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Au Psy492 E Portfolio


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Au Psy492 E Portfolio

  1. 1. Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio Georgina L. Roman Psychology Program, 2010
  2. 2. Personal Statement <ul><li>My fascination of school psychology has developed over the past year, throughout my education in the psychology program at Argosy University. During my studies of mental disorders and behavioral abnormalities, I periodically remembered the people in the special education group at my High School. I would wonder about their educational experience, and how their education balanced with their learning disabilities. My curiosity extended further into other individuals, with unrealized learning difficulties, struggling to accomplish the work necessary to receive their diploma. These considerations allowed me to recognize that student knowledge and successful teachings are essential in the education system. Moreover, psychological development and cognitive abilities have influential effects on students in the classroom, and assessing and evaluating these features can be helpful in managing and resolving student learning and behavior difficulties. It is now that I appreciate that in order to further improve learning opportunities for students and teachers, prominence in classroom performance needs to be measured to increase the accountability of education. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Resume <ul><li>OBJECTIVE: To obtain experience in administrative support in an academic environment; to further my knowledge in the educational system. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>SUMMARY : • At least two years of progressive academic and problem-solving skills in the field of psychology. </li></ul><ul><li> • Proficient observation with an educator of a local public school district and county office of education. </li></ul><ul><li> • Imminent Argosy University graduate with a BA in Psychology. </li></ul><ul><li> • Proficient with MS Office, Windows XP, Power Point, and the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>EDUCATION: Bachelor of Arts in Psychology, August 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University, Phoenix, Arizona </li></ul><ul><li>Graduated with a potential GPA of 3.9 on a 4.0 scale </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Courses taken included: </li></ul><ul><li>Cognition and Learning Research Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Substance Abuse Treatment I & II Maladaptive Behavior and Psychopathology </li></ul><ul><li>Counseling Theories Developmental Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Statistics Ethics in Contemporary Society </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics and Probability Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Children and Violence Personality Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial/Organizational Psychology </li></ul>
  4. 4. EXPERIENCE: Educator Observation, June 2010 Monterey County, California, Jane Mendoza Bilingual School Psychologist • Examined student assessments in cases with inaccurate disabilities. • Participated in meetings with parents to reveal evaluation findings. • Developed a remarkable relationship with Mentor.   Accounts Payable Clerk, May 2008 to Present Well-Pict Berries, Inc., Watsonville, California • Assisted with account processing. • Developed automated monthly sales tax payment system. • Distributed and mailed payments for individual customers.
  5. 5. Reflection <ul><li>During my academic journey in the psychology program at Argosy University, I have overcome many challenges and developed a new perception and respect for the people with psychological disorders. Going into this field I originally wanted to become a counselor for those adolescents suffering from substance abuse and psychological trauma, not really considering exploring new regions. I used to think about psychology in only narrow, negative expressions. However, after several courses in the program, I discovered a new area of interest, and took pleasure in learning more as the months went on. </li></ul><ul><li>After many courses, I became enlightened to our education systems and concerned about their support for those students’ needs with learning disabilities and psychological disorders. Additionally, following much research, I have become more aware of the lack of knowledge school administrators and faculty have in determining these distinct symptoms, which often results in the disorder going untreated. Because of my growing interest in this specific field, I now have a wider multicultural standpoint toward society, stronger cognitive and research skills, and compelling communication competence due to my enthusiasm in exploring more information in this area. However, I am still vulnerable to misleading information in classroom settings. Therefore, it is necessary to continue learning and pursuing my knowledge in the field of psychology. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Professional Work Samples <ul><li>Knowledge of applied Psychology and Foundations of the Field </li></ul><ul><li>Georgina L. Roman </li></ul>
