Buro Happold - Health & Science Hot Topics 2010


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Buro Happold - Health & Science Hot Topics 2010

  1. 1. Scientific sector Hot topics, approaches and case studies The engineering of excellence
  2. 2. Buro Happold Introduction The current environment presents many challenges to the designers of scientific research facilities. and consultants who are expert in many sectors and who strive to bring about cross-fertilization of The requirement to deliver and operate buildings in a more sustainable way will continue to ideas from one area to another. Our specialist design team is well suited to the specific needs of our increase, along with the need to boost research effectiveness by improving the efficiency with scientific clients. which basic tasks are completed – as well as stimulating the creativity so vital to breakthrough ideas. Connecting together our thoughts and learning from Buro Happold’s global network, a number Providing flexibility to accommodate changing technology and organisational structures also has of important themes and issues have emerged. As you will read in this document, our thorough to be considered in the development of scientific facilities, in order to reduce the need for future knowledge of these issues – together with our technical and creative skills – enable us to design investment and avoid scientists having to operate in ‘compromised’ workspaces. highly creative and effective scientific environments. The design and engineering of the physical environment all have a major impact on the issues If you have any queries regarding this document, or would like more information on the services facing the scientific sector, and an innovative approach is key in facing these challenges. We are we provide, please do not hesitate to contact me. To find out more about our work in this and other committed to working with clients and architects to achieve exceptional outcomes, and believe that sectors take a look at www.burohappold.com and go to news > publications. innovative thinking is best delivered by taking an interdisciplinary approach to design. Andy Parker At Buro Happold we understand that real value and great ideas come from interaction between the Global Sector Director, Buro Happold different disciplines that deliver complex projects. We have in-house a broad spectrum of engineers andy.parker@burohappold.com Front cover: Bard College, Center for Science and Computation, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY, USA. Image: Freinknops. This page: Alsion Campus Syddansk University, Denmark Image: 3XNielsen Architects / Adam Mork Back cover: York University Biosciences Research Facility, UK Image: Buro Happold / Adam Wilson 2 3
  3. 3. Project showcase Delivering innovative solutions with world class architects Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC) Pinderfields Pathology Lab Scottish Centre for Regenerative Medicine (SCRM) Stanley Primary Care Centre University of Sheffield, UK Wakefield, UK University of Edinburgh, UK Stanley, Durham, UK Architect: Bond Bryan Architect: Building Design Partnership Architect: Sheppard Robson Architect: Steffian Bradley Architects 7 2 1 3 4 5 6 1 Sunshade 2 Rainscreen panel 3 Green roof 4 Glass-backed fume hoods 5 Sunshade 6 Curtainwall Brandeis University 7 Flexible lab casework system Health & Safety Laboratories Wales Institute for Sustainable Education (WISE) MA, USA Buxton, UK Machynlleth, UK Architect: Payette Architect: DLA Architecture Architect: Pat Borer and David Lea Architects Bard College, Center for Science and Computation Sighthill Campus, Napier University Annandale-on-Hudson, NY, USA University of Edinburgh, UK Architect: Rafael Vinoly Architects PC Architect: RMJM architects Nanoscience and Quantum Information Laboratory Open University Jennie Lee Building Alsion Campus York University Biosciences Research Facility University of Bristol, UK Milton Keynes, UK Syddansk University, Denmark York, UK Architect: Capita Architecture Architect: Swanke Hayden Connells Architects Architect: 3XN Architects Architect: Anshen Dyer
  4. 4. The key issues An overview of our problem-solving capabilities in the scientific sector 10 13 14 19 20 28 30 8 Optimal environments 22 Sustainable Design Designing high quality environments suitable for world class Helping clients to meet sustainability targets and create positive scientific buildings working environments 10 Interactive spaces: Modern science requires spaces that encourage 26 Meeting carbon targets: Applying practical, low carbon strategies saves structured and informal interaction energy and reduces emissions 12 Acoustics and vibration: Controlling acoustic and vibration levels protects 27 BREEAM and LEED assessment: Tailoring sustainable solutions to sensitive laboratory equipment individual project requirements ensures targets are met 14 Lighting and ventilation: Effective lighting and ventilation provides 28 Passive and low energy design: Utilising passive design achieves comfortable, low energy environments a sustainable outcome while improving occupant comfort 30 Use of renewable energy sources: Renewable energy sources can contribute to meeting carbon targets and reducing costs 16 Adding value Delivering elegant and functional buildings that achieve 31 Sustainable materials: Using the most appropriate materials can have Scientific hot topics, approaches and case studies exceptional value environmental benefits and aesthetic appeal 18 Flexible construction and design: Flexible buildings meet present needs while enabling future changes of use 32 Working in partnership 20 Reducing energy costs in operation: Features that reduce energy Collaborating with the client and design team to achieve consumption have environmental and cost saving benefits a holistic approach 21 Post occupancy evaluation: POE assesses buildings to optimise 34 Stakeholder and client involvement: Working closely with clients and performance and reduce energy costs stakeholders ensures all requirements are met 21 ICT: A sophisticated, future ready ICT infrastructure facilitates cutting edge 35 Multi-disciplinary working: Our comprehensive range of integrated technology services adds value to the design process 6 7
  5. 5. Buro Happold Optimal Environments Improving the scientific experience through quality design A multi-disciplinary approach is particularly valuable for meeting the specialised demands of the “By designing ergonomically scientific sector. Good design goes beyond the physical fabric alone – as well as being efficient a building must be supportive of its purpose. By understanding the complex needs of the sector, with ease of operation in the latest engineering solutions can be applied to provide cutting edge facilities, while creating stimulating working environments for the occupants. mind, we are able to create As pioneers in the use of sustainable strategies and and daylighting in the most environmentally friendly technologies, we are able to influence all areas of the way, it is possible to make a building more comfortable, design to deliver a solution that is best suited to a sustainable and easy to maintain over its entire lifecycle. building’s use, while reducing operational costs where interactive and efficient working possible. Working as part of an integrated team, our engineers are able to advise on issues such as low energy facades, external shading systems, integrated building Acoustic and vibration levels are another major consideration when designing the right conditions for scientific buildings. Using computer modelling and environments that promote services and passive climate control. sound surveys to assess the acoustic environment within a room – as well as external noise and break-in Summer temperatures and the amount of natural light from adjoining rooms – we are able to guide the often present major environmental design challenges design to help our clients meet the required acoustic world class science.” which affect the quality of space in laboratory buildings. By optimising natural heating, ventilation performance targets. Andy Parker Global Sector Director, Buro Happold Scientific hot topics, approaches and case studies Image: Buro Happold / Adam Wilson York University Biosciences Research Facility, UK 8 9
  6. 6. CASE STUDY 2: The brief to create a new headquarters based in naturally lit by re-directional blinds at Optimal Environments Cambridge, MA for Genzyme Corporation, one the building’s perimeter and the top- Interactive spaces of the world’s leading biotechnology companies, involved creating a highly sustainable building that lit central atrium. To further enhance lighting levels, heliostats – large mirrors that provides an exemplary working environment for mechanically rotate to catch the sun – are mounted occupants. on the roof. A building management system monitors the climate in the office to detect poor The atrium houses extensive internal gardens, air quality, while individual thermostats allow It is well known that there is a strong link between creative, seating areas and cafes, creating a central space that occupants to adjust their personal environments. innovative ideas and interaction. It is also recognised that CASE STUDY 1: unites the work areas and encourages interaction. Genzyme Center’s energy costs are estimated to be people’s behaviour is modified by their surroundings. Our The open plan nature of the space combined with 42% less than that of a comparable building. objective in designing laboratory buildings is to create One of the key drivers on the the extensive use of clear glass provides a direct link spaces that encourage and facilitate interaction. Bard Centre for Science and between all of the internal spaces. Informal meeting A study by the Genzyme Corporation completed Computation project was ensuring areas, such as chairs in the gardens and ‘huddle after occupation found that 72% of staff members Research has shown that people’s availability for that laboratories and classrooms were areas’ in the corridors, facilitate collaboration. felt that the new office environment made them interaction is higher when they are on the move and designed to encourage interaction between more alert and productive, while 75% said that therefore environments that promote interaction have the departments at the college in fields such as The building’s green agenda has improved the the clear glass design increased their sense of streets rather than corridors, and open, transparent work bio-informatics and neuroscience. The Center’s working environment as well as earning a LEED connection with colleagues. spaces. The architecture