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Global nutritious grain
AMARANTH
Chemistry & Therapeutic studies
Presented by
Dr. Sudhakar Kokate
Director PPRC, India
Amaranth : “Food of the Gods”
Ф Cultivated globally as early as 4000 B.C.
Ф Rediscovered as a useful & promising
plant
Ф I...
Ф Family: Amaranthaceae
Ф Order: Caryophyllales
Ф Genera: 60
Ф Species: 800
Ф Annual or perennial herbaceous plant
PPRC/IN...
Ф Origin: South East Asia
Ф Distribution: Tropical, sub-tropical &
temperate regions as:
- grain crops
- potherbs
- orname...
Ф Hard, wild, fast-growing cereal like
plant
Ф Species for food:
- A. hypochondriacus L.
- A. caudatus L.
- A. cruentus L....
A. hypochondriacus L.
PPRC/INDIA 07
A. caudatus L.
PPRC/INDIA 09
A. cruentus L.
PPRC/INDIA 11
Ф Growth period: 60 – 160 d
Ф Depending upon temperature, climate
Ф Grows in adverse environmental
conditions such as drau...
Ф Grows in dry land conditions
Ф Multiple uses in:
- food - green manure
- forage - animal food
- silage
PPRC/INDIA 14
AMARANTH leaves
PPRC/INDIA 15
Ф Green nutritious vegetable
Ф Use globally including many developed
countries
Ф Flavour is better than that of spinach
Ф ...
Ф Higher level of fibre and ash
Ф High calcium, niacin & vitamin C
Ф Higher level of protein & essential
amino acids
PPRC/...
Nutritional value of
AMARANTH leaves
PPRC/INDIA 19
Sr.
no.
Component Composition
1 Dry matter g 13.1
2 Protein g 3.5
3 Fat g 0.5
4 Carbohydrate g 6.5
PPRC/INDIA 20
Sr.
no.
Component Composition
5 Fibre g 1.3
6 Ash g 2.6
7 Calcium mg 267
8 Phosphorus mg 67
PPRC/INDIA 21
Sr.
no.
Component Composition
9 Iron mg 3.9
10 Sodium mg -
11 Potassium mg 411
12 Vitamin C mg 80
PPRC/INDIA 22
Sr.
no.
Component Composition
13 Vitamin A IU 6100
14 Thiamine mg 0.08
15 Riboflavin mg 0.16
16 Niacin mg 1.4
For 100 g of...
Essential amino acids
PPRC/INDIA 24
Sr. no. Amino acid
1 Lysine
2 Threonine
3 Valine
4 Iso-leucine
5 Leonine
6 Tyrosine + Phenylalanine
7 Cystine + Methonine
...
AMARANTH seeds
PPRC/INDIA 26
Ф Small, inticular in shape
Ф Avg. diam. 1 – 1.5 mm
Ф Avg. wt. 0.6 – 1.2 mg
Ф Colour white to brown
Ф A nutritive source o...
Ф Protein high 13 – 19 %
Ф High level of essential amino acids
Ф Lysine content 5.8 g / 100 g protein
Ф Oil content 1.5 – ...
Ф Cholesterol lowering properties
Ф Fibre content 3 times higher than that
of wheat
Ф High content of Ca, Fe & Vits. Miner...
Ф Highly concentrated fibres in A. seeds
Ф High levels of fibres
Ф Seeds may reduce serum cholesterol &
high density linop...
Ф Experiments suggest that amaranth and
oat bran significantly decreased the level
of total cholesterol in rat blood serum...
Chemical composition (%)
of AMARANTH seeds
PPRC/INDIA 33
Component A. caudatus
A.
hypochondriatus
A. cruentus
Moisture 11.8 12.7 12.6
Crude protein 12.6 14.6 15.3
Crude ether
ext....
Mineral content* of
AMARANTH seeds
PPRC/INDIA 35
Sr. no. Minerals Quantity range
1 Phosphorus 518 – 597
2 Potassium 493 – 571
3 Calcium 201 – 246
4 Magnesium 270 – 396
5 S...
Sr. no. Minerals Quantity range
6 Iron 15 – 28
7 Copper 0.85 – 0.87
8 Manganese 2.56 – 3.39
9 Zinc 3.40 – 3.49
* mg / 100 ...
