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Orodispersible liquisolid compacts
Presented by:
Pranali .M.Palandurakar
University department of Pharmaceutical
sciences R.T.M.N.U
INTRODUCTION
 Liquisolid technique is a new and promising method which is used to
enhance dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs.
 This new technique may be applied to formulate liquid medications
into powders suitable for tableting or encapsulation.
 Orodispersible formulations rapidly disintegrate and/or dissolve to
release the drug as soon as they come in contact with saliva, thus
without the need for water during administration .
 Thus, it improves the patient’s compliance and highly attractive for
pediatric and geriatric patients .
LIQUISOLID SYSTEM:
 This technique is applied to incorporate water insoluble drugs into
rapid release solid dosage forms.
COMPONENTS OF LIQUISOLID SYSTEMS
 Carrier Materials: These are compression-enhancing, relatively large,
preferably porous particles possessing a sufficient absorption property
which contributes in liquid absorption.
Ex-Various grades of cellulose, starch, lactose, sorbitol, Avicel PH 102
and 200, Eudragit RL and RS, amorphous cellulose etc.
 Coating Materials: These are flow-enhancing, very fine (10 to 5,000 nm in
diameter), highly adsorptive coating particles contributes in covering the
wet carrier particles and displaying a dry-looking powder by adsorbing any
excess liquid.
Ex-Silica of various grades like Cab-O-Sil M5, Aerosil 200, Syloid 244FP etc.
 Non-Volatile Solvents: Inert, high boiling point, preferably water-
miscible and not highly viscous organic solvent systems.
Ex-Polyethylene glycol 200 and 400, glycerin, polysorbate 80 and propylene
glycol, polysorbates, glycerin, N, N- dimethylacetamide, fixed oils, etc.
 Disintegrants: Superdisintegrants increases the rate of drug release,
water solubility and wettability of liquisolid granules.
Ex-Sodium starch glycolate and crosspovidone and croscarmellose sodium are
used.
MECHANISMS OF ENHANCEMENT OF
DRUG RELEASE
 Increased drug surface area
 In liquisolid system the surface area of drug available for drug release is much
greater than that of drug particles within directly compressed tablets because
the drug present in the liquisolid system is completely dissolved in the liquid
vehicle and present in the powder substrate still in a solubilized, molecularly
dispersed state
 In the liquid solid formulation, the release rate of the drug is directly
proportional to the fraction of the molecularly dispersed drug (FM).
FM= Sd/Cd
Where,
FM-fraction of the molecularly dispersed drug .
Sd- drug solubility
Cd- Actual drug concentration
 Increased aqueous solubility of the drug
In addition to the first mechanism of drug release enhancement, it is expected
that the solubility of the drug might be increased with liquisolid
Increased wettability
The non-volatile solvent present in the liquisolid system provides wetting of drug
particles by decreasing interfacial tension between tablet surface and dissolution
medium so the contact angle of liquisolid system is lower when compared to the
conventional formulation thus improved wettability .
APPLICATIONS OF LIQUISOLID
 Liquisolid compact technology is a powerful tool to improve bioavailability of
water insoluble drugs. Several water insoluble drugs on dissolving in different
nonvolatile solvents have been formulated into liquisolid compacts.
 Different drugs can be incorporated into liquisolid compacts.
 Rapid release rates.
 Used for water insoluble solid drugs or liquid lipophilic drugs.
 Sustained release of drugs.
 Solubility and dissolution improvement.
 Flowability and compressibility.
 Designing of controlled release tablets.
 Bioavailability enhancement.
 Application in probiotics.
 Improvement of drug photostability.
ORODISPERSIBLE TABLETS
 Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) defines ODT in the
‘Orange Book’ as “a solid dosage form containing medicinal
substances, which disintegrates rapidly, usually within a matter of
seconds, when placed upon the tongue”.
DRUG SELECTION CRITERIA FOR
ODTs
The drug to be formulate as orodispersible liquisolids must have following criterias:
 Drug should able to saturate the oral mucosa,
 At least moderately non-ionized at oral cavity pH,
 Ability to diffuse and partition into the epithelium of upper GIT,
 Small to moderate molecular weight,
 Low dose drugs mostly less than 50 mg,
 Good stability in saliva and water,
ADVANTAGES OF ODTs
 Administration to the patients who cannot swallow, such as the elderly, stroke
victims, bedridden patients, patients affected by renal failure & patients who
refuse to swallow such as paediatric, geriatric & psychiatric patients gives
better patient compliance
 Rapid drug therapy.
 Increased bioavailability/rapid absorption through pregastric absorption of
drugs from mouth, pharynx & oesophagus as saliva passes down.
 The risk of chocking during oral administration of conventional formulations
due to physical obstruction is avoided, thus providing improved safety.
