SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 135
Download to read offline
*
*
Section 1
*
*Understand how
geography influenced
development of
civilization in the
Fertile Crescent
*Outline the main
features of Sumerian
civilization
*Explain how the
advances in learning
made the Sumerians
left a lasting legacy for
later people to build
on
*
*What were the characteristics of the world's
first civilization?
*
*What type of environment does the fertile
crescent lie?
*Why would Mesopotamia be a reasonable
civilization to rise?
*According to the map, what geographic
challenges did early Sumerians face?
*
*Fertile Crescent
*Is a region of the Middle east named for its rich
soils and golden wheat fields
*Over time, this place was often invaded, traders
were able to easily overcome the regions few
natural barriers
*This area was a cross road where different
people mingled.
*
*Mesopotamia
*It lies within the Fertile Crescent
*It is the area of land between the Tigris and
Euphrates rivers
*It is where the worlds first civilization began
(3300 BC) (Sumer region in south eastern
Mesopotamia)
*
*Organizing for Floods and Irrigation
*Controlling the Tigris and Euphrates river was key
to development
*There were many floods that washed away topsoil
and homes
*The Epic of Gilgamesh
*It is a story that speaks about a great flood that
destroys the world
* Archaeologists and historians have found evidence of
these type of floods in that area
*
*Organizing for Floods and Irrigation
*Villagers had to build up the riverbanks
*They had to channel water with canals as well
*This needed strong leadership
*
*Sumerians Build Thriving Cities
*They had few natural resources but they made
the most of what they had
*They built with clay since there was no a lot of
stone
* The Great cities of Ur and Uruk were made out of mud
bricks
*They had a lot of water
*Had trade
*
*Intro
*Within a few hundred
years there were 12
separate city states
*There were often
battles for territory
*Complex
Government Unfolds
*In each city state, the
ruler was responsible
for maintaining the
city walls and the
irrigation systems
*Led the military, kept
the law, made peace
*
*Sumerians Structure Their Society
*Each city-state had a distinct social hierarchy-
system of ranking groups
*In other words, a class system
* Ruling Family
* Priests
* Leading officials
*
*Majority of people were peasant farmers
*Few owned their own land
*There were slaves and artisans as well
*
*Role of Women
*Changed over time
*There were goddesses that were highly honored in
religious practices
*This may be why women were held in higher status
then in later civilizations
*Women never held legal rights equal to men
*Some of the ruler's wives' had power to supervise
*
*Cuneiform
*It means "wedge"
*Wrote making wedge shaped marks on clay
tablets
*Grew out of a system of pictographs that were
used to record goods brought to temple store
houses
*
*Development
*More symbols became
to be used for
complicated thoughts
*
*
*Around 2500 BCE armies of conquering
people invaded
*They overwhelmed the Sumerian City-states
*By 1900 BCE the Sumerian Civilization was
replaced by others
*
*Their legacy was
*Their writing
*Astronomy
*Mathematics
*Poetry
*Language
*
Section 2
*
*Outline the achievements of the first empires
that arose in Mesopotamia
*Understand how conquests brought new
empires and ideas into the Middle East
*Describe how the Persians established a huge
empire
*Summarize the contributions the Phoenicians
made to the ancient Middle East
*
*Intro
*People invaded, war, chaos, there was a need for
stability
*
• 2300 BCE Sargon, the
Ruler of Akkad, invaded
neighboring city states of
Sumer
• He expanded territory
• Created an empire
•After his death his land
was invaded and
conquered
*
• 1790 BCE Hammurabi, king
of Babylon, brought much
of Mesopotamia under the
control of his empire
• Babylonian Empire
• Significance and lasting
contribution
• The Hammurabi Code
• It was a set of laws that had
been around since Sumer but
he made it the legal law of
all of his Empire
• It was the first attempt to
codify (arrange and set down
in writing) all the laws that
would govern a state
*
*Establishing Civil Law
*Civil Law is the branch of law that deals with
private rights and matters such as property
inheritance, contracts, taxes, marriage, etc.
*Hammurabi's Code attempted this
*Babylonian Example