Sterols of
AMARANTH seeds
PPRC/INDIA 38
Sr. no. Compounds Conc. %
1 Campesterol 1.6
2 Stigmasterol 0.9
3 D7 campesterol 24.8
4 Cholesterol 12.0
PPRC/INDIA 39
Sr. no. Compounds Conc. %
5 β-sitosterol 1.3
6 Δ5 avenasterol 2.0
7 Δ7 stigmastenol 15.2
8 Δ5 avenastenol 11.9
PPRC/INDIA ...
AMARANTH oil
PPRC/INDIA 41
Research….
PPRC/INDIA 43
Ф Experiments suggest that the total lipid
and cholesterol content of eggs
produced by chicken, fed on raw
amaranth grain ...
Ф Total dietary fibre – 14.2 %
Ф Soluble dietary fibres – 40 % of above
content
PPRC/INDIA 45
Uses….
PPRC/INDIA 46
Ф Forage
Ф Silage
Ф Green manure
Ф Animal feed
PPRC/INDIA 47
Ф Fresh leaves as salad or steamed
Ф boiled
Ф stir fried, sautéed
Ф baked
Ф pickled
PPRC/INDIA 48
Ф A. seeds – modern food ingredient in
bread, cookies, pastas, etc.
Ф Infant and weaning foods
Ф Reports say that Mexico e...
Ф In earlier days, Amaranth was
considered as the most nutritious grain
crop but now has attracted less
attention
Ф Fights...
Thank you !!
Amaranth
Amaranth
Amaranth
Amaranth
Amaranth
Amaranth
Amaranth
Amaranth
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Amaranth

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Amaranth is one plant that needs more research attention and can be used for providing more nutrition to the body, that can beat malnutrition in the long run. The increasing food requirements can be met with amaranth, the nutritious grain.

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Amaranth

  1. 1. Global nutritious grain AMARANTH Chemistry & Therapeutic studies
  2. 2. Presented by Dr. Sudhakar Kokate Director PPRC, India
  3. 3. Amaranth : “Food of the Gods” Ф Cultivated globally as early as 4000 B.C. Ф Rediscovered as a useful & promising plant Ф Interesting & sufficient food against malnutrition PPRC/INDIA 03
  4. 4. Ф Family: Amaranthaceae Ф Order: Caryophyllales Ф Genera: 60 Ф Species: 800 Ф Annual or perennial herbaceous plant PPRC/INDIA 04
  5. 5. Ф Origin: South East Asia Ф Distribution: Tropical, sub-tropical & temperate regions as: - grain crops - potherbs - ornaments - dye plants PPRC/INDIA 05
  6. 6. Ф Hard, wild, fast-growing cereal like plant Ф Species for food: - A. hypochondriacus L. - A. caudatus L. - A. cruentus L. PPRC/INDIA 06
  7. 7. A. hypochondriacus L. PPRC/INDIA 07
  8. 8. A. caudatus L. PPRC/INDIA 09
  9. 9. A. cruentus L. PPRC/INDIA 11
  10. 10. Ф Growth period: 60 – 160 d Ф Depending upon temperature, climate Ф Grows in adverse environmental conditions such as draught, high temp., saline soils PPRC/INDIA 13
  11. 11. Ф Grows in dry land conditions Ф Multiple uses in: - food - green manure - forage - animal food - silage PPRC/INDIA 14
  12. 12. AMARANTH leaves PPRC/INDIA 15
  13. 13. Ф Green nutritious vegetable Ф Use globally including many developed countries Ф Flavour is better than that of spinach Ф Lower nitrate content PPRC/INDIA 17
  14. 14. Ф Higher level of fibre and ash Ф High calcium, niacin & vitamin C Ф Higher level of protein & essential amino acids PPRC/INDIA 18
  15. 15. Nutritional value of AMARANTH leaves PPRC/INDIA 19
  16. 16. Sr. no. Component Composition 1 Dry matter g 13.1 2 Protein g 3.5 3 Fat g 0.5 4 Carbohydrate g 6.5 PPRC/INDIA 20
  17. 17. Sr. no. Component Composition 5 Fibre g 1.3 6 Ash g 2.6 7 Calcium mg 267 8 Phosphorus mg 67 PPRC/INDIA 21