 Good mouth feel property helps to change the perception of medication as
bitter pill particularly in paediatric patients
METHOD OF PREPARATION OF ORODISPERSIBLE
LIQUISOLID SYSTEM
Solid drugs
+
Non-volatile
solvent
Drug in solution
or suspension
Liquid drugs
Liquid medication
Wet particles
Liquisolid system
Final formulation
Tabletting or encapsulation
Carrier
material
Coating
material
Addition of
other
excipients
or
CHARACTERIZATION OF
ORODISPERSIBLE LIQUISOLID:
a) Solubility studies: Solubility studies are carried out by preparing saturated
solutions of drug in non-volatile solvent and analyzing them
spectrophotometrically. Saturated solutions are prepared by adding excess of
drug to non volatile solvent and shaking them on shaker for specific time
period under constant vibration. After this, the solutions are filtered and
analyzed spectrophotometrically
b) Determination of angle of slide: Angle of slide is used as a measure of the
flow properties of powders. Determination of angle of slide is done by
weighing the required amount of carrier material and placed at one end of a
metal plate with a polished surface. The end is gradually raised till the plate
becomes angular to the horizontal at which powder is about to slide. This
angle is known as angle of slide. Angle of 33º is regarded as optimum
c) Determination of flowable liquid retention potential (Φ-value): The
term "flowable liquid- retention potential" (Φ-value) of a powder material
describes its ability to retain a specific amount of liquid while
maintaining good flow properties. The Φ-value is defined as the
maximum weight of liquid that can be retained per unit weight of the
powder material in order to produce an acceptably flowing liquid/powder
admixture. The Φ values are calculated according to equation
Φ value = weight of liquid / weight of solid
d) Calculation of liquid load factor (Lf): Different concentrations of non-
volatile solvents are taken and the drug is dissolved. Such liquid
medication is added to the carrier-coating material admixture and
blended. Drug loading factors are determined and used for calculating
the amounts of carrier and coating materials in each formulation.
Lf = WLM/ WCM
Where:
WLM is weight of liquid medication
WCM is weight of carrier material.
e) Liquisolid compressibility test (LSC): The Liquisolid compressibility test
is used to determine Φ values and involves steps such as preparing
carrier coating material admixture systems, preparing several uniform
liquid or powder admixtures, compressing each liquid or powder
admixtures to tablets, assessing the average hardness, determination of
the average liquid content of crushed tablets, as well as determining
plasticity, sponge index and Φ value and Lf .
Orodispersible liquisolid compacts

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Orodispersible liquisolid compacts

  • 1. Orodispersible liquisolid compacts Presented by: Pranali .M.Palandurakar University department of Pharmaceutical sciences R.T.M.N.U
  • 2. INTRODUCTION  Liquisolid technique is a new and promising method which is used to enhance dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs.  This new technique may be applied to formulate liquid medications into powders suitable for tableting or encapsulation.  Orodispersible formulations rapidly disintegrate and/or dissolve to release the drug as soon as they come in contact with saliva, thus without the need for water during administration .  Thus, it improves the patient’s compliance and highly attractive for pediatric and geriatric patients .
  • 3. LIQUISOLID SYSTEM:  This technique is applied to incorporate water insoluble drugs into rapid release solid dosage forms.
  • 4. COMPONENTS OF LIQUISOLID SYSTEMS  Carrier Materials: These are compression-enhancing, relatively large, preferably porous particles possessing a sufficient absorption property which contributes in liquid absorption. Ex-Various grades of cellulose, starch, lactose, sorbitol, Avicel PH 102 and 200, Eudragit RL and RS, amorphous cellulose etc.  Coating Materials: These are flow-enhancing, very fine (10 to 5,000 nm in diameter), highly adsorptive coating particles contributes in covering the wet carrier particles and displaying a dry-looking powder by adsorbing any excess liquid. Ex-Silica of various grades like Cab-O-Sil M5, Aerosil 200, Syloid 244FP etc.
  • 5.  Non-Volatile Solvents: Inert, high boiling point, preferably water- miscible and not highly viscous organic solvent systems. Ex-Polyethylene glycol 200 and 400, glycerin, polysorbate 80 and propylene glycol, polysorbates, glycerin, N, N- dimethylacetamide, fixed oils, etc.  Disintegrants: Superdisintegrants increases the rate of drug release, water solubility and wettability of liquisolid granules. Ex-Sodium starch glycolate and crosspovidone and croscarmellose sodium are used.