*Husband was over his wife, but he had to support
her as well
*
*Defining Crime and Punishment
*Criminal Law- The branch of law that deals with
offenses against others, such as robbery, assault,
and murder
*Before Hammurabi Code
*Victims of crime were allowed to take law in their own
hands
*After Hammurabi Code
*Limited personal vengeance and encouraged social order
*An Eye for an Eye and a life for a life
*
*Other Accomplishments made by
Hammurabi
*Hammurabi united his empire by….
*Improving Irrigation
*Organizing an army
*Repairing temples
*Promoted Religious unity
*He promoted Marduk the patron god of Babylon
*
*Hittites Learn the Secret of Ironworking
*Hittites were from the region of Asia Minor
*Started to expand into Mesopotamia in 1400 BC
*They were able to create Iron which was harder and
shaper then the weapons made from Bronze or
Copper
*There was a lot a lot of Iron, so they were able to arm many
people
*They kept this a secret until their empire collapsed
in 1200 BCE and their blacksmiths went elsewhere.
*
*Assyrian Warriors Expand Ancient Knowledge
*1350 BCE they began to expand and create an Empire
across Mesopotamia
*They originated North of the Tigris
*For over 500 years they were the most feared people in
the World
*They had a culture of warfare
*They encouraged a well ordered society
*They had trade
*Well organized cities
*They had and expanded Law
*They even founded one of the worlds first libraries
*
*Nebuchadnezzar Revives Babylon
*After a great king of Assyria passed away, neighboring
people joined forces to crust the once dreaded Assyrian
armies
*In 625 BCE Babylon reestablished itself
*
• He was a ruthless king
• He stretched his empire very
far
• Oversaw the rebuilding of
irrigation, temples, walls,
and palaces
• He built moats and public
works
• The famous Hanging Gardens
as well
*
*Intro
*Have students do the Map Skills on pg. 41
*The Babylonians eventually fallto another
empire- the Persians
*The Persians were tolerant and respected
people's cultures and customs
*
• Ruled from 522 BCE-486 BCE
• He set up a bureaucracy
• A system of government
through departments and
subdivisions administered by
officials who follow set rules
• This became a model for other
rulers
• Adapted laws from the
peoples he conquered
• Built roads to unite the
territory
*
*Darius Unites Many Peoples
*Improving Economic Life
*Darius
*set up a common set of weights and measure to improve trade
*He also encouraged the use of coins
*Barter Economy- a trade system in which one person exchanges
goods or services for another
*This was the Most common
*Money Economy- goods and services are paid for through the
exchange of some token of an agreed value, such as a coin or a bill
*This began to grow
* Darius made a Persian coin
*
*New Religion takes Hold
*Zoroaster- he was a Persian
thinker who helped unite the
empire
*Lived somewhere from 1700 BCE- 1000
BCE
*His Ideas began to take root during the
period of the Darius
*
• The World was broken up
between two powers
• Ahura Mazda (the all
powerful wise God)
• Ahriman (the Prince of Evil
• Every person serves one or
the other
• At the end of time, all people
will be judged by there deeds
*
*Intro
*There were huge empires who were led by great
rulers, but don't count out the little guy
*There were city states that contributed to History
*
*Expanding Manufacturing and Trade
*The Phoenicians became best known for this
*They made glass from coastal sand
*Set up Colonies in other areas
*Colony- is a territory settled and ruled by people
from another land
*
*Establishing an Alphabet
*Phoenicians were "carriers of Civilization"
*The spread Middle Eastern ideas around the Mediterranean
*They developed the Alphabet
*Alphabet- is a writing system in which each symbol represents a
single basic sound, such as a consonant or vowel
*This is unlike cuneiform in which symbols represent words
*There were 22 symbols for the alphabet
*
Section 3
*
*Intro
*The Nile is surrounded by rich and fertile land
*Not far past that though are never ending deserts.
*Yearly Floods Bring Benefits
*There was predictable flooding every spring
*It fed the land with water and created rich deposits of salt
*People built dikes, reservoirs, and irrigation ditches to
channel the rising water during the dry season
*
*Uniting Two Regions
*Upper Egypt
*Stretched from the Nile's first cataract- waterfall- to the
Mediterranean
