David Bates (db2dba@student.sunderland.ac.uk) <br />PhD candidate, University of Sunderland, CRMCS)<br />
Overview<br />Asylum and integration – a personal perspective<br />3 stages of British ‘race relations’ <br />‘Race’ and r...
Asylum and integration – a personal perspective<br />researchers should always “be aware of the ways in which their own bi...
In spite of the hardships associated with the asylum process, asylum seekers often integrate very well into the communitie...
INSTITUTIONAL ETHNOGRAPHY: “a means of describing how people’s lives are determined from beyond the scope of their everyda...
2. Multiculturalism
3. Community Cohesion</li></li></ul><li>1. Post-war migrants: hostility and self-help<br />The first voluntary organisatio...
2.  Tolerance, diversity and multiculturalism<br />Labour Home Secretary Roy Jenkins on multicultural integration, 1966: ‘...
3.  Community cohesion and the state<br />Cantle Report (2001): institutionalised differences undermine ‘cohesion’, ‘commo...
‘Race’ and racism in British history<br />‘Race’ has been understood in different ways throughout history: descent, typolo...
Conclusion: Integration and the ‘Big Society’<br />Conservative-Lib Dem Coalition government, May 2010<br />Changing langu...
Bibliography<br /><ul><li>Afridi, A. & Warmington, J. (2009) The Pied Piper: The BME third sector and UK race relations po...
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Border talk history paper

