful information.
  7. 7. Walmart in Australia - A Case Study7 3. RATIONALE FOR VARIABLES TO BE INVESTIGATED Looking at some figures it was found that Walmart grossed US $482 billion in 2015 (Justin, G 2015). That is, if Walmart was a country, it would have the world’s 28th largest GDP (Snyder 2015). However, the retail giant has also been battling issues around it’s vindicated unethical practices from 2003 resulting in 56% of Americans voting on Zogby for the notion “Walmart is bad for America” (Morillo, Mcnally and Block 2015). At the same time, home brands Coles and Woolworths are not new to such flak (Sydney Morning Herald 2016). 3.1 COMPETITION RESEARCH As seen previously in figure 2.2, Coles and Woolworths are Walmart’s biggest competitors commanding 70% of the Australian Supermarket’s market share. Interestingly, of the four major supermarkets – Woolworths, Coles, Aldi and IGA (in the order of market share), IGA has the most loyal customers according to a Roy Morgan press release (2016). Beaton-Wells (2015) notes how Woolworths was falling behind Coles in 2015 but it has now been reversed. Also, Aldi’s share of business is growing overtime capturing some of that from the duopoly whereas brands like IGA enjoy the benefit of proximity and have been able to only scratch the surface so far. In her article, Phillipov (2015) acknowledges the significant public criticism faced by both Coles and Woolworths from farmers, politicians as well as media. The latest findings from Roy Morgan Research (2016) show that a whopping 77% of the Australian consumers visit at least two different supermarkets in an average four weeks. It emphasizes on how supermarket loyalty is close to inexistent in this part of the world. This presents an objective case for Walmart Supercentres’ expansion into Australia. The variables Walmart will need to look into closely therefore include: 3.2 SEGMENTATION RESEARCH In their article, Panday and Pathak (2013) identify a supermarket’s desire for stability in its segment’s structure. This is particularly difficult to achieve given the heterogeneous needs and changing customer preferences over a period of time. In order to identify key potential segments for Walmart, the market research should divide the market in two main variables:
  8. 8. Walmart in Australia - A Case Study8 3.2.1 DEMOGRAPHICALLY SEGMENTED MARKET The inherent competitive advantage established by Walmart is that of being a one-stop shop for buyers ranging from young adults to senior citizens (Walmart Stores, Inc 2016). This qualitative research should look at a smaller but more focused group of data providers that assist in generation of rich descriptions to the assessed problem (Connelly 2013). When conducting geo-demographic coding with the sample audience segmented demographically, according to Smith (2013, p. 76) the target segments to be investigated should include-  Age Group: 18 – 35 years  Gender: Primarily Women  High literacy rate: 99% in youth aged from 15-24 years and 96% adult literacy rate (UNESCO 2016),  Economic Status: Comprising of mainly students and young families who would prefer everyday low prices. The average weekly earnings of $1,141/household (RBA 2016)  Ethnic Backgrounds: Australians are familiar with English but come from a highly diverse number of backgrounds Figure 3.1 – Australian Economy Snapshot Source: RBA 2016
  9. 9. Walmart in Australia - A Case Study9 3.2.2 BEHAVIORALLY SEGMENTED MARKET When segmenting the market behaviorally, it is important to understand the trends existing in the market and the future change possibilities (Chekwa, Martin and Wells 2014). The target segments to be investigated include: 1. Attitudinal Data – For. E.g.: segments such as those preferring locally sourced products 2. Media Consumption insights – For. E.g.: Smartphone Savvy Consumer Segments: More than 60% of Australians use internet on their smartphones more than once a day 3. Customer convenience preference of Supercenters (Walmart) over Supermarkets (Coles and Kmart) 4. Shift in demand towards online retailing with substantial access to computers and internet 5. Impact of loyalty programs like Coles’ Flybuys and Woolworths’ Rewards Card The change in consumer communication preference over a period of time has inclined towards social media platforms which will form the foundations of this research (Patino, Pitta, Quinones 2012). A close look at the online focus group’s user pages on these platforms will allow the exploratory research to delve closely into the components of the research identified previously. 3.3 INSIGHTS ON EXISTING BRAND IMAGE Even though Walmart is easily the World’s largest retail chain, it is definitely not the world’s most appealing organization (Snyder 2015). From 2003 Wal-Mart has been in bad light with setbacks including voters blocking various planned supercenter launches, class-action gender discrimination suits, and exploitation of employees on count of lower than admissible wages and so on (Lake research partners 2005). This can prove detrimental for Walmart’s survival when launched in Australia posing questions about what is the existing brand equity of the brand in this market. This therefore is a major variable that needs investigation. Walmart’s supercentre will need to identify key elements that reflect its unwavering commitment bring value to all its stakeholders.
