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6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-1
Chapter 6 outline
6.1 Introduction
Wireless
 6.2 Wireless links,
characteristics
 CDMA
 6.3 IEEE 802.11
wireless LANs (“wi-fi”)
 6.4 Cellular Internet
Access
 architecture
 standards (e.g., GSM)
Mobility
 6.5 Principles:
addressing and routing
to mobile users
 6.6 Mobile IP
 6.7 Handling mobility in
cellular networks
 6.8 Mobility and higher-
layer protocols
6.9 Summary
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-2
Mobile
Switching
Center
Public telephone
network, and
Internet
Mobile
Switching
Center
Components of cellular network architecture
 connects cells to wide area net
 manages call setup (more later!)
 handles mobility (more later!)
MSC
 covers geographical
region
 base station (BS)
analogous to 802.11 AP
 mobile users attach
to network through BS
 air-interface:
physical and link layer
protocol between
mobile and BS
cell
wired network
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-3
Wireless Comm. Systems
- In general a wireless communication network
consists of:
- 1- Users (mobile station)
- 2- Base Station (BS): connects users to MSC
- 3- Mobile Switching Center (MSC):
- connects the base stations with each other, and
to the PSTN (public switched telephone network)
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-4
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-5
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-6
Cellular Comm./Networking
Terminology
- Hand-off: the process of transferring the
mobile from one base station to another
- Roamer: a mobile operating in a coverage
area other than the one in which it
subscribed (moving to another MSC)
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-7
Cellular Telephone Systems
- A cellular system services a large number
of users over extended geographical
coverage with limited frequency spectrum.
- High capacity is attained by limiting the
coverage of the base station to a cell, so
that the same frequency can be re-used in
other cells
- A problem may occur when moving from one
cell to another while keeping the call un-
interrupted. [the hand-off problem]
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-8
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-9
Design concepts: The Cellular
Concept and Frequency Re-use
- The cellular concept was introduced to solve
the problem of frequency limitation (or
spectral congestion) and user capacity
- Replace a single high power base station with
several lower power base stations, each
covering a smaller geographical area, a ‘cell’.
- Each of the base stations is allocated a
number of channels (portion of the overall
system channels)
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-10
- Neighboring base stations (would in
general) use different frequency channels
to reduce interference.
- (more later on interference, channel
assignment and frequency planning)
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-11
Frequency Re-use
- A cell uses a set of frequencies
- A ‘cluster’ holds several cells
- Frequency re-use factor: 1/#cells per
cluster
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-12
F
C
B
D
E
A
G
F
C
B
D
E
A
G
F
C
B
D
E
A
G
F
C
B
D
E
A
G
F
C
B
D
E
A
G
Cellular frequency re-use concept: cells with the same letter use the same set of frequencies.
A cluster of cells (highlighted in bold) is replicated over the coverage area. The cluster size,
N, is equal to 7. Since each cell contains one-seventh of the overall channels, the cell
frequency re-use factor is 1/7.
Cell
Cluster
This requires channel/frequency planning and allocation!
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-13
Multiple Access (MA) Techniques
for Wireless Communications
- MA schemes allow multiple mobile users to
share a limited frequency spectrum.
- Main MA schemes: FDMA, TDMA, SSMA
(FHMA, CDMA [DSMA]), SDMA
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-14
FDMA
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-15
Frequency Division Multiple
Access (FDMA)
- Assigns individual channels to individual
users on demand
- Only 1 user utilizes the channel at a time.
Idle times are wasted. Capacity is not
shared.
- Communication is continuous
- Does not need synchronization
- Costly filters at the base station
- Need guard bands to alleviate interference
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-16
TDMA
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-17
Time Division Multiple Access
(TDMA)
- In a time slot only 1 user transmits (or
receives)
- Several users share a single frequency channel
- Transmission is non-continuous
- Power consumption is lower than FDMA (e.g.,
the transmitter can be turned off when idle)
- During idle time, a mobile performs MAHO
- Synchronization is needed
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-18
Spread Spectrum Multiple
Access (SSMA)
- Traditional communication techniques
- Strive to conserve bandwidth
- By contrast, Spread spectrum techniques
- use bandwidth several orders of magnitude
larger than the min. required bandwidth !!
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-19
Spread Spectrum Multiple
Access (SSMA)
- Spread spectrum techniques use bandwidth
larger than the min. required bandwidth
- Modulation:
- Uses pseudo-noise (PN) sequence to convert the signal
into wideband
- The PN is random, but can be re-produced by receiver
- Demodulation:
- Correct correlation using a PN re-produces the signal
- Using wrong PN sequence produces noise, hence this
scheme is ‘secure’
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-20
- Spread Spectrum (SS) uses two techniques:
- (1) FHMA: frequency hopped MA
- (1) DSMA: direct sequence MA (also called CDMA:
code division multiple access)
- Frequency Hopped MA (FHMA)
- Frequencies of individual users are varied in a
pseudo-random fashion within the wideband range
- The signal is broken into bursts and each burst is
sent on a different frequency
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-21
CDMA
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-22
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
 used in several wireless broadcast channels
(cellular, satellite, etc) standards
 unique “code” assigned to each user; i.e., code set
partitioning
 all users share same frequency, but each user has
own “chipping” sequence (i.e., code) to encode data
 encoded signal = (original data) X (chipping
sequence)
 decoding: inner-product of encoded signal and
chipping sequence
 allows multiple users to “coexist” and transmit
simultaneously with minimal interference (if codes
are “orthogonal”)
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-23
- Speading the signal power over a wide spread
of the frequency spectrum reduces fading
effects
- only part of the spectrum, hence only part of the
signal, is affected by fading
- No frequency planning required since users
use the same frequency
- Soft hand-off can be provided since all the
cells use the same frequency. MSC monitors
signals.