of these spaces is exciting, and laboratories are based on an open plan model, Platinum rating. All of the workstations are rarely will a standard engineering approach deliver the with flexible loft space than can be adapted quality environment required. Our excellence in innovative if necessary in the future. The building design engineering is highly suited to these challenges. incorporates glass exterior walls, a large atrium, and an open floor plan featuring flexible Image: Rafael Vinoly Architects multidisciplinary spaces for teaching, research Bard College, Center for Science and Computation, and discussion. Annandale-on-Hudson, NY, USA The lobby contains four free standing pods clad in copper, stainless steel and zinc, that house an auditorium, two lecture rooms and a seminar room, with public gathering areas between them. The faculty offices cantilever above the lobby and are accessed via an open corridor that overlooks the lobby, encouraging student and faculty staff interaction. The use of the glass exterior walls provides a visual link with the rest of the campus, again encapsulating the theme of interaction. Similarly, the Exeter University Forum project involves creating a public ‘street’ space where students can meet, hold informal meetings and exchange ideas. The street will join together existing buildings under and ETFE, glass and timber gridshell roof, providing a naturally lit and ventilated space. The street will also include teaching spaces, laboratories and study rooms. Scientific Capability Statement Image: Behnisch, Behnisch & Partner Image: Wilkinson Eyre Architects Exeter University Forum, UK Genzyme Headquarters, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 10 10 11
  7. 7. Buro Happold Optimal Environments Image: Liz Eve / fotohaus Acoustics and vibration Acoustics is integral to the successful design and ‘experience’ of a building – evidence suggests that CASE STUDY 3: the internal environment affects human health, communication and productivity. Our acoustic specialists One of the key elements in use advanced 3D modelling techniques to advise on core the design of York University issues such as room acoustics, insulation, building fabric Bioscience Research Facility and facades, as well as the acoustic impact of low energy was the need to ensure that the space was strategies such as thermal mass. suitable for the very sensitive equipment used in the rapidly developing micro and nano Vibration levels from both external and internal sources technologies. Vibration needed to be reduced can be a particular issue for laboratories, as often the to a minimum so that the performance of the highly sensitive specialist equipment cannot function sensitive microscopes - used for the production accurately when subjected to vibrations above low levels. of microchips where the highest precision is CASE STUDY 4: The need to develop a solution that has an acceptable required – was not affected. level of vibration is an important part of the initial stages Buro Happold has been part of the of laboratory design. Traditionally a concrete framed building is used Nanoscience and Quantum Information (NS & QI) design and commissioning team for for a facility with these requirements, but a Laboratory at the University of Bristol, UK the state-of-the-art Nanoscience and feasibility study carried out by Buro Happold Quantum Information (NS & QI) Laboratory at showed that, after modification, a steel framed the University of Bristol. The building is home solution could deliver similar performance to an inter-disciplinary research community characteristics at a lower cost. Further detailed drawn from science, engineering and medicine, analysis of the steel frame was conducted to bringing together the best minds in the field of estimate the quantitative performance against nanotechnology. the laboratory usage classes of ISO 2631. Testing of the laboratory floor in its bare state was also The city centre location of the state of the carried out and compared against analytical art laboratory led to various challenges to models. The results proved that the structure ensure that the building was suitable for behaved as predicted, achieving the same the highly sensitive equipment used inside. performance levels as a concrete frame, while Novel techniques were required to isolate the also resulting in a £200,000 saving for the client. laboratories from local sources of vibration and acoustic noise, such as traffic, footfall and plant Ground floor levels are often particularly An example of a two-dimensional Finite-Element model machinery. The scientific laboratories have been sensitive to vibration, so to further protect the used to assess the vibrational performance of one of the designed to provide vibration and acoustic noise equipment in these areas, ‘zones’ were created NS & QI labs. performance levels that are amongst the lowest using isolated floors to minimise the impact of achieved anywhere in the world. Scientific hot topics, approaches and case studies external and internal vibrations. Buro Happold’s vibration and acoustics specialists measured and assessed the performance of the laboratories under various conditions. We advised the University on ways Image: Buro Happold / Adam Wilson in which the building can be made even quieter, using advanced numerical modelling techniques to test proposed enhancements and inform the design process. Detailed investigations were Images: Buro Happold carried out into the possible effects on the Results of a two-dimensional Finite-Element model, showing laboratories when constructing new buildings in a stress wave propagating out from a sharp impact. the immediate vicinity. York University Biosciences Research Facility, UK 12 13