  10. 10. Walmart in Australia - A Case Study10 3.4 KEY BRAND COMMUNICATION ELEMENTS As seen in figure 3.2, the key brand characteristics to be investigated will include both tangible and intangible attributes (Duncan 2005 as cited in Keller 2013) Despite the various controversies that surrounded Walmart, Kirklin (2006, p.2) claims that the company is not all evil and these accusations are a birth child of the sheer size of the organization (as cited in Morillo, Mcnally and Block 2015). With 269 Walmart stores closing down in the biggest-ever mass closing, the retail giant is already seen making room for it digital operation expansion (Genslar 2016). This will help in improving and establishing a progressive and market leader brand image in the Australian Market. Innovative location-based marketing allows the marketers to reach the buyers right where they are. A further research into consumer brand perceptions, brand management techniques, adoption of digital advertising campaigns and even brand endorsement prospects is essential (Phillipov 2016). 3.5 DISTRIBUTION RESEARCH Assessing alternate supply option is another important variable in this exploratory research. With almost 70% of Walmart’s products sourced from China, a lot of American and European suppliers closed down (Chan 2011). This was to achieve lowest possible prices for its consumers. However, when it comes to fresh produce and grocery items, Walmart will need to source locally. The research needs to identify the most suitable farmers and suppliers especially given the recent controversy faced by Coles on ethical sourcing.
  11. 11. Walmart in Australia - A Case Study11 4. ROLE OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH AND ITS TECHNIQUES With the identification of exploratory research design, the intent of this report is to initiate geo- demographic coding that will combine both internal secondary data sources (i.e. Walmart’s customer databases, data warehousing and mining, CRM and Database marketing) and external secondary data sources (i.e. Syndicated Data, Business Data, Government Data and Social Media sources) identified by Malhotra (2013). Syndicated sources of secondary data are free of bias to a large extent when compared to primary data (Bãlãšescu 2014) making the qualitative research effective as the conclusion may differ from what was expected when the research started. 4.1 KEY BENEFITS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH FOR UNDERSTANDING THE MANAGEMENT PROBLEM 1. Requires a comparatively smaller sample size than quantitative research and is relatively cost efficient (Alvesson 2003) 2. The three key features of qualitative research that set it apart as identified by Branthwaite and Patterson (2011) are: i. A conversation – An Impersonal dialogue ii. Active listening – Assessment of any reluctance or suppressed emotions iii. An Interactive Rapport – Deeper insights once comfort-level is achieved 3. Assists in revealing the differences between the foreign and the domestic market 4. Makes headway for in-depth conclusive research which is quantitative in nature 5. Feelings and emotions that could be used further in advertising research (Silverman 2011) 4.2 IDEAL QUALITATIVE RESEARCH TECHNIQUE The recommended qualitative research procedures curated in Malhotra (2013) are seen in figure 4.1. Walmart must identify qualitative research methods that adopt a direct approach, wherein the participants are aware of the purpose of the research (Alvesson 2003). An appropriate deployment of the direct qualitative research methods of Focus group interviews is more likely to provide insights regarding market share, market competition and consumer preference for Walmart. Incorporation of social media monitoring would further
  12. 12. Walmart in Australia - A Case Study12 facilitate recognition of consumers’ buying behaviour and their openness to welcome the American Walmart culture into Australia (Frost national bank 2010). 4.2.1 FOCUS GROUPS METHOD The dynamic emergence of online focus groups method poses a better suited method due to its ease in recruiting interviewees, building rapport, monitoring and track-keeping. It is touted to provide an understanding of a sample of individuals who are the major buyers of products and services from the Australian super market heavy weights (Coles and Woolworths). Such focus groups also help interpret previously obtained quantitative results as their responses are not restricted by physical intimacy of the interviewer. (Alvesson 2013). 4.2.3 SOCIAL MEDIA MONITORING Use of platforms like Pinterest, Instagram, Snapchat, Facebook and Twitter is increasingly adopted by the Marketing research fraternity primarily because of their intuitive insights into changing trends (Malhotra 2013 as cited by Robertson 2014). Social media monitoring with sentiment analysis would closely assist in reflecting Walmart’s existing brand image as well as that of its competitors. Based on the source of content, the social media posts can be coded as positive, negative or neutral in order to collate responses from various sources regarding similar research questions (Poynter 2011, p. 23).