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Border talk history paper

  1. 1. David Bates (db2dba@student.sunderland.ac.uk) <br />PhD candidate, University of Sunderland, CRMCS)<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />Asylum and integration – a personal perspective<br />3 stages of British ‘race relations’ <br />‘Race’ and racism in British history<br />Conclusion: integration and the ‘Big Society’ <br />
  3. 3. Asylum and integration – a personal perspective<br />researchers should always “be aware of the ways in which their own biography is a fundamental part of the research process” (May 2001: 21)<br />Independent Asylum Commission, 2008: <br /><ul><li>“the treatment of asylum seekers falls seriously below the standards to be expected of a humane and civilised society”</li></ul>Poverty and destitution<br />‘Culture of disbelief’<br />Detention <br />Forced removal/deportation<br />
  4. 4. In spite of the hardships associated with the asylum process, asylum seekers often integrate very well into the communities to which they are dispersed<br />“One senior political source yesterday told The Herald of growing suspicions that the Home Office wants to wind down the overall numbers of asylum seekers in Glasgow because of the public outcry when they are removed. The source said: ‘Over the years we’ve had the Dungavel protests, the Ay family and the Glasgow Girls, Precious Mhango and the demonstrations about the dawn raids. This doesn’t happen elsewhere in the UK and you’ve got to ask whether it is less hassle for UKBA to have Glasgow’s asylum seekers elsewhere.’ <br />The Herald, 13th November 2010<br />http://www.heraldscotland.com/news/politics/asylum-seeker-dispersal-is-set-to-start-in-days-1.1068015<br />
  5. 5. INSTITUTIONAL ETHNOGRAPHY: “a means of describing how people’s lives are determined from beyond the scope of their everyday world” with a view to “challenging and transforming a ruling apparatus” <br />(G.W. Smith, 1990: 646) <br />Also requires an understanding of immigration, ‘race relations’ and asylum in their historical context<br />Migration: an ancient phenomena (see Bade 2003; Marfleet 2006)<br />3 stages in British ‘race relations’ post-WWII (Bourne 2007): <br /><ul><li>1. Assimilation
  6. 6. 2. Multiculturalism
  7. 7. 3. Community Cohesion</li></li></ul><li>1. Post-war migrants: hostility and self-help<br />The first voluntary organisations for ‘BME’ communities (Black Minority Ethnic):<br />Self-help and organisation – a willingness to do for ourselves what British society cannot or will not do for us.<br />Mutuality – supporting those community members already here and providing for new arrivals.<br />Political resistance – collective efforts to counter the experience of British racism and discrimination and to build up alternative community provision.<br />Afridi and Warmington (2009: 14)<br />
  8. 8. 2. Tolerance, diversity and multiculturalism<br />Labour Home Secretary Roy Jenkins on multicultural integration, 1966: ‘equal opportunity accompanied by cultural diversity in an atmosphere or mutual tolerance’ (Rex 1995)<br />Bourne (2007): grassroots multiculturalism versus ‘official’ multiculturalism used to address ‘cultural deficit’ of minorities<br />State-sanctioned multiculturalism: ‘a particularist, ethnocentric extension of British colonial policy ‘ (Melotti 1997)<br />
  9. 9. 3. Community cohesion and the state<br />Cantle Report (2001): institutionalised differences undermine ‘cohesion’, ‘common values’, ‘common aims and objectives’ and ‘common moral principles and codes of behaviour’ (Grillo 2007: 986)<br />Commission on Integration and Cohesion: Our Shared Future (2007)<br />Grillo (2007): does this mean cultural differences = unBritish?<br />Pilkington (2008): relies on selective version of national narrative; overlooks political factors which undermine cohesion (war, housing policy, faith schools etc.)<br />
  10. 10. ‘Race’ and racism in British history<br />‘Race’ has been understood in different ways throughout history: descent, typology, subspecies (Banton 1977)<br /> Miles (1993): ‘race’ is ideologically constructed, meaning that there is no single ‘racism’ but many ‘racisms’<br />Barker (1982), Gilroy (1987): contemporary racism draws on ideas of fixed cultural difference and national identity<br />
  11. 11. Conclusion: Integration and the ‘Big Society’<br />Conservative-Lib Dem Coalition government, May 2010<br />Changing language of ‘community relations’<br />Big Society >> greater involvement of ‘civil society’ in community relations >> charities and faith organisations<br />Asylum seekers and integration in the north east<br />Integrated community work<br />Education <br />Religious institutions<br />Media<br />
  12. 12. Bibliography<br /><ul><li>Afridi, A. & Warmington, J. (2009) The Pied Piper: The BME third sector and UK race relations policy (London: Brap)
  13. 13. Bade, K.J. (2003) Migration in European History: The making of Europe (London: Blackwell)
  14. 14. Banton, M (1977) The Idea of Race (London: Tavistock)
  15. 15. Barker, M. (1981) The New Racism: Conservatives and the ideology of the tribe (London: Junction Books)
  16. 16. Bourne, J. (2007) IRR Briefing Paper No.2: In Defence of Multiculturalism (London: Institute of Race Relations)
  17. 17. Gilroy, P. (1987) There Ain’t No Black in the Union Jack (London: Routledge)
  18. 18. Grillo, R. (2007) ‘An excess of alterity? Debating difference in a multicultural society?’ in Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30:6
  19. 19. Independent Asylum Commission (2008) Fit for purpose yet? Report of interim findings (London: IAC)
  20. 20. Marflett, P. (2006) Refugees in a Global Era (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan)
  21. 21. May, T. (2001) Social Research: Issues, methods, process (Buckingham: Open University Press)
  22. 22. Melotti, U. (1997) ‘International migration in Europe: social projects and political cultures’ in Modood, T. &
  23. 23. Miles, R. (1993) Racism after 'Race Relations' (London: Routledge)
  24. 24. Pilkington, A. (2008) ‘From Institutional Racism to Community Cohesion: the Changing Nature of Racial Discourse in Britain’ in Sociological Research Online, 13(3)6
  25. 25. Rex, J. (1995) ‘Multiculturalism in Europe and North America’ Nations and Nationalism, 1:2, pp.243-259
  26. 26. Smith, G.W. (1990) ‘Political Activist as Ethnographer’ Social Problems, Vol. 37: 4, p.646
  27. 27. Werbner, P. (eds.) The politics of multiculturalism in the new Europe: racism, identity, community (London: Zed Books)</li></li></ul><li>Futher reading: asylum today<br />Reynolds, S. (2010) ‘Your inflexible friend: the cost of living without cash’ (Asylum Support Partnership)<br />http://www.refugeecouncil.org.uk/policy/position/2010/azurepaymentcard<br />Refugee Action (2006) ‘The destitution trap: research into destitution among refused asylum seekers in the UK’<br />http://www.refugee-action.org.uk/campaigns/documents/RA_DestReport_Final_LR.pdf<br />Medical Justice et al. (2008) ‘Outsourcing abuse: The use and misuse of state-sanctioned force during the detention and removal of asylum seekers’<br />http://www.medicaljustice.org.uk/images/stories/reports/outsourcing%20abuse.pdf<br />Burnett, J. Et al. (2010) ‘State Sponsored Cruelty: Children in immigration detention’(Medical Justice)<br />http://www.medicaljustice.org.uk/images/stories/reports/sscfullreport.pdf<br />

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