*Also included the delta- a triangular area of marshland formed
by deposits of silt at the mouth of some rivers
*Southern Kingdom
*King in the North
*In 3100 BCE he united
the Upper Egypt with
the South
*Founded Egypt's first
capital at Memphis
*
*
*Intro
*There are three main periods of ancient Egyptian
history
*Old Kingdom (2575 BCE-2130 BCE)
*Middle Kingdom (1938 BCE-1630 BCE)
*New Kingdom (1539 BCE-1075 BCE)
*Dynasty
*Ruling family
*
*A Strong Government Takes Hold
*Kings were called pharaohs
*They organized a strong centralized state
*Had absolute power
*Were believed to be Gods
*
*Old Kingdom ruled by bureaucracy- a system of government
that includes departments and levels of authority
*Each Pharaoh has vizier- chief minister
* He supervised the government
* Taxes
* Farming
* Irrigation system
*There were aristocrats and nobles
*They were powerful locally
*Merchants
*They were a small middle class
*
*The Great Pyramids are built
*These were necropolises - cemeteries
*They were considered homes for the deceased
*
*Issues with the Old Kingdom
*Crop failures
*Building cost of the Pyramids
*Disunity
*Middle Kingdom was full of hardship
*Nile did not flood regularly
*Corruption in government
*Rebellions
*
*Invasion of Hyksos (1700 BCE)
*They occupied Northern Egypt
*The people liked them
*They brought chariots and horses
*Egyptians mastered it in little time
*Hyksos adopted Egyptian customs
*Ruled for 100 years
*
*Intro
*There arose powerful and ambitious pharaohs
which created an empire
*She ruled from 1472-
1458 BCE
*Encouraged trade with
eastern Mediterranean
lands along the coast of
Africa
*
*He was a great military
general and stretched
Egypt's borders to their
greatest extent evet
*
*
*Ruled between 1279 BCE to
1213 BCE
*Pushed Egyptian control
northward again as far as
Syria
*He was famous for many
battles.
*
*Egypt Battles With its Neighbors
*During Ramses II
*Egypt fought fierce battles against the
Hittites
*Signed a peace treaty
*It is the first peace treaty every signed that
actually survived
*
*Egypt Declines
*After 1100 BCE Egypt declines
*Other Empires begin to attack it
* Assyrians and Persians conquered the Nile Region
*In 332 BCE the last Egyptian dynasty ended when
the Greeks conquered it
*Romans then conquered it
*
Section 3
*
*Intro
*It is important to know that Religion was one of
the foundations of Egyptian society
*
• During the Old
Kingdom
•He was the head god
•He was the Sun God
• During the Middle
Kingdom
•He was known by Amon-
Re
•He was the great god
and lord of all gods
•Gave the right of
Pharaohs to rule
*
*Osiris and Isis
*This god and goddess is what most people related to
*According to myth
*Osiris ruled Egypt until his younger brother Set became jealous
and killed him
*He was cut into pieces and tossed all over Egypt
*Isis saved him and brought him back to life
*Osiris became the god of the dead
*He was also the god of the Nile
* Remember what the Nile represented?
*Isis had special appeal for women
*Taught women how to grind corn, spin flax, etc.
*
*
*
*A Pharaoh Tries to Reshape Religion
*Amenhotep IV (1380 BCE)
*He devoted his life to worship Aton a minor god
*He took the name of Akhenaton and ordered priests
to worship only Anton
*He was radical but he was very hated
*
*
*Intro
*Osiris and Isis were very important because they
promised an afterlife
*
*Proving Oneself to Osiris
*Each soul had to pass a test to win eternal life
*They would cross a lake of fire to the Hall of
Osiris
*If they were deemed worthy they would pass into
the afterlife, if not, the Eater of the Dead would
take their souls!!!! MUAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAAH
*
*Preparing the Dead for the Afterlife
*What do you think the Egyptians believed about
the afterlife?
*They thought it would be much like Earth
*This is why they would burry their dead with
everything they would need for eternity
*Mummification- the preservation of dead bodies
by embalming them and wrapping them in cloth
*
*Evidence Found in the Tomb of
Tutankhamen
*During the New Kingdom
*Many Pharaohs were buried in a desolate valley
known as the Valley of the Kings
*Tombs were filled with riches
*
The son in law of Akhenaton
was left untouched for more
then 3,000 years, its treasures
provided a lot of information.
*
*Introduction
*Egypt has their own class system
*Pharaoh
*Royal Family
*Government official and priests
*Merchants, scribes, artisans