  18. 18. Sr. no. Component Composition 9 Iron mg 3.9 10 Sodium mg - 11 Potassium mg 411 12 Vitamin C mg 80 PPRC/INDIA 22
  19. 19. Sr. no. Component Composition 13 Vitamin A IU 6100 14 Thiamine mg 0.08 15 Riboflavin mg 0.16 16 Niacin mg 1.4 For 100 g of edible part PPRC/INDIA 23
  20. 20. Essential amino acids PPRC/INDIA 24
  21. 21. Sr. no. Amino acid 1 Lysine 2 Threonine 3 Valine 4 Iso-leucine 5 Leonine 6 Tyrosine + Phenylalanine 7 Cystine + Methonine PPRC/INDIA 25
  22. 22. AMARANTH seeds PPRC/INDIA 26
  23. 23. Ф Small, inticular in shape Ф Avg. diam. 1 – 1.5 mm Ф Avg. wt. 0.6 – 1.2 mg Ф Colour white to brown Ф A nutritive source of food PPRC/INDIA 28
  24. 24. Ф Protein high 13 – 19 % Ф High level of essential amino acids Ф Lysine content 5.8 g / 100 g protein Ф Oil content 1.5 – 3 times higher than in other grains PPRC/INDIA 29
  25. 25. Ф Cholesterol lowering properties Ф Fibre content 3 times higher than that of wheat Ф High content of Ca, Fe & Vits. Minerals Ф High levels of non-fermentable fibres PPRC/INDIA 30
  26. 26. Ф Highly concentrated fibres in A. seeds Ф High levels of fibres Ф Seeds may reduce serum cholesterol & high density linoprotein L.D. PPRC/INDIA 31
  27. 27. Ф Experiments suggest that amaranth and oat bran significantly decreased the level of total cholesterol in rat blood serum by 10.7 – 14 % & in liver by 20 – 23 % PPRC/INDIA 32
  28. 28. Chemical composition (%) of AMARANTH seeds PPRC/INDIA 33
  29. 29. Component A. caudatus A. hypochondriatus A. cruentus Moisture 11.8 12.7 12.6 Crude protein 12.6 14.6 15.3 Crude ether ext. 12.0 14.1 11.4 Astt. 2.8 3.6 3.1 Carbohydrates 59.7 59.8 58.4 PPRC/INDIA 34
  30. 30. Mineral content* of AMARANTH seeds PPRC/INDIA 35
  31. 31. Sr. no. Minerals Quantity range 1 Phosphorus 518 – 597 2 Potassium 493 – 571 3 Calcium 201 – 246 4 Magnesium 270 – 396 5 Sodium 19 – 24 PPRC/INDIA 36
  32. 32. Sr. no. Minerals Quantity range 6 Iron 15 – 28 7 Copper 0.85 – 0.87 8 Manganese 2.56 – 3.39 9 Zinc 3.40 – 3.49 * mg / 100 g PPRC/INDIA 37
  33. 33. Sterols of AMARANTH seeds PPRC/INDIA 38
  34. 34. Sr. no. Compounds Conc. % 1 Campesterol 1.6 2 Stigmasterol 0.9 3 D7 campesterol 24.8 4 Cholesterol 12.0 PPRC/INDIA 39
  35. 35. Sr. no. Compounds Conc. % 5 β-sitosterol 1.3 6 Δ5 avenasterol 2.0 7 Δ7 stigmastenol 15.2 8 Δ5 avenastenol 11.9 PPRC/INDIA 40
  36. 36. AMARANTH oil PPRC/INDIA 41
  37. 37. Research…. PPRC/INDIA 43
  38. 38. Ф Experiments suggest that the total lipid and cholesterol content of eggs produced by chicken, fed on raw amaranth grain was reduced by 20.7 & 14.3 % PPRC/INDIA 44
  39. 39. Ф Total dietary fibre – 14.2 % Ф Soluble dietary fibres – 40 % of above content PPRC/INDIA 45
  40. 40. Uses…. PPRC/INDIA 46
  41. 41. Ф Forage Ф Silage Ф Green manure Ф Animal feed PPRC/INDIA 47
  42. 42. Ф Fresh leaves as salad or steamed Ф boiled Ф stir fried, sautéed Ф baked Ф pickled PPRC/INDIA 48
  43. 43. Ф A. seeds – modern food ingredient in bread, cookies, pastas, etc. Ф Infant and weaning foods Ф Reports say that Mexico exported Amaranth seeds to other countries PPRC/INDIA 49
  44. 44. Ф In earlier days, Amaranth was considered as the most nutritious grain crop but now has attracted less attention Ф Fights malnutrition PPRC/INDIA 50
  45. 45. Thank you !!

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