  8. 8. Buro Happold CASE STUDY 5: The new Sighthill Campus project Optimal Environments at Napier University includes the Lighting and ventilation refurbishment of 8,400m2 of existing accommodation and 13,900m2 of new build facilities for the schools of Health, Life and Social Sciences along with university faculty and support offices. To ensure daylighting was utilised as much as possible, Buro Happold’s There can be many benefits in maximising the use work at the early stages of the design was Imperial College Business School, London, UK of natural daylight and ventilation in buildings, from focused on form and orientation. A detailed achieving carbon savings and reducing costs to shading analysis was carried out to inform improving the working conditions of the occupants. the massing of buildings on the site in order While it is important for scientific buildings to contribute to optimise access to available daylight. The to reducing the UK’s carbon emissions and to reduce resulting design is a pavilion arrangement, operational costs where possible, it is also important to with two separate blocks housing the office provide facilities that meet the needs of the staff and and academic areas divided by a central glazed their work. We are focused on helping clients obtain atrium street. In addition to contributing to the the most sustainable and cost effective solutions while environmental strategy our solutions saved the maintaining user comfort and building functionality. client money, as there is less need for mechanical cooling, heating and ventilation systems. The ventilation strategy of the refurbished structure was determined by the floor to floor heights, which proved insufficient for optimal ventilation effectiveness. To overcome this issue a series of natural ventilation stacks were placed at the rear of the offices to facilitate natural cross flow ventilation. This innovative system combines engineered perimeter openings and automated natural ventilation stacks to provide enhanced effective air flow. Extensive computational fluid dynamic modelling was undertaken to demonstrate that the proposed cross ventilation scheme will improve occupancy comfort conditions. CASE STUDY 6: The glass facade of the new atrium at Imperial to the basement plant room from an air College Business School provides a stunning handling unit mounted on the roof. This entrance to the existing building. The facade air is heated to the required temperature presented environmental challenges as it effectively and supplied to the lower ground and entrance area enclosed the existing offices, lecture theatres and through grilles. Stale air is mechanically extracted at workshops, which previously had access to windows high level. Scientific hot topics, approaches and case studies for natural ventilation. Our specialists carried out an analysis of the space to illustrate to the client In summer, the atrium conditioning also uses that the temperature in the internal environment a displacement ventilation strategy combined would not be compromised by the new facade. The with underfloor cooling. The fresh air supplied strategy devised for optimising the environment to the basement plant is cooled to the required within the atrium involved combining displacement temperature and distributed as in winter. Use of a ventilation with underfloor heating and cooling in cooled slab assists the cooled air to remain at a low winter and summer. level enabling it to be thrown further, improving the performance of the displacement ventilation. In winter, displacement ventilation is combined with underfloor heating to provide a radiant warming to the occupied space. Tempered fresh air is supplied Early site shading analysis to inform the form, orientation and grouping of the buildings on the Napier University site. 14 15
  9. 9. Buro Happold Adding Value Getting more from your investment in the long term Helping clients to achieve better value for their investment, while still delivering outstanding “Future flexibility for any facilities, is an important consideration in the scientific sector. With their specialised construction requirements and range of functions – from hazardous containment areas to classified rooms changes of use is something for working with pathogens or radiation – research facilities present a unique set of engineering challenges. An integrated approach can meet the demands of the sector, while considering the need to deliver a project that is both cost effective and sustainable. that always needs to be There are many ways in which we are able to use our experience and technical skills to help clients get the We have an in-depth understanding of current legislation for the built environment and can provide considered in laboratories, both best value for money, while protecting their investment expert advice on issues such as energy efficiency, in the long term. We apply a wide range of strategies carbon