*Peasants
*
*Most people were farmers
*For the majority of the year, most people farmed
the land
*On off seasons, peasants were expected to serve
the pharaoh to build palaces, temples, and
tombs
*
*Changes in Social Structure
*New Kingdom
*Social classes changed during the time of trade and
warfare
*Trade
* Offered a growing merchant class
*War
* Brought riches from foreign places
*
*Egyptian women enjoyed higher status
*Women could inherit property, enter buisness
deals, buy and sell goods, go to court, obtain
divorces
*Women work was not confined to the home
*They could produce perfume
*Become doctors
*
*Keeping Written Records
*They had multiple writing systems
*Hieroglyphics
* A system in which symbols or pictures represent
objects, concepts or sounds
* It was used to record important information
*Development of papyrus- a plant that grow along
the banks of the Nile.
*Paper was not discovered until 100AD in China
*
*Clues of the Rosetta Stone
*After ancient Egypt's decline the meaning of ancient
hieroglyphs were lost
*Jean Champollion
*Discovered the Rosetta Stone- a flat black stone that
presents the same passed carved in hieroglyphics, demotic
script and Greek
*He was able to decipher- figure out the meaning- or
passages
*
*Furthering Science and Mathematics
*There was a deep belief in magic, but what do you think
happened because of Mummification?
*They learned a lot about anatomy.
*Doctors were skilled professionals
*They knew about symptoms
*Prescribed medicine
*Astronomy
*They studied the heavens and mapped out constellations
*They developed a 12 month calandar that added 5 days to the
end of the year
*Math
*This developed due to practical problems
*They developed Geometry
*
*Egyptian Arts
*There is a rich legacy of Egyptian Art
*Statues
*Tombs
*Temple Carvings
*Sculptures often remained unchanged or undamaged
*Egyptian Literature
*Includes hymns and prayers to gods, proverbs and
love poems
*Victories in battle as well
*
Section 5
*
*Open the smart board
*
*About 4000 years ago the ancient Israelites
developed the religion of Judaism
*
*Monotheism
*Belief in one God
*While the surrounding peoples worshiped many
gods, the belief in a one and ultimate God
emerged
*Each event that happened to the Israelites was
reflected a a divine plan
*Torah- the sacred text of the Hebrew Bible. It
is the first 5 books
*
*Intro
*Abraham
*According to the Torah, a man named Abraham lived
near Ur in Mesopotamia. About 2000 BC he left with
his family and herd.
*
*God Makes a Covenant with the Israelites
*A Covenant is a promise or agreement
*The Covenant included two things
*There would be a special relationship that God
would have with Abraham and his Descendants.
*Canaan would one day belong to the Israelites
* This became known as the promised land
*
*Moses
*Later renewed God's covenant
*Freed the Israelite slaves from the Egyptians
*
*The Kingdom of Israel Established
*In 1000 BC David united the tribes under one
banner and was a wise second king of Judaism.
*Solomon was David's son
*Built the 1st holy temple in Jerusalem
*
*Israel Suffers Division and Conquest
*After Solomon died, people revolted
*There was high labor and high taxes
*The Split
*The North Kingdom of Israel'
*Conquered by the Assyrians in 722 BCE
*The South Kingdom of Judah
*Conquered by the Babylonians in 536 BCE
* The Babylonians carried them off to their home (Babylonian
Captivity)
* Eventually they were allowed to leave after 50 years
*
*Intro
*Law was always central to the ancient Israelites
*There was no separation between religious law
and civil law
*Society was patriarchal
*Men held the greatest legal and moral authority
*
*The Ten Commandments as a guide
*What are the tend commandments?
*Teaching an Ethical Worldview
*Spiritual leaders emerged to interpret God's will
*Prophets
*Were these spiritual leaders
*They taught morality, social justice, protection
for the weak and poor
*Kings were also not above the law
*
*Jews maintain their beliefs over time and place
*Diaspora
*The scattering of Jews across the world
*After the Babylonian captivity, many went abroad
*They developed close communities that stuck out in society
*They stayed relatively pure and not influenced by other
traditions
*
*Why is Judaism important to study at least
a little
*It is a major religion because it is fundamental to
both Christianity and Islam
*It has changed the world

