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Psychology Lecture 1 course 2016.pdf

  1. 1) Psychology is both an applied and academic field that studies the human mind and behavior. Psychology helps us to understand and explain how we think, act and feel.
  2. 1) Psychology is an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors. Psychology has the immediate goal of understanding individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and neurobiological processes that underlie certain cognitive functions and behaviors. 2
  3. Psychologists study mental processes such as perception, cognition, attention, emotion, phenomenology, motivation, brain functioning, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships Early Psychology The word psychology is derived from the Greek word psyche, literally meaning 'life' or 'breath.'
  4. Schools of Thought in psychology: Structuralism Functionalism Psychoanalysis Behaviorism Humanism Cognitivism
  5. Structuralism Structuralism focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components. Major thinkers associated with structuralism include Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener. The structuralists used techniques such as introspection to analyze the inner processes of the human mind. 5
  6. Behaviourism It was based upon the work of thinkers such as: John B. Watson Ivan Pavlov B. F. Skinner Behaviorism suggests that all behavior can be explained by environmental causes rather than by internal forces. Behaviorism is focused on observable behavior. 6
  7. Gestalt therapy Gestalt psychology is a school of psychology based upon the idea that we experience things as unified wholes. Instead of breaking down thoughts and behavior to their smallest elements, the gestalt psychologists believed that you must look at the whole of experience. According to the Gestalt thinkers, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. 7
  8. Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis is a school of psychology founded by Sigmund Freud. This school of thought emphasized the influence of the unconscious mind on behavior. 8
  9. Humanistic psychology Humanistic psychology focused on individual free will, personal growth and the concept of self-actualization. Humanistic psychology emphasises on helping people achieve and fulfill their potential. Major humanist thinkers include: -Abraham Maslow -Carl Rogers 9
  10. Cognitive psychology Cognitive psychology is the school of psychology that studies mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember and learn. This branch of psychology is related to other disciplines including neuroscience, philosophy, and linguistics. 10
  11. Areas of Psychology -Abnormal Psychology is the study of abnormal behavior and psychopathology. It is focused on research and treatment of a variety of mental disorders and is linked to psychotherapy, and clinical psychology. -Biological Psychology, also known as biopsychology, studies how biological processes influence the mind and behavior. This area is closely linked to neuroscience and utilizes tools such as MRI and PET scans to look at brain injury or brain abnormalities.
  12. -Clinical Psychology is focused on the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of mental disorders. -Cognitive psychology studies topics such as attention, memory, perception, decision- making, problem-solving, and language acquisition.
  13. -Comparative Psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the study of animal behavior. This type of research can lead to a deeper and broader understanding of human psychology. -Developmental Psychology study about human growth and development over the lifespan. 13
  14. -Industrial-Organizational Psychology is a field that uses psychological research to enhance work performance, select employee, improve product design, and enhance usability. -Forensic Psychology is an applied field focused on using psychological research and principles in the legal and criminal justice system.
  15. -School Psychology is the branch of psychology that works within the educational system to help children with emotional, social, and academic issues. 15