- In soft hand-off the channel (or frequency)
remains the same and the base station
changes
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-24
Space Division MA (SDMA)
 Controls the radiated energy for each user in
space using spot beam (directional) antennas
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-25
Hybrid Multiple Access
Systems
- Time division frequency hopping (TDFH):
(used in some versions of GSM)
- User can hop to new frequency at the start
of a new TDMA frame
- Hence reducing interference and fading
effects
- User hops over pre-defined frequencies
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-26
- FDMA/CDMA:
- The available bandwidth is split into
subspectra. In each subspectrum CDMA is
used
- Allows to assign subspectra on-demand
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-27
FDMA/CDMA
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-28
Cellular networks: the first hop
Techniques for sharing
mobile-to-BS radio
spectrum
 combined FDMA/TDMA:
divide spectrum in
frequency channels, divide
each channel into time
slots frequency
bands
time slots
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-29
Cellular standards: brief survey
2G systems: voice channels
 IS-136 TDMA: combined FDMA/TDMA (north
america)
 GSM (global system for mobile communications):
combined FDMA/TDMA
 most widely deployed
 IS-95 CDMA: code division multiple access
GSM
Don’t drown in a bowl
of alphabet soup: use this
for reference only 
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-30
Cellular standards: brief survey
2.5 G systems: voice and data channels
 for those who can’t wait for 3G service: 2G extensions
 general packet radio service (GPRS)
 evolved from GSM
 data sent on multiple channels (if available)
 enhanced data rates for global evolution (EDGE)
 also evolved from GSM, using enhanced modulation
 data rates up to 384K
 CDMA-2000 (phase 1)
 data rates up to 144K
 evolved from IS-95
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-31
Cellular standards: brief survey
3G systems: voice/data
 Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS)
 data service: High Speed Uplink/Downlink packet
Access (HSDPA/HSUPA): 3 Mbps
 CDMA-2000: CDMA in TDMA slots
 data service: 1xEvlution Data Optimized (1xEVDO)
up to 14 Mbps
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-32
Chapter 6 outline
6.1 Introduction
Wireless
 6.2 Wireless links,
characteristics
 CDMA
 6.3 IEEE 802.11
wireless LANs (“wi-fi”)
 6.4 Cellular Internet
Access
 architecture
 standards (e.g., GSM)
Mobility
 6.5 Principles:
addressing and routing
to mobile users
 6.6 Mobile IP
 6.7 Handling mobility in
cellular networks
 6.8 Mobility and higher-
layer protocols
6.9 Summary
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-33
What is mobility?
 spectrum of mobility, from the network perspective:
no mobility high mobility
mobile wireless user,
using same access
point
mobile user, passing
through multiple
access point while
maintaining ongoing
connections (like cell
phone)
mobile user,
connecting/
disconnecting
from network
using DHCP.
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-34
Mobility: Vocabulary
home network: permanent
“home” of mobile
(e.g., 128.119.40/24)
Permanent address:
address in home
network, can always be
used to reach mobile
e.g., 128.119.40.186
home agent: entity that will
perform mobility functions on
behalf of mobile, when mobile
is remote
wide area
network
correspondent
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-35
Mobility: more vocabulary
Care-of-address: address
in visited network.
(e.g., 79,129.13.2)
wide area
network
visited network: network
in which mobile currently
resides (e.g., 79.129.13/24)
Permanent address: remains
constant (e.g., 128.119.40.186)
foreign agent: entity
in visited network
that performs
mobility functions on
behalf of mobile.
correspondent: wants
to communicate with
mobile
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-36
How do you contact a mobile friend:
 search all phone
books?
 call her parents?
 expect her to let you
know where he/she is?
I wonder where
Alice moved to?
Consider friend frequently changing
addresses, how do you find her?
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-37
Mobility: approaches
 Let routing handle it: routers advertise permanent
address of mobile-nodes-in-residence via usual
routing table exchange.
 routing tables indicate where each mobile located
 no changes to end-systems
 Let end-systems handle it:
 indirect routing: communication from
correspondent to mobile goes through home
agent, then forwarded to remote
 direct routing: correspondent gets foreign
address of mobile, sends directly to mobile
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-38
Mobility: approaches
 Let routing handle it: routers advertise permanent
address of mobile-nodes-in-residence via usual
routing table exchange.
 routing tables indicate where each mobile located
 no changes to end-systems
 let end-systems handle it:
 indirect routing: communication from
correspondent to mobile goes through home
agent, then forwarded to remote
 direct routing: correspondent gets foreign
address of mobile, sends directly to mobile
not
scalable
to millions of
mobiles
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-39
Mobility: registration
End result:
 Foreign agent knows about mobile
 Home agent knows location of mobile
wide area
network
home network
visited network
1
mobile contacts
foreign agent on
entering visited
network
2
foreign agent contacts home
agent home: “this mobile is
resident in my network”
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-40
Mobility via Indirect Routing
wide area
network
home
network
visited
network
3
2
4
1
correspondent
addresses packets
using home address
of mobile
home agent intercepts
packets, forwards to
foreign agent
foreign agent
receives packets,
forwards to mobile
mobile replies
directly to
correspondent
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-41
Indirect Routing: comments
 Mobile uses two addresses:
 permanent address: used by correspondent (hence
mobile location is transparent to correspondent)
 care-of-address: used by home agent to forward
datagrams to mobile
 foreign agent functions may be done by mobile itself
 triangle routing: correspondent-home-network-
mobile
 inefficient when
correspondent, mobile
are in same network
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-42
Indirect Routing: moving between networks
 suppose mobile user moves to another
network
 registers with new foreign agent
 new foreign agent registers with home agent
 home agent update care-of-address for mobile
 packets continue to be forwarded to mobile (but
with new care-of-address)
 mobility, changing foreign networks
transparent: on going connections can be
maintained!
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-43
Mobility via Direct Routing
wide area
network
home
network
visited
network
4
2
4
1
correspondent
requests, receives
foreign address of
mobile
correspondent forwards
to foreign agent
foreign agent
receives packets,
forwards to mobile
mobile replies
directly to
correspondent
3
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-44
Mobility via Direct Routing: comments
 overcome triangle routing problem
 non-transparent to correspondent:
correspondent must get care-of-address
from home agent
 what if mobile changes visited network?