More Related Content

What's hot

His 101 socrates plato & aristotle
His 101 socrates plato & aristotleHis 101 socrates plato & aristotle
His 101 socrates plato & aristotledcyw1112
 
Satanic Ritual Abuse And The Illuminati Part 1
Satanic Ritual Abuse And The Illuminati Part 1Satanic Ritual Abuse And The Illuminati Part 1
Satanic Ritual Abuse And The Illuminati Part 1Mormons4justice
 
1. gr. 10 historical sources.
1. gr. 10 historical sources.1. gr. 10 historical sources.
1. gr. 10 historical sources.Maretha Spies
 
Introduction to The Stolen Generation
Introduction to The Stolen GenerationIntroduction to The Stolen Generation
Introduction to The Stolen GenerationCarolyne Thornton
 
Australia and World War Two
Australia and World War TwoAustralia and World War Two
Australia and World War Twoemilydutton
 
Slave codes controlling the enslaved
Slave codes  controlling the enslavedSlave codes  controlling the enslaved
Slave codes controlling the enslavedCharmalyn Williams
 
Mean world syndrome
Mean world syndromeMean world syndrome
Mean world syndromeRijitha R
 
Meet the remaining heirs of the legendary rothschild dynasty
Meet the remaining heirs of the legendary rothschild dynastyMeet the remaining heirs of the legendary rothschild dynasty
Meet the remaining heirs of the legendary rothschild dynastyMustakeem Chaudhri
 
Objective vs Subjective Analysis of Photographs
Objective vs Subjective Analysis of PhotographsObjective vs Subjective Analysis of Photographs
Objective vs Subjective Analysis of Photographsmrsbauerart
 
THE ROYAL ICJ-ICC COURT EXHIBIT A
THE ROYAL ICJ-ICC COURT EXHIBIT ATHE ROYAL ICJ-ICC COURT EXHIBIT A
THE ROYAL ICJ-ICC COURT EXHIBIT AICJ-ICC
 
Africa and the Atlantic World
Africa and the Atlantic WorldAfrica and the Atlantic World
Africa and the Atlantic Worldmr_rodriguez23
 
A Brief History of Advertisement
A Brief History of AdvertisementA Brief History of Advertisement
A Brief History of AdvertisementIshraq Dhaly
 
Masonic structure & history 101 12.20.11
Masonic structure & history 101   12.20.11Masonic structure & history 101   12.20.11
Masonic structure & history 101 12.20.11Northern Light
 
The Atlantic Slave Trade
The Atlantic Slave TradeThe Atlantic Slave Trade
The Atlantic Slave Trade58033000
 
Liberty university hius 221 module week 1 mindtap activities complete solutio...
Liberty university hius 221 module week 1 mindtap activities complete solutio...Liberty university hius 221 module week 1 mindtap activities complete solutio...
Liberty university hius 221 module week 1 mindtap activities complete solutio...Kelley King
 

What's hot (20)

Immigrants
ImmigrantsImmigrants
Immigrants
 
His 101 socrates plato & aristotle
His 101 socrates plato & aristotleHis 101 socrates plato & aristotle
His 101 socrates plato & aristotle
 
Satanic Ritual Abuse And The Illuminati Part 1
Satanic Ritual Abuse And The Illuminati Part 1Satanic Ritual Abuse And The Illuminati Part 1
Satanic Ritual Abuse And The Illuminati Part 1
 
Celebrity culture
Celebrity cultureCelebrity culture
Celebrity culture
 
1. gr. 10 historical sources.
1. gr. 10 historical sources.1. gr. 10 historical sources.
1. gr. 10 historical sources.
 
Introduction to The Stolen Generation
Introduction to The Stolen GenerationIntroduction to The Stolen Generation
Introduction to The Stolen Generation
 
Celebrity obsession
Celebrity obsessionCelebrity obsession
Celebrity obsession
 
Australia and World War Two
Australia and World War TwoAustralia and World War Two
Australia and World War Two
 
Slave codes controlling the enslaved
Slave codes  controlling the enslavedSlave codes  controlling the enslaved
Slave codes controlling the enslaved
 
Mean world syndrome
Mean world syndromeMean world syndrome
Mean world syndrome
 
Meet the remaining heirs of the legendary rothschild dynasty
Meet the remaining heirs of the legendary rothschild dynastyMeet the remaining heirs of the legendary rothschild dynasty
Meet the remaining heirs of the legendary rothschild dynasty
 
Objective vs Subjective Analysis of Photographs
Objective vs Subjective Analysis of PhotographsObjective vs Subjective Analysis of Photographs
Objective vs Subjective Analysis of Photographs
 
THE ROYAL ICJ-ICC COURT EXHIBIT A
THE ROYAL ICJ-ICC COURT EXHIBIT ATHE ROYAL ICJ-ICC COURT EXHIBIT A
THE ROYAL ICJ-ICC COURT EXHIBIT A
 
Africa and the Atlantic World
Africa and the Atlantic WorldAfrica and the Atlantic World
Africa and the Atlantic World
 
Postmodernism
PostmodernismPostmodernism
Postmodernism
 
A Brief History of Advertisement
A Brief History of AdvertisementA Brief History of Advertisement
A Brief History of Advertisement
 
Postmodernism
PostmodernismPostmodernism
Postmodernism
 
Masonic structure & history 101 12.20.11
Masonic structure & history 101   12.20.11Masonic structure & history 101   12.20.11
Masonic structure & history 101 12.20.11
 
The Atlantic Slave Trade
The Atlantic Slave TradeThe Atlantic Slave Trade
The Atlantic Slave Trade
 
Liberty university hius 221 module week 1 mindtap activities complete solutio...
Liberty university hius 221 module week 1 mindtap activities complete solutio...Liberty university hius 221 module week 1 mindtap activities complete solutio...
Liberty university hius 221 module week 1 mindtap activities complete solutio...
 