  7. 7. Table of Contents <ul><li>Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Research Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Skills: Oral and Written </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics and Diversity Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>** Include work samples and projects with a Title Page and organized accordingly to demonstrate each of the Program Outcomes above </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cognitive Abilities <ul><li>Child Sexual Abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology 302 – Research Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Georgina L. Roman </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cognitive Abilities <ul><li>“ Due to the underreporting and the lack of a clear definition of what constitutes sexual abuse, there is a general agreement among mental health and child protection professionals that child sexual abuse is not uncommon” (Argosy 2009). Sexual abuse is classified as any incident allowing sexual activities to be committed on a child by any person responsible for that child, such as a parent or caretaker (Glicken 2004, p.67). This is most commonly committed by family members, or close friends of a family (Glicken 2004, p.67). When a family member takes part in sexual activities with another family member, it is known as incest (Glicken 2004, p.67). One of the most common forms of incest is father-daughter sexual abuse (Glicken 2004, p.67). “Sexual assault” is another type of sexual abuse (Glicken 2004, p.67). This is when sexual activities occur between a child and a person who is not related to them, such as a family friend or an unfamiliar person (Glicken 2004, p.67). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cognitive Abilities <ul><li>Most children vulnerable to sexual abuse are under the age of 18 (National Center for Victims of Crimes 2008). In the year 2000, 67% of sexual abuse crime victims were reported to be under the age of 18, and 34% of that number were victims under the age of 12 (National Center for Victims of Crimes 2008). Further, statistics show that 1 out of 6 sexual abuse cases reported was under the age of 6, and 40 % of those offenders from these cases were under the age of 18 (National Center for Victims of Crimes 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>These victims are not limited to any specific gender. Both boys and girls are susceptible to these serious crimes, especially between the ages 7 and 13 (National Center for Victims of Crimes 2008). “According to the Third National Incidence Study , girls are sexually abused three times more often than boys, whereas boys are more likely to die or be seriously injured from their abuse” (National Center for Victims of Crimes 2008). Based on cases reported over the years, it has been calculated that 1 in 4 girls and 1 in 6 boys are familiar with sexually abusive activities (National Center for Victims of Crimes 2008). However, because of the complications in reporting these experiences, the number of boys may be inaccurate (National Center for Victims of Crimes 2008). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cognitive Abilities <ul><li>A significant number of cases of sexual abuse go unreported due to the trauma and terror involved (Glicken 2004, p.67). Most sex offenders fill these sexual acts with threats and intensity that scare the child into keeping quiet about the situation (Glicken 2004, p.67). Further, in cases of incest, guilt and shame overwhelm the child so greatly it causes them to blame themselves for the incident(s), which also cause them to withdraw from confrontation as well (National Center for Victims of Crimes 2008). Fearful feelings, as well as being confused about matters, for example mixed feelings about loyalty towards the abuser and the sexual acts, overwhelm the victim, and reduce the chances of the crime being reported (Argosy 2009). </li></ul><ul><li>There are several warning signs that help recognize sexual abuse. “Some children might show symptoms of PTSD, including agitated behavior, frightening dreams, and repetitive plays in which aspects of the abuse are expressed” (Argosy 2009). Other possible warning signs include: depression or withdrawal from family and friends, eating disorders, substance abuse, self-destructive behavior, suicidal behaviors or thoughts, evasiveness, delinquency, running away, seductive behaviors, fearfulness and avoidance of any sexual associations (Argosy 2009). As soon as any of these signs are displayed by a child, an intervention needs to be acted upon. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cognitive Abilities <ul><li>Intervention programs are available for children in their local community. These programs are known to be successful because they make attendees aware of possible risks and dangers to sexual abuse in that particular location (Argosy 2009). Further, these programs teach children the basics and realities of what constitutes as sexual abuse and how to avoid such situations (Argosy 2009). In addition, they provide local help centers with more advice how to react to suspected situations (Argosy 2009). </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cognitive Abilities <ul><li>Reference: </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University (2009). Children and Violence. Retrieved September 22, 2009 from </li></ul><ul><li>Glicken, M.D. (2004). Violent Young Children . Pearson Education, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Kashani, J.H. & Allan, W.D. (1998). The Impact of Family Violence on Children and Adolescents. Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry 37. SAGE Publications, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>National Center for Victims of Crimes (2008). Child Sexual Abuse. Retrieved on September 22, 2009 from </li></ul>
  14. 14. Research Skills <ul><li>Effects of Sexual Abuse in People with Learning Disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology 302 – Research Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Georgina L. Roman </li></ul>