  • 6. MECHANISMS OF ENHANCEMENT OF DRUG RELEASE
  • 7.  Increased drug surface area  In liquisolid system the surface area of drug available for drug release is much greater than that of drug particles within directly compressed tablets because the drug present in the liquisolid system is completely dissolved in the liquid vehicle and present in the powder substrate still in a solubilized, molecularly dispersed state  In the liquid solid formulation, the release rate of the drug is directly proportional to the fraction of the molecularly dispersed drug (FM). FM= Sd/Cd Where, FM-fraction of the molecularly dispersed drug . Sd- drug solubility Cd- Actual drug concentration
  • 8.  Increased aqueous solubility of the drug In addition to the first mechanism of drug release enhancement, it is expected that the solubility of the drug might be increased with liquisolid
  • 9. Increased wettability The non-volatile solvent present in the liquisolid system provides wetting of drug particles by decreasing interfacial tension between tablet surface and dissolution medium so the contact angle of liquisolid system is lower when compared to the conventional formulation thus improved wettability .
  • 10. APPLICATIONS OF LIQUISOLID  Liquisolid compact technology is a powerful tool to improve bioavailability of water insoluble drugs. Several water insoluble drugs on dissolving in different nonvolatile solvents have been formulated into liquisolid compacts.  Different drugs can be incorporated into liquisolid compacts.  Rapid release rates.  Used for water insoluble solid drugs or liquid lipophilic drugs.  Sustained release of drugs.  Solubility and dissolution improvement.  Flowability and compressibility.  Designing of controlled release tablets.  Bioavailability enhancement.  Application in probiotics.  Improvement of drug photostability.
  • 11. ORODISPERSIBLE TABLETS  Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) defines ODT in the ‘Orange Book’ as “a solid dosage form containing medicinal substances, which disintegrates rapidly, usually within a matter of seconds, when placed upon the tongue”.
  • 12. DRUG SELECTION CRITERIA FOR ODTs The drug to be formulate as orodispersible liquisolids must have following criterias:  Drug should able to saturate the oral mucosa,  At least moderately non-ionized at oral cavity pH,  Ability to diffuse and partition into the epithelium of upper GIT,  Small to moderate molecular weight,  Low dose drugs mostly less than 50 mg,  Good stability in saliva and water,
  • 13. ADVANTAGES OF ODTs  Administration to the patients who cannot swallow, such as the elderly, stroke victims, bedridden patients, patients affected by renal failure & patients who refuse to swallow such as paediatric, geriatric & psychiatric patients gives better patient compliance  Rapid drug therapy.  Increased bioavailability/rapid absorption through pregastric absorption of drugs from mouth, pharynx & oesophagus as saliva passes down.  The risk of chocking during oral administration of conventional formulations due to physical obstruction is avoided, thus providing improved safety.  Good mouth feel property helps to change the perception of medication as bitter pill particularly in paediatric patients
  • 14. METHOD OF PREPARATION OF ORODISPERSIBLE LIQUISOLID SYSTEM Solid drugs + Non-volatile solvent Drug in solution or suspension Liquid drugs Liquid medication Wet particles Liquisolid system Final formulation Tabletting or encapsulation Carrier material Coating material Addition of other excipients or
  • 15. CHARACTERIZATION OF ORODISPERSIBLE LIQUISOLID: a) Solubility studies: Solubility studies are carried out by preparing saturated solutions of drug in non-volatile solvent and analyzing them spectrophotometrically. Saturated solutions are prepared by adding excess of drug to non volatile solvent and shaking them on shaker for specific time period under constant vibration. After this, the solutions are filtered and analyzed spectrophotometrically b) Determination of angle of slide: Angle of slide is used as a measure of the flow properties of powders. Determination of angle of slide is done by weighing the required amount of carrier material and placed at one end of a metal plate with a polished surface. The end is gradually raised till the plate becomes angular to the horizontal at which powder is about to slide. This angle is known as angle of slide. Angle of 33º is regarded as optimum
  • 16. c) Determination of flowable liquid retention potential (Φ-value): The term "flowable liquid- retention potential" (Φ-value) of a powder material describes its ability to retain a specific amount of liquid while maintaining good flow properties. The Φ-value is defined as the maximum weight of liquid that can be retained per unit weight of the powder material in order to produce an acceptably flowing liquid/powder admixture. The Φ values are calculated according to equation Φ value = weight of liquid / weight of solid d) Calculation of liquid load factor (Lf): Different concentrations of non- volatile solvents are taken and the drug is dissolved. Such liquid medication is added to the carrier-coating material admixture and blended. Drug loading factors are determined and used for calculating the amounts of carrier and coating materials in each formulation. Lf = WLM/ WCM Where: WLM is weight of liquid medication WCM is weight of carrier material.
  • 17. e) Liquisolid compressibility test (LSC): The Liquisolid compressibility test is used to determine Φ values and involves steps such as preparing carrier coating material admixture systems, preparing several uniform liquid or powder admixtures, compressing each liquid or powder admixtures to tablets, assessing the average hardness, determination of the average liquid content of crushed tablets, as well as determining plasticity, sponge index and Φ value and Lf .