MOTTO OF DENMARK – ”Guds hjælp, Folkets kærlighed, Danmarks styrke”
” Gods Help, The people love, Denmarks strength”
CAPITAL – Copenhagen
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE – Danish
POPULATION – 5,543,453
CURRENCY – Danish Krones
DEMONYM – Danish or Danes
. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem Interglacial
period from 130,000 – 110,000 B.C.
. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 B.C and agriculture has been
evident since 3900 B.C.
. The Nordic Bronze Age (1800-600 B.C) in Denmark was marked by burial mounds
which left abundance of findings including lurs & the sun chariot.
THE SUN CHARIOT
MIDDLE AGES –
. From 8th to 10th century Danes were known as Vikings.
. Together with Norwegians & Swedes they colonized , raided & traded in all parts
. Vikings explorers first discovered Iceland by accident in 9th century , on the way
towards Faroe Islands & eventually came across “VINLAND” ( Land Of Wines)also
known today as Newfoundland in Canada.
. The Danes were christianised & united around 965 A.D. by Herald Bluetooth.
.In 11th century Canute The Great won the war and united Denmark , England &
Norway for almost 30 years.
. In 1397, Denmark entered into a personal union with Norway & Sweden united
under Queen Margaret – I. The three countries were to be treated as equals in this
union. However even from the start Margaret may not have been so idealistic
treating Denmark as a clear senior partner of the union. Thus the rest 125 years of
history revolves around this union & Sweden breaking off from this union.
VIKINGS HERALD BLUETOOTH CANUTE THE GREAT
THE LADBY SHIP QUEEN MARGARET - I
EARLY MODERN HISTORY –
. After Sweden permanently broke from the union in 1523 , Denmark on two
occasion tried to reassert control over Sweden. The first was in the Northern Seven
Years War which lasted from 1563 till 1570.The second occasion was Kalmar War
when King Christian IV failed to defeat Sweden in the year 1611.
. In the Thirty Years War , Christian tried to become the leader of Lutheran States
in Germany but suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of Lutter.
. In the 1645 Treaty Of Bromsebro , Denmark surrendered Halland ,Gotland , the last
parts of Danish Estonia & few parts of Norway.
. Apart from Nordic colonies , Denmark also ruled over Danish India (Tranquebar)
from 1620 – 1869, the Danish Gold Coast (Ghana) from 1658 – 1850 & The Danish
West Indies (U.S. Virgin Islands) from 1671 – 1917.
KING CHRISTIAN IV
. The culture of Denmark while rich in the arts , has some general characteristics
associated with Danish society & everyday culture.
. Modesty , Punctuality above all Equality are important aspects of Danish way of
. One of the fundamental aspect of Danish culture is “Hygge” which means
relaxing with good friends or loved ones often while enjoying some good food &
something to drink or creating a more friendly environment by lighting few
. The Danish word for Christmas holiday is “Jul” from the Old Norse jol , the term
for “midwinter” , itself cognate with the English word.
. Midwinter celebrations were an important part of Scandinavian Culture since
prehistoric times & the term was retained to refer to “Christmas” after
. The most important day for celebrations is Christmas Eve on 24th Dec in Denmark
when the family comes together. The morning can be spent in various ways but
most often it is the time when preparations are made for the evening.
. Juleaften (Danish word for Christmas Eve) starts at 6pm when traditional dinner is
served. The menu is :
- Flaeskesteg (Danish version of Roast pork) served with red cabbage & sugar
- Ris a‟lamande is served as a dessert . It‟s served cold with hot cherry sauce.
. Afterwards the candles on Christmas tree are lit & the family dances around it
singing Christmas carols.
RIS a „ LAMANDE FLAESKESTEG
DANISH CHRISTMAS TREE
. Danish folklore is made up of folk tales , legends , songs , music , popular beliefs
. The traditional dress of Denmark roughly dates back to the year 1750 - 1900 when
clothes were often home-made from yarn spun from wool or flax.
. Numerous Danish folktales contains mythical figures such as trolls , goblins ,
elves & wights as well as figures borrowed from Nordic Mythology.
. The nisse is a particularly well known legendary figure in Danish folklore.
. Traditionally each farm had it‟s own nisse living on the loft or in a stable. Dressed
in grey with a pointed red cap , he was no taller than a 10 years taller. The nisse
would be helpful if treated properly for instance giving him the bowl of porridge
with clump of butter at night , failing such treatment , he could become quite some
ELF DANISH CLOTHES GOBLIN
NISSE PORIDGGE WITH BUTTERTROLLS
. Danish meals consists of following traditional dishes :
. Smorrebrod – Highly stacked open sandwiches on top of thin rye bread.