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-45
wide area
network
1
foreign net visited
at session start
anchor
foreign
agent
2
4
new foreign
agent
3
5
correspondent
agent
correspondent
new
foreign
network
Accommodating mobility with direct routing
 anchor foreign agent: FA in first visited network
 data always routed first to anchor FA
 when mobile moves: new FA arranges to have data
forwarded from old FA (chaining)
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-46
Chapter 6 outline
6.1 Introduction
Wireless
 6.2 Wireless links,
characteristics
 CDMA
 6.3 IEEE 802.11
wireless LANs (“wi-fi”)
 6.4 Cellular Internet
Access
 architecture
 standards (e.g., GSM)
Mobility
 6.5 Principles:
addressing and routing
to mobile users
 6.6 Mobile IP
 6.7 Handling mobility in
cellular networks
 6.8 Mobility and higher-
layer protocols
6.9 Summary
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-47
Mobile IP
 RFC 2002, RFC 3344.
 Goals:
 Attempts to provide support for host
mobility while maintaining ‘transparency’:
 the correspondent node need not know the
location of the mobile node
 the connection already established should be
maintained during movement even if the mobile
node changes its network point of attachment
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-48
Mobile IP
 has many features we’ve seen:
 home agents, foreign agents, foreign-agent
registration, care-of-addresses, encapsulation
(packet-within-a-packet)
 three components to standard:
 indirect routing of datagrams
 agent discovery
 registration with home agent
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-49
Mobile IP
 Each mobile node has a home network,
home address and home agent
Home Agent (HA)
Home Network
Mobile Node
Correspondent Node
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-50
Home Agent
Home Network
Correspondent Node
Foreign Agent (FA)
Foreign Network
Mobile Node
• When mobile node (MN) moves to a foreign network it obtains a
care-of-address (COA) from the foreign agent (FA) that registers
it with the home agent (HA)
• COA is used by HA to forward packets destined to MN
Solicitation
Advertisement (FA,COA)
Register (HA)
Register
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-51
Mobile IP: registration example
visited network: 79.129.13/24
home agent
HA: 128.119.40.7
foreign agent
COA: 79.129.13.2
COA: 79.129.13.2
….
ICMP agent adv.
Mobile agent
MA: 128.119.40.186
registration req.
COA: 79.129.13.2
HA: 128.119.40.7
MA: 128.119.40.186
Lifetime: 9999
identification:714
….
registration req.
COA: 79.129.13.2
HA: 128.119.40.7
MA: 128.119.40.186
Lifetime: 9999
identification: 714
encapsulation format
….
registration reply
HA: 128.119.40.7
MA: 128.119.40.186
Lifetime: 4999
Identification: 714
encapsulation format
….
registration reply
HA: 128.119.40.7
MA: 128.119.40.186
Lifetime: 4999
Identification: 714
….
time
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-52
Mobile IP: indirect routing
Permanent address:
128.119.40.186
Care-of address:
79.129.13.2
dest: 128.119.40.186
packet sent by
correspondent
dest: 79.129.13.2 dest: 128.119.40.186
packet sent by home agent to foreign
agent: a packet within a packet
dest: 128.119.40.186
foreign-agent-to-mobile packet
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-53
Home Agent (HA)
Correspondent
Node (CN)
Mobile Node (MN)
Packets to MN are
picked up by the HA
and tunneled to MN
Packets sent by MN go
directly to CN
• Triangle Routing in Mobile-IP
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-54
Home Agent (HA)
Correspondent
Node (CN)
Mobile Node (MN)
• Triangle Routing in Mobile-IP
C
A B
Triangular routing can be very inefficient, especially when
C << B+A, where A (as shown) is the shortest path from
CN to MN
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-55
Drawbacks of Mobile IP
 Other than (the main problem) of triangular
routing
 Mobile IP incurs lots of communication with the
home agent with every movement
 so, may not be fit for ‘micro’ mobility [e.g., move
between rooms or buildings within the same
network domain]
 handoff delays are significant since
registration/packets need to go through the home
agent first
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-56
Suggested solutions
 To avoid triangular routing
 use ‘route optimization’
 use micro-mobility architectures
• Cellular IP (CIP)
• Hawaii
• Multicast-based Mobility (M&M)
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-57
Home Agent (HA)
Correspondent
Node (CN)
Mobile Node (MN)
(2) Initial packets
to MN are sent
through HA to MN
(3) When MN gets packets from CN
it sends a Binding Update to CN with
its new address
• Route Optimization (simple illustration)
(1) MN registers with HA as in
basic Mobile IP.
(4) CN changes the destination
address of the packets to go to
MN’s new address
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-58
 With route optimization
 Triangular routing is avoided
 Still have problems with micro mobility and
smooth hand-off
 Need additional mechanisms to deal with these
issues, which makes the protocol complex.