Similar to Ancient middle east and egypt

Similar to Ancient middle east and egypt (20)

Mesopotamia POCN02F
Mesopotamia POCN02FMesopotamia POCN02F
Mesopotamia POCN02F
 
Babylon
BabylonBabylon
Babylon
 
Mesopotamia
MesopotamiaMesopotamia
Mesopotamia
 
World history ch.2
World history ch.2World history ch.2
World history ch.2
 
Mesopotamia
MesopotamiaMesopotamia
Mesopotamia
 
Unit 3 pp
Unit 3 ppUnit 3 pp
Unit 3 pp
 
Mesopotamia AP.ppt
Mesopotamia AP.pptMesopotamia AP.ppt
Mesopotamia AP.ppt
 
Mesopotamia
MesopotamiaMesopotamia
Mesopotamia
 
Mesopotamia power point
Mesopotamia power pointMesopotamia power point
Mesopotamia power point
 
Mesopotamia
MesopotamiaMesopotamia
Mesopotamia
 
Fertile Crescent
Fertile CrescentFertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
 
The Civilization of Mesopotomia.pptx
The Civilization of Mesopotomia.pptxThe Civilization of Mesopotomia.pptx
The Civilization of Mesopotomia.pptx
 
Blog notes
Blog notesBlog notes
Blog notes
 
Early civilisations
Early civilisationsEarly civilisations
Early civilisations
 
PPT EGIPT MESOPOTAMIA SANTILLANA.pptx
PPT EGIPT MESOPOTAMIA SANTILLANA.pptxPPT EGIPT MESOPOTAMIA SANTILLANA.pptx
PPT EGIPT MESOPOTAMIA SANTILLANA.pptx
 
Unit 2. Early civilisation
Unit 2. Early civilisationUnit 2. Early civilisation
Unit 2. Early civilisation
 
HISTORY: Mesopotamian Architecture
HISTORY: Mesopotamian ArchitectureHISTORY: Mesopotamian Architecture
HISTORY: Mesopotamian Architecture
 
Mesopotamian civilization
Mesopotamian civilizationMesopotamian civilization
Mesopotamian civilization
 
Fertile Crescent [PDF]
Fertile Crescent [PDF]Fertile Crescent [PDF]
Fertile Crescent [PDF]
 
Early civilisations
Early civilisationsEarly civilisations
Early civilisations
 

Recently uploaded

4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptxmary850239
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFEPART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFEMISSRITIMABIOLOGYEXP
 
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfDBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17Celine George
 
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptxUmeshTimilsina1
 
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest EntranceFarrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrancejulius27264
 
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfDiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineCeline George
 
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERPAn Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERPCeline George
 
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...DrVipulVKapoor
 
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipThe role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipKarl Donert
 
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressThe Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressMaria Paula Aroca
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationdeepaannamalai16
 
Jason Potel In Media Res Media Component
Jason Potel In Media Res Media ComponentJason Potel In Media Res Media Component
Jason Potel In Media Res Media ComponentInMediaRes1
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
 
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
 
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFEPART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
 
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfDBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
 
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
 
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
 
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
 
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest EntranceFarrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
 
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfDiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
 
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERPAn Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
 
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
 
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipThe role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
 
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressThe Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
 
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
 
Teaching Critical AI Literacies - Maha Bali
Teaching Critical AI Literacies - Maha BaliTeaching Critical AI Literacies - Maha Bali
Teaching Critical AI Literacies - Maha Bali
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
 
Jason Potel In Media Res Media Component
Jason Potel In Media Res Media ComponentJason Potel In Media Res Media Component
Jason Potel In Media Res Media Component
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
 