reduction, passive design, sustainability and during both the development and operational phases building management. Buro Happold is experienced to add value and promote the best commercial interests in working with clients from both the commercial and in terms of the engineering of our clients, from the use of flexible construction methods to low energy technologies. After completion, we offer post occupancy advice to evaluate how the education sectors, so whether a project is a privately funded building or forms part of a university campus, we can provide a tailored solution to ensure a high quality and the long-term commercial building is functioning, and if any improvements can outcome that offers value throughout its lifecycle. be made to reduce running costs and improve building performance. viability.” Jason Gardner Associate Director, Buro Happold Scientific hot topics, approaches and case studies Image: Buro Happold / Adam Wilson York University Biosciences Research Facility, UK 16 17
  10. 10. Buro Happold Adding Value Flexible construction and design The speed of technological and management change means that it is important to design laboratories that are CASE STUDY 7: both flexible and adaptable while being cost-effective to build and maintain. Whether an educational facility Flexibility to enable future changes or a commercial building, laboratory design needs to of use was an important element consider issues such as changes in team sizes and the in the design of York University integration of new equipment. To deliver economical Bioscience Research Facility. The building and future-proof solutions we consider key aspects accommodates research teams of differing such as flexibility of space planning, accessible primary sizes – from individuals to larger groups – which services distribution, use of prefabrication, and the future can change over time. This required a flexible planning of ICT connectivity. Buro Happold’s experience approach to allow the facilities to be modified in improving and extending existing buildings enables us to suit changing requirements. The building was to advise clients on the best way to use existing stock to designed as a modular grid, with a services spine adapt to future needs. running down the main corridor. This allowed for the room sizes to be altered without having to move the services. Similarly, flexibility was an important Image: Buro Happold / consideration in the structural design of the new build academic accommodation at Napier Adam Wilson University’s Sighthill Campus. The structural Stanley Primary Care Centre, Stanley, UK solution that Buro Happold’s engineers applied allowed for future flexibility while maintaining CASE STUDY 8: a high quality finish. The hybrid structure uses precast concrete planks on a steel frame, which The impressive new Stanley Primary Care floor structure create generous contributes to the environmental strategy as the Centre in County Durham has been designed to column-free spaces, while lightweight concrete is exposed at a high level, providing provide a wide range of healthcare services to demountable partitions form the internal York University Biosciences Research Facility, UK thermal mass. This composite solution uses the town’s population and the surrounding area walls. The ease of moving the walls, coupled with precast concrete elements that fit into the in an appealing and well equipped environment. the lack of primary structure, has resulted in a depths of a steel frame, with a flat soffit that The facility replaces the existing health centre in building that is adaptable to changes of use as well Images: Nigel Gallagher, Bluepost Photography is both flexible and provides the aesthetic Stanley but also provides additional services such as being fit for purpose. appearance that is required by the architect and as x-ray diagnostics, a minor ops suite and a Child Development Centre. Buro Happold has provided a The 76-bed, state of the art Lanchester Road the client. range of engineering services at both Stanley PCC Hospital provides adult mental health and learning and Durham’s new Lanchester Road Hospital, which disability services and has been designed to provide Scientific hot topics, approaches and case studies together form the Durham and Derwentside PFI a safe, pleasant and therapeutic environment for project. patients. As at Stanley, future flexibility has been achieved by adopting relatively simple structural The structure of Stanley PCC has been constructed systems that are cost effective and efficient while to allow total flexibility for future re-configuration of enhancing the architectural concept. Load bearing room layouts to suit the changing requirements of masonry and timber-trussed rafter roofs form the the Healthcare Trust. A solution was developed that majority of the room blocks, while there are two allowed the majority of non-corridor internal rooms elements of steel frame construction: an elliptical to be non-load bearing, providing the option to steel-framed ‘ambulatory’ courtyard and a circular remove certain walls without the need for costly and entrance foyer featuring exposed timber beams and disruptive structural works at a later date. columns. Image: RMJM A long span steelwork frame and a pre-cast concrete Sighthill Campus at Napier University, UK 18 19