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-59
Micro-Mobility
 Hierarchical approach to mobility:
 During frequent, intra-domain, movement only
local efficient handoff is performed without
notifying the home agent (HA) or the
correspondent node (CN)
 For inter-domain mobility use Mobile IP. Notify
HA or CN only during inter-domain movement
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-60
Distribution tree dynamics while roaming
Domain Root
Wireless link
Mobile Node
FA or CN
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-61
M&M: Join/Prune dynamics to modify distribution
Domain Root
Wireless link
Mobile Node
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-62
Components of cellular network architecture
correspondent
MSC
MSC
MSC
MSC
MSC
wired public
telephone
network
different cellular networks,
operated by different providers
recall:
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-63
Handling mobility in cellular networks
 home network: network of cellular provider you
subscribe to (e.g., Sprint PCS, Verizon)
 home location register (HLR): database in home
network containing permanent cell phone #,
profile information (services, preferences,
billing), information about current location
(could be in another network)
 visited network: network in which mobile currently
resides
 visitor location register (VLR): database with
entry for each user currently in network
 could be home network
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-64
Public
switched
telephone
network
mobile
user
home
Mobile
Switching
Center
HLR
home
network
visited
network
correspondent
Mobile
Switching
Center
VLR
GSM: indirect routing to mobile
1 call routed
to home network
2
home MSC consults HLR,
gets roaming number of
mobile in visited network
3
home MSC sets up 2nd leg of call
to MSC in visited network
4
MSC in visited network completes
call through base station to mobile
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-65
Mobile
Switching
Center
VLR
old BSS
new BSS
old
routing
new
routing
GSM: handoff with common MSC
 Handoff goal: route call via
new base station (without
interruption)
 reasons for handoff:
 stronger signal to/from new
BSS (continuing connectivity,
less battery drain)
 load balance: free up channel
in current BSS
 GSM doesn’t mandate why to
perform handoff (policy), only
how (mechanism)
 handoff initiated by old BSS
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-66
Mobile
Switching
Center
VLR
old BSS
1
3
2
4
5 6
7
8
GSM: handoff with common MSC
new BSS
1. old BSS informs MSC of impending
handoff, provides list of 1+ new BSSs
2. MSC sets up path (allocates resources)
to new BSS
3. new BSS allocates radio channel for
use by mobile
4. new BSS signals MSC, old BSS: ready
5. old BSS tells mobile: perform handoff to
new BSS
6. mobile, new BSS signal to activate new
channel
7. mobile signals via new BSS to MSC:
handoff complete. MSC reroutes call
8 MSC-old-BSS resources released
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-67
home network
Home
MSC
PSTN
correspondent
MSC
anchor MSC
MSC
MSC
(a) before handoff
GSM: handoff between MSCs
 anchor MSC: first MSC
visited during call
 call remains routed
through anchor MSC
 new MSCs add on to end
of MSC chain as mobile
moves to new MSC
 IS-41 allows optional
path minimization step
to shorten multi-MSC
chain
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-68
home network
Home
MSC
PSTN
correspondent
MSC
anchor MSC
MSC
MSC
(b) after handoff
GSM: handoff between MSCs
 anchor MSC: first MSC
visited during call
 call remains routed
through anchor MSC
 new MSCs add on to end
of MSC chain as mobile
moves to new MSC
 IS-41 allows optional
path minimization step
to shorten multi-MSC
chain
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-69
Mobility: GSM versus Mobile IP
GSM element Comment on GSM element Mobile IP element
Home system Network to which mobile user’s permanent
phone number belongs
Home
network
Gateway Mobile
Switching Center, or
“home MSC”. Home
Location Register
(HLR)
Home MSC: point of contact to obtain routable
address of mobile user. HLR: database in
home system containing permanent phone
number, profile information, current location of
mobile user, subscription information
Home agent
Visited System Network other than home system where
mobile user is currently residing
Visited
network
Visited Mobile
services Switching
Center.
Visitor Location
Record (VLR)
Visited MSC: responsible for setting up calls
to/from mobile nodes in cells associated with
MSC. VLR: temporary database entry in
visited system, containing subscription
information for each visiting mobile user
Foreign agent
Mobile Station
Roaming Number
(MSRN), or “roaming
number”
Routable address for telephone call segment
between home MSC and visited MSC, visible
to neither the mobile nor the correspondent.
Care-of-
address
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-70
Wireless, mobility: impact on higher layer protocols
 logically, impact should be minimal …
 best effort service model remains unchanged
 TCP and UDP can (and do) run over wireless, mobile
 … but performance-wise:
 packet loss/delay due to bit-errors (discarded
packets, delays for link-layer retransmissions), and
handoff
 TCP interprets loss as congestion, will decrease
congestion window un-necessarily
 delay impairments for real-time traffic
 limited bandwidth of wireless links
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-71
Chapter 6 Summary
Wireless
 wireless links:
 capacity, distance
 channel impairments
 CDMA
 IEEE 802.11 (“wi-fi”)
 CSMA/CA reflects
wireless channel
characteristics
 cellular access
 architecture
 standards (e.g., GSM,
CDMA-2000, UMTS)
Mobility
 principles: addressing,
routing to mobile users
 home, visited networks
 direct, indirect routing
 care-of-addresses
 case studies
 mobile IP
 mobility in GSM
 impact on higher-layer
protocols
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-72
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
 used in several wireless broadcast channels
(cellular, satellite, etc) standards
 unique “code” assigned to each user; i.e., code set
partitioning
 all users share same frequency, but each user has
own “chipping” sequence (i.e., code) to encode data
 encoded signal = (original data) X (chipping
sequence)
 decoding: inner-product of encoded signal and
chipping sequence
 allows multiple users to “coexist” and transmit
simultaneously with minimal interference (if codes
are “orthogonal”)
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-73
CDMA Encode/Decode
slot 1 slot 0
d1 = -1
1 1 1 1
1
- 1
- 1
- 1
-
Zi,m= di
.cm
d0 = 1
1 1 1 1
1
- 1
- 1
- 1
-
1 1 1 1
1
- 1
- 1
- 1
-
1 1 1
1
1
-
1
- 1
- 1
-
slot 0
channel
output
slot 1
channel
output
channel output Zi,m
sender
code
data
bits
slot 1 slot 0
d1 = -1
d0 = 1
1 1 1 1
1
- 1
- 1
- 1
-
1 1 1 1
1
- 1
- 1
- 1
-
1 1 1 1
1
- 1
- 1
- 1
-
1 1 1
1
1
-
1
- 1
- 1
-
slot 0
channel
output
slot 1
channel
output
receiver
code
received
input
Di = SZi,m
.cm
m=1
M
M
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-74
CDMA: two-sender interference
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-75
Direct Sequence Spread
Spectrum
 Original signal is m(t)
 The spreading signal is p(t) [the PN sequence]
 The spread spectrum signal is Sss(t)
A single pulse or symbol of the PN waveform is called a chip
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-76
Sss(t) ~ m(t)p(t)cos(2fct+)
B: is the bandwidth of m(t)cos(2fct+)
Wss: is the bandwidth of Sss(t)
Wss >> B
Chip Clock
PN Code
Generator
Oscillator
fc
Sss(t)
Transmitted Signal
Data m(t)
Phase modulation
Block diagram of a DS-SS system with binary phase modulation
Transmitter
p(t)
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-77
Channel
encoder
(A) (B)
(C)
f(B,C)
Symbol duration for m(t): Ts
Chip duration for p(t): Tc
Processing Gain PG=Wss/B=Ts/Tc, a measure of interference rejection capability
Symbol
Chip
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-78
Bit stream
(A)
Encoded
stream
(B)
Pseudo-noise
sequence
(C)
m(t)
p(t)
Tc
Ts
6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-79
 Example:
 f(B,C)=BC, where
• 1  1= 0
• 1  0 = 1
• 0  0 = 0
 if we have received f(B,C) and we are able to
re-generate the PN (C), then we can get B.