Ancient middle east and egypt

  • 1. *
  • 3. * *Understand how geography influenced development of civilization in the Fertile Crescent *Outline the main features of Sumerian civilization *Explain how the advances in learning made the Sumerians left a lasting legacy for later people to build on
  • 4. * *What were the characteristics of the world's first civilization?
  • 5.
  • 6. * *What type of environment does the fertile crescent lie? *Why would Mesopotamia be a reasonable civilization to rise? *According to the map, what geographic challenges did early Sumerians face?
  • 7. * *Fertile Crescent *Is a region of the Middle east named for its rich soils and golden wheat fields *Over time, this place was often invaded, traders were able to easily overcome the regions few natural barriers *This area was a cross road where different people mingled.
  • 8. * *Mesopotamia *It lies within the Fertile Crescent *It is the area of land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers *It is where the worlds first civilization began (3300 BC) (Sumer region in south eastern Mesopotamia)
  • 9. * *Organizing for Floods and Irrigation *Controlling the Tigris and Euphrates river was key to development *There were many floods that washed away topsoil and homes *The Epic of Gilgamesh *It is a story that speaks about a great flood that destroys the world * Archaeologists and historians have found evidence of these type of floods in that area
  • 10.
  • 11. * *Organizing for Floods and Irrigation *Villagers had to build up the riverbanks *They had to channel water with canals as well *This needed strong leadership
  • 12. * *Sumerians Build Thriving Cities *They had few natural resources but they made the most of what they had *They built with clay since there was no a lot of stone * The Great cities of Ur and Uruk were made out of mud bricks *They had a lot of water *Had trade
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15. * *Intro *Within a few hundred years there were 12 separate city states *There were often battles for territory *Complex Government Unfolds *In each city state, the ruler was responsible for maintaining the city walls and the irrigation systems *Led the military, kept the law, made peace
  • 16. * *Sumerians Structure Their Society *Each city-state had a distinct social hierarchy- system of ranking groups *In other words, a class system * Ruling Family * Priests * Leading officials
  • 17. * *Majority of people were peasant farmers *Few owned their own land *There were slaves and artisans as well
  • 18. * *Role of Women *Changed over time *There were goddesses that were highly honored in religious practices *This may be why women were held in higher status then in later civilizations *Women never held legal rights equal to men *Some of the ruler's wives' had power to supervise
  • 19. * *Cuneiform *It means "wedge" *Wrote making wedge shaped marks on clay tablets *Grew out of a system of pictographs that were used to record goods brought to temple store houses
  • 20. * *Development *More symbols became to be used for complicated thoughts
  • 21. *
  • 22. * *Around 2500 BCE armies of conquering people invaded *They overwhelmed the Sumerian City-states *By 1900 BCE the Sumerian Civilization was replaced by others
  • 23. * *Their legacy was *Their writing *Astronomy *Mathematics *Poetry *Language
  • 25. * *Outline the achievements of the first empires that arose in Mesopotamia *Understand how conquests brought new empires and ideas into the Middle East *Describe how the Persians established a huge empire *Summarize the contributions the Phoenicians made to the ancient Middle East
  • 26. * *Intro *People invaded, war, chaos, there was a need for stability
  • 27. * • 2300 BCE Sargon, the Ruler of Akkad, invaded neighboring city states of Sumer • He expanded territory • Created an empire •After his death his land was invaded and conquered
  • 28.
  • 29. * • 1790 BCE Hammurabi, king of Babylon, brought much of Mesopotamia under the control of his empire • Babylonian Empire • Significance and lasting contribution • The Hammurabi Code • It was a set of laws that had been around since Sumer but he made it the legal law of all of his Empire • It was the first attempt to codify (arrange and set down in writing) all the laws that would govern a state
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32. * *Establishing Civil Law *Civil Law is the branch of law that deals with private rights and matters such as property inheritance, contracts, taxes, marriage, etc. *Hammurabi's Code attempted this *Babylonian Example *Husband was over his wife, but he had to support her as well
  • 33. * *Defining Crime and Punishment *Criminal Law- The branch of law that deals with offenses against others, such as robbery, assault, and murder *Before Hammurabi Code *Victims of crime were allowed to take law in their own hands *After Hammurabi Code *Limited personal vengeance and encouraged social order *An Eye for an Eye and a life for a life
  • 34. * *Other Accomplishments made by Hammurabi *Hammurabi united his empire by…. *Improving Irrigation *Organizing an army *Repairing temples *Promoted Religious unity *He promoted Marduk the patron god of Babylon