  13. 13. Walmart in Australia - A Case Study13 5. RECOMMENDED SURVEY METHOD Surveys are one of the most effective ways of collecting descriptive quantitative data. As seen in figure 2.1, this research method falls under the conclusive research category and can help Walmart’s management in assessing the problem and evaluating the due course of action with evidence. Surveys are one of the most efficient sources for collecting descriptive data that can help define the customer personality, behaviour, needs and expectations (Connelly 2013). The insights from qualitative research are used in formulation of questions for such surveys. Surveys are therefore conducted to find out who the consumers are, how they behave and why they behave in certain ways. Malhotra (2013) identifies some effective Survey Methods seen below in figure 5.1- Figure 5.1 – A Classification of Survey Methods Source: Malhotra 2013, Fig 7.4, p. 187 The criteria for selecting a survey method as listed by Malhotra (2013), when applied to Walmart’s case, suggests that electronic survey methods of E-mail surveys and Internet Surveys would be the speediest, most cost efficient and free of interviewer bias. Tailoring the market research methods deployed to understand the scale of market potential and consumer
  14. 14. Walmart in Australia - A Case Study14 preference, in order to investigate the key brand communication characteristics, should be strongly considered by Walmart’s management (Segal and Giacobbe 1994). Sensis (2016) demonstrated comprehensively that the internet usage in Australia was on the rise. 5.1 ELECTRONIC SURVEY METHODS Coles and Woolworths have stores all over Australia and in order to connect with their customer base a large scale survey would need to be done. Electronic surveys are one of the best methods to reach such a large audience. It is especially essential for Walmart as it is trying to conduct a pre-market quantitative research with social desirability being the issue and not sample control. It will aid Walmart in understanding the expectation and preference of consumers better. 5.1.1 EMAIL SURVEYS Email surveys would aid the company in gathering information regarding price, product and purchase patterns directly from consumers. The reminder or follow up process would also become simple with the involvement of electronic devices thereby reducing field work and interviewer bias (Malhotra 2013). These processes should be carried out in a manner that involves hard-to-reach audience. 5.1.2 INTERNET SURVEYS USING SOCIAL MEDIA The study of independent variables and hard facts provide the basis of reliability and validity in any research project (Sapp 2006). Australia had been consistently listed at or near the top of social media usage rankings. According to a survey conducted by Deloitte, 80% of Australian survey respondents used social media in 2015, up from 65% in 2012 (Deloitte 2015). Furthermore, Sensis 2016 reported 87% of Australians access the internet daily. Therefore, the positive figures regarding internet accessibility and increasing dependence on social media point out towards the fact that internet surveys using social media platforms would be a viable medium to gather information on consumer behaviour and preferences.
  15. 15. Walmart in Australia - A Case Study15 6. SUGGESTED SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE Personal Information : Name: Age: ( ) <18 years ( ) 18-25 years ( ) 25-40 years ( ) 40-65 years ( ) >65 years Gender: ( ) Male ( )Female Contact Number: Address: Questionnaire: 1. I visit the supermarket at least- Once a week More than once a week Once in two weeks Once a month 2. How far do you travel to your primary grocery store? Under 2 Kilometers 2 to 10 Kilometers More than 10 Kilometers 3. My typical weekly budget for grocery and home shopping falls in the range of: $ 0 - 50 $50 -100 $100 - 150 $150 - 200 4. Based on the below mentioned elements, please indicate how important are they to you
  16. 16. Walmart in Australia - A Case Study16 5. How likely are you to visit a supermarket because of specials or promotions being advertised, 1 being not likely at all and 7 being extremely likely? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Not at all likely Extremely likely 6. Below are a number of statements regarding attitudes to shopping. Please read these statements and indicate your extent of importance associated with each of them 7. The supercentre’s community engagement is an important factor in selecting my preferred shopping spot 8. How would you rank the following retailers in terms of your personal brand preference? 9. How satisfied are you with the prices of the products you shop from the retailers you ranked No. 1 in question 8?