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Chapter6-helmy-4.ppt

  • 1. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-1 Chapter 6 outline 6.1 Introduction Wireless  6.2 Wireless links, characteristics  CDMA  6.3 IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs (“wi-fi”)  6.4 Cellular Internet Access  architecture  standards (e.g., GSM) Mobility  6.5 Principles: addressing and routing to mobile users  6.6 Mobile IP  6.7 Handling mobility in cellular networks  6.8 Mobility and higher- layer protocols 6.9 Summary
  • 2. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-2 Mobile Switching Center Public telephone network, and Internet Mobile Switching Center Components of cellular network architecture  connects cells to wide area net  manages call setup (more later!)  handles mobility (more later!) MSC  covers geographical region  base station (BS) analogous to 802.11 AP  mobile users attach to network through BS  air-interface: physical and link layer protocol between mobile and BS cell wired network
  • 3. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-3 Wireless Comm. Systems - In general a wireless communication network consists of: - 1- Users (mobile station) - 2- Base Station (BS): connects users to MSC - 3- Mobile Switching Center (MSC): - connects the base stations with each other, and to the PSTN (public switched telephone network)
  • 4. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-4
  • 5. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-5
  • 6. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-6 Cellular Comm./Networking Terminology - Hand-off: the process of transferring the mobile from one base station to another - Roamer: a mobile operating in a coverage area other than the one in which it subscribed (moving to another MSC)
  • 7. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-7 Cellular Telephone Systems - A cellular system services a large number of users over extended geographical coverage with limited frequency spectrum. - High capacity is attained by limiting the coverage of the base station to a cell, so that the same frequency can be re-used in other cells - A problem may occur when moving from one cell to another while keeping the call un- interrupted. [the hand-off problem]
  • 8. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-8
  • 9. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-9 Design concepts: The Cellular Concept and Frequency Re-use - The cellular concept was introduced to solve the problem of frequency limitation (or spectral congestion) and user capacity - Replace a single high power base station with several lower power base stations, each covering a smaller geographical area, a ‘cell’. - Each of the base stations is allocated a number of channels (portion of the overall system channels)
  • 10. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-10 - Neighboring base stations (would in general) use different frequency channels to reduce interference. - (more later on interference, channel assignment and frequency planning)
  • 11. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-11 Frequency Re-use - A cell uses a set of frequencies - A ‘cluster’ holds several cells - Frequency re-use factor: 1/#cells per cluster
  • 12. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-12 F C B D E A G F C B D E A G F C B D E A G F C B D E A G F C B D E A G Cellular frequency re-use concept: cells with the same letter use the same set of frequencies. A cluster of cells (highlighted in bold) is replicated over the coverage area. The cluster size, N, is equal to 7. Since each cell contains one-seventh of the overall channels, the cell frequency re-use factor is 1/7. Cell Cluster This requires channel/frequency planning and allocation!
  • 13. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-13 Multiple Access (MA) Techniques for Wireless Communications - MA schemes allow multiple mobile users to share a limited frequency spectrum. - Main MA schemes: FDMA, TDMA, SSMA (FHMA, CDMA [DSMA]), SDMA
  • 14. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-14 FDMA
  • 15. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-15 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) - Assigns individual channels to individual users on demand - Only 1 user utilizes the channel at a time. Idle times are wasted. Capacity is not shared. - Communication is continuous - Does not need synchronization - Costly filters at the base station - Need guard bands to alleviate interference
  • 16. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-16 TDMA
  • 17. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-17 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) - In a time slot only 1 user transmits (or receives) - Several users share a single frequency channel - Transmission is non-continuous - Power consumption is lower than FDMA (e.g., the transmitter can be turned off when idle) - During idle time, a mobile performs MAHO - Synchronization is needed
  • 18. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-18 Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) - Traditional communication techniques - Strive to conserve bandwidth - By contrast, Spread spectrum techniques - use bandwidth several orders of magnitude larger than the min. required bandwidth !!