. Flaeskesteg – Pork roast with crisp skin.
. Frikadeller – Pan fried dumpling of minced meat.
. Leverpostej – The liver is formed in to paste & spread on dark rye bread.
. Akvavit – It‟s a traditionally flavoured spirit.
. Aebleskiver – Danish pancakes in a distinctive shape of a sphere.
. Most Danes are active cyclists , often using bicycle to commute to work , school
or college or to go for off trips on weekends.
. With it‟s well – engineered cycling paths Copenhagen is especially suited for
. Every day 1.3 million km are cycled in the city with 36% of all citizens commuting
to school , work or colleges by bicycle
. Odense is named as the bicycle city of the year of because of most bicycle lanes
in the city.
. Danish paintings goes back hundred of years. Earlier work is often manifested in
church , for example in the form of the Frescos those from 16th century.
. The beginning of 19th century was the Golden Age Of Danish Painting.
. Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg was an important influence on the following
generation‟s study of nature , in which landscape painting came to the fore.
. He had many successful students , including Wilhelm Bendz , Christen Kobke ,
Martinus Rorbye , Constantin Hansen etc.
. Some years later , a number of painters including P.S. Kroyer & Michael & Anna
Archer moved to Skagen moved to Jutland to paint the natural surroundings &
. The National Museum Of Art & the Glyptotek , both in Copenhagen contains
treasures of Danish & international art.
VESTERO:THE THREE KINGS WILHELM ECKERSBERG THORVALDSEN
WILHELM BENDZ P.S. KROYER GLYPTOTEK
. The principal contributors to the Danish literature are undoubtedly Hans Christian
Andersen with his fairy tales , the philosopher Soron Kierkegaard , storyteller
Karen Blixen & playwright Ludvig Holberg .
. Some of the fairy tales written by Hans Christian Andersen wrote are: The Ugly
Duckling , Thumbelina , The Little Mermaid , The Little Match Girl etc .
.The architecture of Denmark has it‟s origin in the Viking period but became
recognizable in the Middle Ages when first Romanesque church sprang throughout
. Neoclassicism came to Denmark from France & in 19th century slowly merged into
National Romantic Style when Danish designers came to in there own.
. In later of half of 20th century Danish architects entered the world scene with their
highly successful Functionalism.
. Internationally , perhaps the most celebrated of all is the architect who designed
the iconic Sydney Opera House , Jorn Utzon .
. But within the Danish borders it‟s the architect Arne Jacobson who is perhaps
held in the highest esteem for developing the Danish Modern style & furniture. The
world famous and much sorted Swan & Egg chairs was developed by him .
ROMANESQUE NATIONAL ROMANTIC
SYDNEY OPERA HOUSE ARNE JACOBSON EGG CHAIR
. Denmark‟s most famous composer is Carl Nielsen who is best known outside of
Denmark for his Six Symphonies , but whose melodies for popular songs are
cherished among Danes.
. The Royal Danish Ballet specializes in the work of Danish choreographer August
. Hans Abrahamsen , Per Norgard & Poul Ruders are successful composers of
contemporary classical music.
. Danish interest in classical music is exemplified by the prestigious Opera House
completed in 2000.
. The Copenhagen Jazz Festival has acquired an international reputation.
. The modern pop – rock scene has produced some bands of notes for example
Laid Back , MLTR , Kashmir etc .
. Lars Ulrich of Metallica is the first Dane in the Rock & Roll Hall Of Fame.
CARL NIELSEN AUGUST BOURNONVILLE THE ROYAL DANISH
. The theatre in Denmark continues to thrive thanks to the many theatres in
Copenhagen and across the country which put on a wide variety of Danish and
foreign performances. The flagship Royal Danish Theatre presents drama, opera,
ballet and music. Since the 18th century, Danish playwrights have been
successful in attracting wide public interest.
. Ludvig Holber: is considered by many to be the founder of the Danish theatre.
Satirical comedies such as Jean de France and Jeppe of the Hill are still
. Adam Oehlenschläger: introduced romanticism to the Danish theatre. Especially
successful was his Earl Hakon the Mighty, premiered in 1808.
. The Norwegian Henrik Ibsen: also travelled to Copenhagen where he produced
numerous plays such as A Doll‟s House (1879).
. Another popular Danish theatrical tradition is the revue which has been thriving
since the mid 19th century. Today revues are performed every summer to full
houses in theatres across Denmark, poking fun at the politics of the day and even
the monarchy. Among the most popular are Circusrevyen in Copenhagen with
Lisbet Dahl, and the Nykøbing Revy directed by Flemming Krøll in Nykøbing
ROYAL PLAYHOUSE ADAM OEHLENSCHLÄGER