  17. 17. Walmart in Australia - A Case Study17 10. How would you rate the retailer you ranked No. 1 in question 8 on the following elements of the store’s ambience? 11. Choose your preferred shopping platform for the listed categories? 12. How likely are you to prefer a supercentre (Everything from groceries, apparels, electronics to furniture under one roof) over supermarkets (Different stores for groceries, apparels, electronics, furniture etc.? 13. Have you heard of Walmart Supercentres? Yes No
  18. 18. Walmart in Australia - A Case Study18 14. If you answered ‘Yes’ for question 10, how would you feel about Walmart’s introduction in Australia? Please click on the option 15. How likely are you to try Walmart Pay, a new mobile payment platform like Apple Pay?
  19. 19. Walmart in Australia - A Case Study19 7. SAMPLING PLAN FOR ADMINISTERING THE SURVEY Sampling innovations have changed the way statisticians thought about capturing data from large populations (Brick 2011). Sampling is the observation of some part of a population to get an estimation of the whole population pertaining to the findings relating to the identified management decision problem (Thompson, 2012). Theoretically, there are two types of sampling techniques:  Probability sampling  Non probability sampling The 20th century witnessed a dramatic shift to probability sampling replacing the full enumeration of non-probability sampling. In more recent times, online sampling has become easier to target a more select sample with increasing number of people responding to them., thereby giving us the third sampling technique:  Internet Sampling via Social Media The Sampling Design Process laid down by Malhotra & Birks (2007): Figure 7.1 The Sampling DesignProcess Source: Malhotra and Birks (2007)
  20. 20. Walmart in Australia - A Case Study20 Designing a sampling process for Walmart’s international marketing research is a challenging task as the sample is quite large. Hence, the sampling should be done in a way that the potential sample is chosen randomly from the curated target segments. 7.1 TARGET POPULATION  Age Group: 18 – 35 years  Gender: Primarily Women  Economic Status: Comprising of mainly students and young families who would prefer everyday low prices (EDPL). 7.2 SAMPLING FRAME It is the representation of the elements needed for the target population. The sample frame is to be obtained from the available syndicated sources as there is not much data available on official government websites. This will require provision of a detailed description of the desired retail shopper Walmart wishes to target and any known buying habits that are preferred by the retail giant. 7.3 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE Sampling is an essential step of the process of a typical marketing research. Based on the nature of the identified population and the data that is being collected through sampling of the population, there are several ways for drawing a sample. Some of the sampling techniques are listed below: Figure 5.2 Sampling Techniques Source: Malhotra and Birks (2007)
  21. 21. Walmart in Australia - A Case Study21 Probability sampling on the other hand is the method in which probabilistic chance of selection of each element of the population is fixed and enjoys the benefits of higher accuracy, projectable results and stratification (Malhotra 2013). In favor of Internet sampling, Market Research Association’s Research Industry Index (2014) reports that more than 50% of primary research is now done online. Thus, the two prominent techniques identified for Walmart’s market research needs include: Stratified sampling - The population is divided into various strata and then elements are randomly selected from each stratum. This will balance the precision and sampling costs need for Walmart (Stratified Sampling 2008). Internet Sampling via Social Media- With the surveys at the tap of their fingers, online surveys have been on a rise. With more than 79% of Australians under 55 years of age, owning smartphones (Deloitte 2015, seen in figure 2 – Appendix A), online sampling will help drastically in engaging internet users in more rewarding online surveys resulting in quality samples. The use of survey routers proposes in-the-moment invitation of internet surfers to surveys via online banners, interstitials(pop-ups) and google ad words and more on social media platforms (Brigham, Fallig and Miller 2014). SAMPLING SIZE Sampling size will be based on the qualitative and quantitative research that has been done to make sure that all the elements are included in the study. Methods, like Neyman allocation should be used to select the ideal sample size of the strata (Cingi 1994). SAMPLE EXECUTION All the details in sample design should be implemented carefully so that there is no chance of error. Linking every stage of the Sampling plan to the management and research problem would serve to provide a more meaningly understanding of the perspective for generation of models, research questions as well as analysis (Silverman 2011)
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  26. 26. Walmart in Australia - A Case Study26 APPENDIX: Smartphone Ownership in Australia 2015 (Under 55 years of Age) Figure 2 – Ownership of Smartphones by Australians under 55 years of age Source: Deloitte 2015

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