  15. 15. Research Skills <ul><li>In my past life history, I have been oblivious to the subject of sexual abuse. I never learned what it was until this past year when I found out that my little cousin, whom had lived with me in my adolescents, had been sexually abuse for 6 years by my aunt’s boyfriend, whom also lived in the same house. I was appalled. After finding this out, turns out several other family members were victims in sexual abuse as well in their childhood, including my mother, my aunt, and my cousin. At first I was confused about how I never knew about any of this information. Then I felt anxious to know more about the details in sexual abuse between the perpetrator and their victims. While investigating all this, and actually taking a class on children and violence, I couldn’t help but wonder why I was never victimized by this scandalizing crime? Further, if my family, who was well aware of this being a possibility in a child’s life, didn’t speak of this or teach me the characteristics of this crime, how many other families ignore the subject? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Research Skills <ul><li>No matter how horrified I was in researching children exposed to sexual abuse, I was glad to discover the effects of child sexual abuse. Plus, the fact that I was planning on working with children in a school district made me want to learn more about the risk factors, psychological effects, and behavior modifications involved in children who have been sexually abused. However, questions are raised when evaluating the information I already know, such as are the effects of sexual abuse in children with learning disabilities similar to those victims with no mental disorders? Further, why aren’t there any organized studies between these specific variables? </li></ul><ul><li>From my understanding, child sexual abuse can happen as early as 3 years old, and is usually done by a family member, or close family friend. “In self-reports by almost 500 juveniles being evaluated by the police for possible involvement in sexual offenses, Zolondek et al. (2001) found that over 60 percent reported involvement in child molestation, over 30 percent in pornography, and 10 percent to 30 percent in exhibitionism, fetishism, frottage, voyeurism, obscene phone calls, and phone sex” (Glicken 2004, p.80). These cases found that perpetrators would manipulate their victims by tricking them into participating in sexual acts, rather than using forces (Glicken 2004, p.91). The tragedy in this is if these victims never get help, they may become perpetrators themselves at early ages (Glicken 2004, p.91). Studies indicated that a whopping 40 percent of child sexual offenders were previously sexually abuse themselves (Glicken 2004, p.91). </li></ul>
  17. 17. Research Skills <ul><li>Victims of sexual abuse usually show signs of depression, shame, guilt, and withdrawing behaviors form normal activities, such as school or family gatherings (Glicken 2004, p.92). They become very restless at night, may develop eating disorders, suicidal thoughts, and issues with intimacy, relationships, and sexual activities (Glicken 2004, p.92). Post-traumatic stress disorder is also common with sexual abuse. </li></ul><ul><li>From the information I have learned and researched in my previous courses about sexual abuse, it seems as though a pattern exists in sexual abuse from generation to generation. Does this apply to children with learning disabilities as well? This is interesting because children with learning disabilities tend to have more difficulties in receiving and processing information, which brings me to wonder if they would react in the same way. Further, I have seen children with learning disabilities unable to stay focused or analyze information they recently experienced. These individuals also suffer from communicating properly, remembering, recognizing, and making sense of information. This definitely interferes with their problem-solving skills, which could make them oblivious to sexually abusive situations. </li></ul><ul><li>A quantitative approach would be more appropriate than a qualitative approach to investigating my topic because I am dealing with an observational experiment with an independent variable being the effects of sexual abuse, and dependent variables being children with and without learning disabilities within a population. The domain in this research topic is going to be based on statistical findings within a sample, on the contrary to the qualitative approach. I want to find the relationship between these variables and prove or disprove my thesis, and the quantitative approach will help me delivery these results. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Research Skills <ul><li>Reference: </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University (2009). Research Methods. Retrieved October 30, 2009 from </li></ul><ul><li>Glicken, M.D. (2004). Violent Young Children . Pearson Education, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Sequeira, H. & Hollins, S. (2003). Clinical Effects of Sexual Abuse on People with Learning Disabilities. Retrieved October 29, 2009, from The British Journal of Psychiatry web site: </li></ul><ul><li>Shaughnessy, J.J., Zechmeister, E.B., & Zechmeister, J.S. (2009). Research Methods in Psychology. (8th ed.). McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc </li></ul>
  19. 19. Communication Skills <ul><li>Effects of Sexual Abuse in People with Learning Disabilities: </li></ul><ul><li>Outline of Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology 302 – Research Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Georgina L. Roman </li></ul>
  20. 20. Communication Skills <ul><li>Review Article: Peckham, N.G. (2007) </li></ul><ul><li> This is an interesting article because Peckham (2007) discusses the motives for people with learning disabilities to be more susceptible to sexual abuse, due to the lack of education comprehension of sexual abuse, along with many other issues. He first defines the background information on sexual abuse for the general public, and then clarifies the idea so that incorporates the comprehension for people with learning disabilities, which is a critical part in the investigation because it points out the significant mental implications in this type of situation. The article proceeds further into why people with learning disabilities are more vulnerable to sexual abuse, involving many factors, such as communication difficulties, dependency matters, and them being targeted as weak individuals by perpetrators and the general public. Peckham answers the “why?” to these happenings from both perspectives; the offenders’ and victims’. He includes a long list of consequences from the effects of sexual abuse, such as depression, shame, and anger. Further, he claims that the effects of sexual abuse in people without learning disabilities are also seen in those individuals with them. Clinical implications are then provided for the prevention of future incidents. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Communication Skills <ul><li>Empirical Article: Balogh, R., Bretherton, K., Whibley, S., Berney, T., Graham, S., Richold, P., Worsley, C., & Firth, H. (2001) </li></ul><ul><li> This study is based on the incidences where children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities are victims or perpetrators of sexual abuse. The researchers examined 43 in-patients with intellectual disabilities (aged between 9 & 21 years) and the seriousness of their abuse in association with their age, gender, and degree of disability (Balogh, R., Bretherton, K., Whibley, S., Berney, T., Graham, S., Richold, P., Worsley, C., & Firth, H. 2001, p.194). It was a 5 year study to support ideas of gender differences in sexual abuse patterns and how adolescent impacts alter perceptions in the future (Balogh, R., Bretherton, K., Whibley, S., Berney, T., Graham, S., Richold, P., Worsley, C., & Firth, H. 2001, p.194). Results showed that there was a significant difference between male and female sexual abusive patterns. The discovery of gender-specific patterns begin to exists during adolescents, and that defining sexuality is critical in sexual abuse (Balogh, R., Bretherton, K., Whibley, S., Berney, T., Graham, S., Richold, P., Worsley, C., & Firth, H. 2001, p.200). They also found inconsistencies in sexual abuse disclosure with those people with more severe intellectual disability. Therefore, they cannot positively confirm that people with intellectual disabilities are more vulnerable or victimized by sexual abuse. Further, they find support in female perpetrators having been previously victimized, and that female perpetrators are less likely to transpire. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Communication Skills <ul><li>Empirical Article: Brown, H. & Turk, V. (1994) </li></ul><ul><li> Brown and Turk research the continuing risks for people with learning disabilities to the exploitation of sexual abuse, in a 3 year period. Out of 138 questionnaires, they came to find several distinctions in this investigation. The results show a lack of inconsistent reporting due many reasons. One concern is the deficiencies detected between the learning disabled, staff members, and carers in the knowledge of sexually abusive acts. Further, communication barriers may exist in some cases where the learning disabled may not have been the source of disclosure. These indications bring up proper consent and legal matters in the learning disabled individuals and the details in them having a sufficient understanding in sexual behaviors. Brown and Turk point out that it is common for families or caretakers to fail to notice or excuse non-consenting forms of sexual activity. This study also brings up gender matters, being that men were the most common offenders on both men and women with learning disabilities. Brown and Turk come to the conclusions that “services are not consistently able to recognize and report cases of sexual abuse, while the amount of sexual abuse which is perpetrated by one service user on another is indictive of a ‘hands off’ approach to relationships and activities which should be subject to thoughtful scrutiny” (Brown & Turk 1994, p.33). Further, they push for stronger education programs that scrutinize rights and protection in sexual behaviors. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Communication Skills <ul><li>Empirical Article: Podell, D.M., Kastner, J., & Kastner S. (1996) </li></ul><ul><li> Podell, Kastner, and Kastner attempt to find links between the responsibility of people with mental retardation and their perceptions on sexual behaviors. The researchers chose 132 female undergraduate students from three different colleges in the New York metropolitan area. Each of these students were given scenarios from six specific conditions describing two adolescents, a boy and a girl, sexually interacting with one another. The two adolescents were either described as mentally retarded, or not, and the female’s reactions in the process would either be encouraging, passive, or resisting (Podell, D.M., Kastner, J., & Kastner S. 1996, p.105). By use of significant factors, the results showed that the responsibility of a mentally retarded male interacting in sexual activities made him less responsible for his encounter, than if he was not mentally retarded (Podell, D.M., Kastner, J., & Kastner S. 1996, p.107). This perception was the same for the female, however, in only those situations where she was reacting passively or encouraging (Podell, D.M., Kastner, J., & Kastner S. 1996, p.107). These indications support the idea that mentally challenged individuals are more vulnerable to sexual abuse. Further, researchers point out different perceptions society might pertain to victims of sexual abuse and their mental capabilities, followed by suggestive new research studies to meet the emotional needs of people with mental retardation. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Communication Skills <ul><li>Empirical Article: Sequeira, H. (2006) </li></ul><ul><li> Dr. Heather Sequeira efforts in evaluating the effects of sexual abuse on people with intellectual disabilities, and further tries to understand the difficulties in defining allegations for the abuse and identifying those that may be at higher risks to the abuse. She evaluates several research studies in trying to answer the question, “‘ What are the psychological effects of sexual abuse in people with intellectual disabilities?”’ (Sequeira 2006, p.25). She finds that there is a great connection to sexual abuse and disturbing changes in behaviors, such as aggression and social withdrawal (Sequeira 2006, p.27). Further, she suggests that there are differences in these specific behavioral changes, the level of intellectual disability, and their associations to sexual abuse attributes. She uses this information to distinguish the features in sexual abuse, those at higher risks, and implications for treatment in people with intellectual disabilities. Further, she points out that professional treatment centers need to be aware of the possibilities of sexual abuse, especially when an individual has a high grade for intellectual challenges (Sequeira 2006, p.28). Recommendations are made for a wider knowledge and understanding in experiences in sexual abuse in people with learning disabilities for clinicians, and the importance of taking adequate actions to mental health issues in people with intellectual difficulties (Sequeira 2006, p.29). </li></ul>