  • 19. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-19 Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) - Spread spectrum techniques use bandwidth larger than the min. required bandwidth - Modulation: - Uses pseudo-noise (PN) sequence to convert the signal into wideband - The PN is random, but can be re-produced by receiver - Demodulation: - Correct correlation using a PN re-produces the signal - Using wrong PN sequence produces noise, hence this scheme is ‘secure’
  • 20. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-20 - Spread Spectrum (SS) uses two techniques: - (1) FHMA: frequency hopped MA - (1) DSMA: direct sequence MA (also called CDMA: code division multiple access) - Frequency Hopped MA (FHMA) - Frequencies of individual users are varied in a pseudo-random fashion within the wideband range - The signal is broken into bursts and each burst is sent on a different frequency
  • 21. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-21 CDMA
  • 22. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-22 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)  used in several wireless broadcast channels (cellular, satellite, etc) standards  unique “code” assigned to each user; i.e., code set partitioning  all users share same frequency, but each user has own “chipping” sequence (i.e., code) to encode data  encoded signal = (original data) X (chipping sequence)  decoding: inner-product of encoded signal and chipping sequence  allows multiple users to “coexist” and transmit simultaneously with minimal interference (if codes are “orthogonal”)
  • 23. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-23 - Speading the signal power over a wide spread of the frequency spectrum reduces fading effects - only part of the spectrum, hence only part of the signal, is affected by fading - No frequency planning required since users use the same frequency - Soft hand-off can be provided since all the cells use the same frequency. MSC monitors signals. - In soft hand-off the channel (or frequency) remains the same and the base station changes
  • 24. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-24 Space Division MA (SDMA)  Controls the radiated energy for each user in space using spot beam (directional) antennas
  • 25. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-25 Hybrid Multiple Access Systems - Time division frequency hopping (TDFH): (used in some versions of GSM) - User can hop to new frequency at the start of a new TDMA frame - Hence reducing interference and fading effects - User hops over pre-defined frequencies
  • 26. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-26 - FDMA/CDMA: - The available bandwidth is split into subspectra. In each subspectrum CDMA is used - Allows to assign subspectra on-demand
  • 27. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-27 FDMA/CDMA
  • 28. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-28 Cellular networks: the first hop Techniques for sharing mobile-to-BS radio spectrum  combined FDMA/TDMA: divide spectrum in frequency channels, divide each channel into time slots frequency bands time slots
  • 29. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-29 Cellular standards: brief survey 2G systems: voice channels  IS-136 TDMA: combined FDMA/TDMA (north america)  GSM (global system for mobile communications): combined FDMA/TDMA  most widely deployed  IS-95 CDMA: code division multiple access GSM Don’t drown in a bowl of alphabet soup: use this for reference only 
  • 30. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-30 Cellular standards: brief survey 2.5 G systems: voice and data channels  for those who can’t wait for 3G service: 2G extensions  general packet radio service (GPRS)  evolved from GSM  data sent on multiple channels (if available)  enhanced data rates for global evolution (EDGE)  also evolved from GSM, using enhanced modulation  data rates up to 384K  CDMA-2000 (phase 1)  data rates up to 144K  evolved from IS-95
  • 31. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-31 Cellular standards: brief survey 3G systems: voice/data  Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS)  data service: High Speed Uplink/Downlink packet Access (HSDPA/HSUPA): 3 Mbps  CDMA-2000: CDMA in TDMA slots  data service: 1xEvlution Data Optimized (1xEVDO) up to 14 Mbps
  • 32. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-32 Chapter 6 outline 6.1 Introduction Wireless  6.2 Wireless links, characteristics  CDMA  6.3 IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs (“wi-fi”)  6.4 Cellular Internet Access  architecture  standards (e.g., GSM) Mobility  6.5 Principles: addressing and routing to mobile users  6.6 Mobile IP  6.7 Handling mobility in cellular networks  6.8 Mobility and higher- layer protocols 6.9 Summary
  • 33. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-33 What is mobility?  spectrum of mobility, from the network perspective: no mobility high mobility mobile wireless user, using same access point mobile user, passing through multiple access point while maintaining ongoing connections (like cell phone) mobile user, connecting/ disconnecting from network using DHCP.
  • 34. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-34 Mobility: Vocabulary home network: permanent “home” of mobile (e.g., 128.119.40/24) Permanent address: address in home network, can always be used to reach mobile e.g., 128.119.40.186 home agent: entity that will perform mobility functions on behalf of mobile, when mobile is remote wide area network correspondent
  • 35. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-35 Mobility: more vocabulary Care-of-address: address in visited network. (e.g., 79,129.13.2) wide area network visited network: network in which mobile currently resides (e.g., 79.129.13/24) Permanent address: remains constant (e.g., 128.119.40.186) foreign agent: entity in visited network that performs mobility functions on behalf of mobile. correspondent: wants to communicate with mobile
  • 36. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-36 How do you contact a mobile friend:  search all phone books?  call her parents?  expect her to let you know where he/she is? I wonder where Alice moved to? Consider friend frequently changing addresses, how do you find her?
  • 37. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-37 Mobility: approaches  Let routing handle it: routers advertise permanent address of mobile-nodes-in-residence via usual routing table exchange.  routing tables indicate where each mobile located  no changes to end-systems  Let end-systems handle it:  indirect routing: communication from correspondent to mobile goes through home agent, then forwarded to remote  direct routing: correspondent gets foreign address of mobile, sends directly to mobile
  • 38. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-38 Mobility: approaches  Let routing handle it: routers advertise permanent address of mobile-nodes-in-residence via usual routing table exchange.  routing tables indicate where each mobile located  no changes to end-systems  let end-systems handle it:  indirect routing: communication from correspondent to mobile goes through home agent, then forwarded to remote  direct routing: correspondent gets foreign address of mobile, sends directly to mobile not scalable to millions of mobiles
  • 39. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-39 Mobility: registration End result:  Foreign agent knows about mobile  Home agent knows location of mobile wide area network home network visited network 1 mobile contacts foreign agent on entering visited network 2 foreign agent contacts home agent home: “this mobile is resident in my network”
  • 40. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-40 Mobility via Indirect Routing wide area network home network visited network 3 2 4 1 correspondent addresses packets using home address of mobile home agent intercepts packets, forwards to foreign agent foreign agent receives packets, forwards to mobile mobile replies directly to correspondent
  • 41. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-41 Indirect Routing: comments  Mobile uses two addresses:  permanent address: used by correspondent (hence mobile location is transparent to correspondent)  care-of-address: used by home agent to forward datagrams to mobile  foreign agent functions may be done by mobile itself  triangle routing: correspondent-home-network- mobile  inefficient when correspondent, mobile are in same network
  • 42. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-42 Indirect Routing: moving between networks  suppose mobile user moves to another network  registers with new foreign agent  new foreign agent registers with home agent  home agent update care-of-address for mobile  packets continue to be forwarded to mobile (but with new care-of-address)  mobility, changing foreign networks transparent: on going connections can be maintained!