  11. 11. Buro Happold Adding Value Adding Value Reducing energy costs in operation Post occupancy evaluation Design features that reduce the consumption of energy and water have both Many issues with new and refurbished buildings – techniques, our in-depth evaluations include desktop environmental and cost saving benefits. Our engineers are able to assess the needs for example, insufficient insulation, poor ventilation and thermal imaging studies, air-tightness testing and of the end user, incorporating systems that enable laboratory functions to operate and inefficient control systems – cannot always be occupant comfort surveys. successfully, while reducing energy use where possible. We look at all aspects of the identified at design and construction stage. Post building’s make up – from the building fabric to the internal systems – to ensure occupancy evaluation (POE) is an effective method Our experts work closely with the end user to identify opportunities for solar shading, natural ventilation and daylighting are maximised. of assessing buildings and how they are functioning, how a building needs to work for them, and what Intelligent building management systems can also be used to monitor local while identifying ways to improve building design, steps should be taken to achieve the best results. conditions and control energy usage. performance and fitness for purpose. By using POE and This participation with the client can lead to a greater our extensive knowledge of the built environment, we commitment to solutions we introduce, and a greater are able to advise on issues such as reducing carbon willingness to adapt to new ways of operating the site. emissions in line with increasingly tight benchmarks and how to save money on operational costs. Portland Building, University of Plymouth, UK POE provides the design team with valuable data which can be used to recommend the best value options for clients. By enabling us to quantify the sustainability of CASE STUDY 9: occupied buildings and advise on changes to practice or policy, POE becomes a vital tool for optimising the “With the help of Buro Happold, we have On Sheffield University’s Advanced performance of both new and refurbished buildings. For Manufacturing Research Centre Image: Buro Happold / Mandy Reynolds managed to arrive at a solution that (AMRC) project, our engineers applied this reason, investing in a POE can reap rewards many times over, not only by reducing energy costs but also effectively minimises our environmental a hierarchy of features, looking firstly at the by enhancing the quality and comfort of the learning or building form and how it will use energy. The impact, while working within demanding building’s location on an exposed site led to the living space. budgetary constraints.” use of wind turbines as the preferred choice for Using ‘Soft Landings’ – an approach that provides a providing all of the building’s power needs. service aimed at improving building performance David Briggs University of Sheffield Estates Department from day one - our specialists engage at the earliest Two 250 watt wind turbines provide sufficient opportunity in a project to provide guidance on post energy – approximately 600,000 kWh per occupancy utilisation and assist the design teams year – to achieve carbon neutrality. During in creating the vision behind the project in terms of periods of low demand, the turbines feed any functionality, usability, manageability, energy efficiency, CASE STUDY 10: excess electricity generated back to the grid. By environmental performance and occupant satisfaction. generating all of the energy onsite, the client Incorporating lecture theatres, This is supported with post occupancy studies to inform may save approximately £150,000 annually in teaching spaces and office the client and to allow fine tuning of the building to utility bills. Additionally, the turbines have a life accommodation, the Portland ensure optimum performance and user satisfaction. expectancy in excess of 20 years, providing more Building at the University of Plymouth We are able to work with end users to educate them on value for the client. enables the Faculty of the Environment to exist how to get the best out of their buildings, working with as a single complex on the campus. A strong To complement the use of the wind turbines, the existing staff and their skills set to assist them in environmental agenda was central to the brief, our engineers added ground source heat pumps operating new control systems. Using advanced analysis which required sustainable solutions for cooling, Image: Buro Happold / Daniel Hopkinson (GSHP) to provide low grade hot water, which is ventilation and lighting. Buro Happold carried used to supply the underfloor heating system as out a post-occupancy evaluation to ensure that well as provide chilled water in the summer for low energy performance was being achieved cooling. Crucially, the GSHP are powered by the during the first year of operation. The process electricity provided by the turbines. As they use also allowed us to ‘bed in’ the mechanical and energy very efficiently, the building maximises electrical systems and tailor their control to suit Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC), the energy produced by the turbines. occupant needs. University of Sheffield, UK 20 21