  25. 25. Communication Skills <ul><li>Reference: </li></ul><ul><li>Balogh, R., Bretherton, K., Whibley, S., Berney, T., Graham, S., Richold, P., Worsley, C., & Firth, H. (2001). Sexual abuse in children and adolescents with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, Vol. 45 Issue 3, 194-201. Retrieved from Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection database. </li></ul><ul><li>Brown, H. & Turk V. (1994). Sexual abuse in adulthood: Ongoing risks for people with learning disabilities. Child Abuse Review, Vol. 3 Issue 1, 26-35. retrieved from SocINDEX with Full Text database. </li></ul><ul><li>Peckham, N.G. (2007). The vulnerability and sexual abuse of people with learning disabilities. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol.35 Issue 2, 131-137. Retrieved from Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection database. </li></ul><ul><li>Podell, D.M., Kastner, J., & Kastner S. (1996). Adolescents with mental retardation: Perceptions of sexual abuse. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, Vol.66(1), 103-110. Retrieved from PsycARTICLES database. </li></ul><ul><li>Sequeira, H. (2006). Implications for practice: Research into the effects of sexual abuse on adults with intellectual disabilities . Journal of Adult Protection, Vol. 8 Issue 4, 25-31. Retrieved from SocINDEX with Full Text database. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Ethics and Diversity Awareness <ul><li>Universal Laws and Universal Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy 101 - Ethics in Contemporary Society </li></ul><ul><li>Georgina L. Roman </li></ul>
  27. 27. Ethics and Diversity Awareness <ul><li>According to Kant, there is only one categorical imperative that is “act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law (Brannigan 2005, p.108).” He describes every action being based on moral reason. The motive of the action molds its moral value, or the reason that call for that action, not the consequences that follow it. The highest moral worth of an action is one that can be universally fit, or a universal maxim. Further, Kant explains that morality should be just as universal as reason since it is the constant for all people. Thus, moral acts are those that can be in material form for universal law, such as free speech, or freedom to worship (Johnson 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>An example of a Universal Maxim that we as citizens in a democracy ought to see realized in our own country is freedom to marry. I think if two people, regardless of gender, are sharing the same feelings of love, and want to announce it to friends and family; they should be allowed to without discrimination, just like mixed-gender marriages. Due to specific religious beliefs, state governments deny the equal recognition to same gender couples that are acknowledged with mixed gender couples, such as childbearing or living arrangements (IWG 2008). Expressing love to another human being is an action that is morally justified for everyone on the planet. Sexual relations are only a means to gaining some other desire within the relationship. Love is absolute. No one has the right to label unconditional love as morally wrong in same gender relationships. So, why should that be denied to anybody when not everyone has the same religious beliefs and values? Who is to say same gender love is morally wrong, when mixed gender love has not yet been proven to be morally right? </li></ul>
  28. 28. Ethics and Diversity Awareness <ul><li>Reference: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University (2009). Ethics in Contemporary Society. Retrieved on February 3, 2009, from </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Brannigan, M. (2005). Ethics Across Cultures: An Introduction With Readings . McGraw-Hill. Kansas City, MO </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>InterFaith Working Group Online (2008) Religious Support for Equal Marriage Rights. Retrieved on February 4, 2009 from </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson, R. (2008). Kant’s Moral Philosophy. Retrieved on February 4, 2009 from </li></ul>
  29. 29. My Future in Learning <ul><li>I look forward to furthering my education in a School Psychology program in graduate school. I am confident that my involvement in this specialized curriculum will provide me with thorough instruction and skills necessary to be successful in the field of school psychology. Having thoroughly enjoyed my previous research and experience of school psychology, and the various facets involved, I feel that I am capable in advancing my knowledge in this field and look forward to the challenges ahead as a student in graduate school. My passion for enhancing the psychological well-being of students solidified my decision to proceed on this career path; I am certain that my experience in achieving a Masters Degree in School Psychology will propel me closer to my aspirations in the education system. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Contact Me Thank you for viewing my ePortfolio. For further information, please contact me at the e-mail address below. [email_address]