  • 43. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-43 Mobility via Direct Routing wide area network home network visited network 4 2 4 1 correspondent requests, receives foreign address of mobile correspondent forwards to foreign agent foreign agent receives packets, forwards to mobile mobile replies directly to correspondent 3
  • 44. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-44 Mobility via Direct Routing: comments  overcome triangle routing problem  non-transparent to correspondent: correspondent must get care-of-address from home agent  what if mobile changes visited network?
  • 45. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-45 wide area network 1 foreign net visited at session start anchor foreign agent 2 4 new foreign agent 3 5 correspondent agent correspondent new foreign network Accommodating mobility with direct routing  anchor foreign agent: FA in first visited network  data always routed first to anchor FA  when mobile moves: new FA arranges to have data forwarded from old FA (chaining)
  • 46. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-46 Chapter 6 outline 6.1 Introduction Wireless  6.2 Wireless links, characteristics  CDMA  6.3 IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs (“wi-fi”)  6.4 Cellular Internet Access  architecture  standards (e.g., GSM) Mobility  6.5 Principles: addressing and routing to mobile users  6.6 Mobile IP  6.7 Handling mobility in cellular networks  6.8 Mobility and higher- layer protocols 6.9 Summary
  • 47. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-47 Mobile IP  RFC 2002, RFC 3344.  Goals:  Attempts to provide support for host mobility while maintaining ‘transparency’:  the correspondent node need not know the location of the mobile node  the connection already established should be maintained during movement even if the mobile node changes its network point of attachment
  • 48. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-48 Mobile IP  has many features we’ve seen:  home agents, foreign agents, foreign-agent registration, care-of-addresses, encapsulation (packet-within-a-packet)  three components to standard:  indirect routing of datagrams  agent discovery  registration with home agent
  • 49. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-49 Mobile IP  Each mobile node has a home network, home address and home agent Home Agent (HA) Home Network Mobile Node Correspondent Node
  • 50. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-50 Home Agent Home Network Correspondent Node Foreign Agent (FA) Foreign Network Mobile Node • When mobile node (MN) moves to a foreign network it obtains a care-of-address (COA) from the foreign agent (FA) that registers it with the home agent (HA) • COA is used by HA to forward packets destined to MN Solicitation Advertisement (FA,COA) Register (HA) Register
  • 51. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-51 Mobile IP: registration example visited network: 79.129.13/24 home agent HA: 128.119.40.7 foreign agent COA: 79.129.13.2 COA: 79.129.13.2 …. ICMP agent adv. Mobile agent MA: 128.119.40.186 registration req. COA: 79.129.13.2 HA: 128.119.40.7 MA: 128.119.40.186 Lifetime: 9999 identification:714 …. registration req. COA: 79.129.13.2 HA: 128.119.40.7 MA: 128.119.40.186 Lifetime: 9999 identification: 714 encapsulation format …. registration reply HA: 128.119.40.7 MA: 128.119.40.186 Lifetime: 4999 Identification: 714 encapsulation format …. registration reply HA: 128.119.40.7 MA: 128.119.40.186 Lifetime: 4999 Identification: 714 …. time
  • 52. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-52 Mobile IP: indirect routing Permanent address: 128.119.40.186 Care-of address: 79.129.13.2 dest: 128.119.40.186 packet sent by correspondent dest: 79.129.13.2 dest: 128.119.40.186 packet sent by home agent to foreign agent: a packet within a packet dest: 128.119.40.186 foreign-agent-to-mobile packet
  • 53. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-53 Home Agent (HA) Correspondent Node (CN) Mobile Node (MN) Packets to MN are picked up by the HA and tunneled to MN Packets sent by MN go directly to CN • Triangle Routing in Mobile-IP
  • 54. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-54 Home Agent (HA) Correspondent Node (CN) Mobile Node (MN) • Triangle Routing in Mobile-IP C A B Triangular routing can be very inefficient, especially when C << B+A, where A (as shown) is the shortest path from CN to MN
  • 55. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-55 Drawbacks of Mobile IP  Other than (the main problem) of triangular routing  Mobile IP incurs lots of communication with the home agent with every movement  so, may not be fit for ‘micro’ mobility [e.g., move between rooms or buildings within the same network domain]  handoff delays are significant since registration/packets need to go through the home agent first
  • 56. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-56 Suggested solutions  To avoid triangular routing  use ‘route optimization’  use micro-mobility architectures • Cellular IP (CIP) • Hawaii • Multicast-based Mobility (M&M)
  • 57. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-57 Home Agent (HA) Correspondent Node (CN) Mobile Node (MN) (2) Initial packets to MN are sent through HA to MN (3) When MN gets packets from CN it sends a Binding Update to CN with its new address • Route Optimization (simple illustration) (1) MN registers with HA as in basic Mobile IP. (4) CN changes the destination address of the packets to go to MN’s new address
  • 58. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-58  With route optimization  Triangular routing is avoided  Still have problems with micro mobility and smooth hand-off  Need additional mechanisms to deal with these issues, which makes the protocol complex.
  • 59. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-59 Micro-Mobility  Hierarchical approach to mobility:  During frequent, intra-domain, movement only local efficient handoff is performed without notifying the home agent (HA) or the correspondent node (CN)  For inter-domain mobility use Mobile IP. Notify HA or CN only during inter-domain movement
  • 60. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-60 Distribution tree dynamics while roaming Domain Root Wireless link Mobile Node FA or CN
  • 61. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-61 M&M: Join/Prune dynamics to modify distribution Domain Root Wireless link Mobile Node
  • 62. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-62 Components of cellular network architecture correspondent MSC MSC MSC MSC MSC wired public telephone network different cellular networks, operated by different providers recall:
  • 63. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-63 Handling mobility in cellular networks  home network: network of cellular provider you subscribe to (e.g., Sprint PCS, Verizon)  home location register (HLR): database in home network containing permanent cell phone #, profile information (services, preferences, billing), information about current location (could be in another network)  visited network: network in which mobile currently resides  visitor location register (VLR): database with entry for each user currently in network  could be home network
  • 64. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-64 Public switched telephone network mobile user home Mobile Switching Center HLR home network visited network correspondent Mobile Switching Center VLR GSM: indirect routing to mobile 1 call routed to home network 2 home MSC consults HLR, gets roaming number of mobile in visited network 3 home MSC sets up 2nd leg of call to MSC in visited network 4 MSC in visited network completes call through base station to mobile
  • 65. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-65 Mobile Switching Center VLR old BSS new BSS old routing new routing GSM: handoff with common MSC  Handoff goal: route call via new base station (without interruption)  reasons for handoff:  stronger signal to/from new BSS (continuing connectivity, less battery drain)  load balance: free up channel in current BSS  GSM doesn’t mandate why to perform handoff (policy), only how (mechanism)  handoff initiated by old BSS
  • 66. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-66 Mobile Switching Center VLR old BSS 1 3 2 4 5 6 7 8 GSM: handoff with common MSC new BSS 1. old BSS informs MSC of impending handoff, provides list of 1+ new BSSs 2. MSC sets up path (allocates resources) to new BSS 3. new BSS allocates radio channel for use by mobile 4. new BSS signals MSC, old BSS: ready 5. old BSS tells mobile: perform handoff to new BSS 6. mobile, new BSS signal to activate new channel 7. mobile signals via new BSS to MSC: handoff complete. MSC reroutes call 8 MSC-old-BSS resources released
  • 67. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-67 home network Home MSC PSTN correspondent MSC anchor MSC MSC MSC (a) before handoff GSM: handoff between MSCs  anchor MSC: first MSC visited during call  call remains routed through anchor MSC  new MSCs add on to end of MSC chain as mobile moves to new MSC  IS-41 allows optional path minimization step to shorten multi-MSC chain
  • 68. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-68 home network Home MSC PSTN correspondent MSC anchor MSC MSC MSC (b) after handoff GSM: handoff between MSCs  anchor MSC: first MSC visited during call  call remains routed through anchor MSC  new MSCs add on to end of MSC chain as mobile moves to new MSC  IS-41 allows optional path minimization step to shorten multi-MSC chain
  • 69. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-69 Mobility: GSM versus Mobile IP GSM element Comment on GSM element Mobile IP element Home system Network to which mobile user’s permanent phone number belongs Home network Gateway Mobile Switching Center, or “home MSC”. Home Location Register (HLR) Home MSC: point of contact to obtain routable address of mobile user. HLR: database in home system containing permanent phone number, profile information, current location of mobile user, subscription information Home agent Visited System Network other than home system where mobile user is currently residing Visited network Visited Mobile services Switching Center. Visitor Location Record (VLR) Visited MSC: responsible for setting up calls to/from mobile nodes in cells associated with MSC. VLR: temporary database entry in visited system, containing subscription information for each visiting mobile user Foreign agent Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN), or “roaming number” Routable address for telephone call segment between home MSC and visited MSC, visible to neither the mobile nor the correspondent. Care-of- address
  • 70. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-70 Wireless, mobility: impact on higher layer protocols  logically, impact should be minimal …  best effort service model remains unchanged  TCP and UDP can (and do) run over wireless, mobile  … but performance-wise:  packet loss/delay due to bit-errors (discarded packets, delays for link-layer retransmissions), and handoff  TCP interprets loss as congestion, will decrease congestion window un-necessarily  delay impairments for real-time traffic  limited bandwidth of wireless links
  • 71. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-71 Chapter 6 Summary Wireless  wireless links:  capacity, distance  channel impairments  CDMA  IEEE 802.11 (“wi-fi”)  CSMA/CA reflects wireless channel characteristics  cellular access  architecture  standards (e.g., GSM, CDMA-2000, UMTS) Mobility  principles: addressing, routing to mobile users  home, visited networks  direct, indirect routing  care-of-addresses  case studies  mobile IP  mobility in GSM  impact on higher-layer protocols
  • 72. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-72 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)  used in several wireless broadcast channels (cellular, satellite, etc) standards  unique “code” assigned to each user; i.e., code set partitioning  all users share same frequency, but each user has own “chipping” sequence (i.e., code) to encode data  encoded signal = (original data) X (chipping sequence)  decoding: inner-product of encoded signal and chipping sequence  allows multiple users to “coexist” and transmit simultaneously with minimal interference (if codes are “orthogonal”)
  • 73. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-73 CDMA Encode/Decode slot 1 slot 0 d1 = -1 1 1 1 1 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 - Zi,m= di .cm d0 = 1 1 1 1 1 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 1 1 1 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 1 1 1 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 - slot 0 channel output slot 1 channel output channel output Zi,m sender code data bits slot 1 slot 0 d1 = -1 d0 = 1 1 1 1 1 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 1 1 1 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 1 1 1 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 1 1 1 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 - slot 0 channel output slot 1 channel output receiver code received input Di = SZi,m .cm m=1 M M
  • 74. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-74 CDMA: two-sender interference
  • 75. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-75 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum  Original signal is m(t)  The spreading signal is p(t) [the PN sequence]  The spread spectrum signal is Sss(t) A single pulse or symbol of the PN waveform is called a chip
  • 76. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-76 Sss(t) ~ m(t)p(t)cos(2fct+) B: is the bandwidth of m(t)cos(2fct+) Wss: is the bandwidth of Sss(t) Wss >> B Chip Clock PN Code Generator Oscillator fc Sss(t) Transmitted Signal Data m(t) Phase modulation Block diagram of a DS-SS system with binary phase modulation Transmitter p(t)
  • 77. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-77 Channel encoder (A) (B) (C) f(B,C) Symbol duration for m(t): Ts Chip duration for p(t): Tc Processing Gain PG=Wss/B=Ts/Tc, a measure of interference rejection capability Symbol Chip
  • 78. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-78 Bit stream (A) Encoded stream (B) Pseudo-noise sequence (C) m(t) p(t) Tc Ts
  • 79. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6-79  Example:  f(B,C)=BC, where • 1  1= 0 • 1  0 = 1 • 0  0 = 0  if we have received f(B,C) and we are able to re-generate the PN (C), then we can get B.