  • 35. * *Hittites Learn the Secret of Ironworking *Hittites were from the region of Asia Minor *Started to expand into Mesopotamia in 1400 BC *They were able to create Iron which was harder and shaper then the weapons made from Bronze or Copper *There was a lot a lot of Iron, so they were able to arm many people *They kept this a secret until their empire collapsed in 1200 BCE and their blacksmiths went elsewhere.
  • 36.
  • 37.
  • 38. * *Assyrian Warriors Expand Ancient Knowledge *1350 BCE they began to expand and create an Empire across Mesopotamia *They originated North of the Tigris *For over 500 years they were the most feared people in the World *They had a culture of warfare *They encouraged a well ordered society *They had trade *Well organized cities *They had and expanded Law *They even founded one of the worlds first libraries
  • 39.
  • 40. * *Nebuchadnezzar Revives Babylon *After a great king of Assyria passed away, neighboring people joined forces to crust the once dreaded Assyrian armies *In 625 BCE Babylon reestablished itself
  • 41.
  • 42. * • He was a ruthless king • He stretched his empire very far • Oversaw the rebuilding of irrigation, temples, walls, and palaces • He built moats and public works • The famous Hanging Gardens as well
  • 43.
  • 44. * *Intro *Have students do the Map Skills on pg. 41 *The Babylonians eventually fallto another empire- the Persians *The Persians were tolerant and respected people's cultures and customs
  • 45.
  • 46. * • Ruled from 522 BCE-486 BCE • He set up a bureaucracy • A system of government through departments and subdivisions administered by officials who follow set rules • This became a model for other rulers • Adapted laws from the peoples he conquered • Built roads to unite the territory
  • 47. * *Darius Unites Many Peoples *Improving Economic Life *Darius *set up a common set of weights and measure to improve trade *He also encouraged the use of coins *Barter Economy- a trade system in which one person exchanges goods or services for another *This was the Most common *Money Economy- goods and services are paid for through the exchange of some token of an agreed value, such as a coin or a bill *This began to grow * Darius made a Persian coin
  • 48. * *New Religion takes Hold *Zoroaster- he was a Persian thinker who helped unite the empire *Lived somewhere from 1700 BCE- 1000 BCE *His Ideas began to take root during the period of the Darius
  • 49. * • The World was broken up between two powers • Ahura Mazda (the all powerful wise God) • Ahriman (the Prince of Evil • Every person serves one or the other • At the end of time, all people will be judged by there deeds
  • 50. * *Intro *There were huge empires who were led by great rulers, but don't count out the little guy *There were city states that contributed to History
  • 51.
  • 52. * *Expanding Manufacturing and Trade *The Phoenicians became best known for this *They made glass from coastal sand *Set up Colonies in other areas *Colony- is a territory settled and ruled by people from another land
  • 53.
  • 54. * *Establishing an Alphabet *Phoenicians were "carriers of Civilization" *The spread Middle Eastern ideas around the Mediterranean *They developed the Alphabet *Alphabet- is a writing system in which each symbol represents a single basic sound, such as a consonant or vowel *This is unlike cuneiform in which symbols represent words *There were 22 symbols for the alphabet
  • 55.
  • 57. * *Intro *The Nile is surrounded by rich and fertile land *Not far past that though are never ending deserts. *Yearly Floods Bring Benefits *There was predictable flooding every spring *It fed the land with water and created rich deposits of salt *People built dikes, reservoirs, and irrigation ditches to channel the rising water during the dry season
  • 58.
  • 59.
  • 60. * *Uniting Two Regions *Upper Egypt *Stretched from the Nile's first cataract- waterfall- to the Mediterranean *Also included the delta- a triangular area of marshland formed by deposits of silt at the mouth of some rivers *Southern Kingdom
  • 61.
  • 62. *King in the North *In 3100 BCE he united the Upper Egypt with the South *Founded Egypt's first capital at Memphis *
  • 63. * *Intro *There are three main periods of ancient Egyptian history *Old Kingdom (2575 BCE-2130 BCE) *Middle Kingdom (1938 BCE-1630 BCE) *New Kingdom (1539 BCE-1075 BCE) *Dynasty *Ruling family
  • 64. * *A Strong Government Takes Hold *Kings were called pharaohs *They organized a strong centralized state *Had absolute power *Were believed to be Gods
  • 65. * *Old Kingdom ruled by bureaucracy- a system of government that includes departments and levels of authority *Each Pharaoh has vizier- chief minister * He supervised the government * Taxes * Farming * Irrigation system *There were aristocrats and nobles *They were powerful locally *Merchants *They were a small middle class
  • 66. * *The Great Pyramids are built *These were necropolises - cemeteries *They were considered homes for the deceased
  • 67.
  • 68.
  • 69. * *Issues with the Old Kingdom *Crop failures *Building cost of the Pyramids *Disunity *Middle Kingdom was full of hardship *Nile did not flood regularly *Corruption in government *Rebellions
  • 70. * *Invasion of Hyksos (1700 BCE) *They occupied Northern Egypt *The people liked them *They brought chariots and horses *Egyptians mastered it in little time *Hyksos adopted Egyptian customs *Ruled for 100 years
  • 71.
  • 72.
  • 73. * *Intro *There arose powerful and ambitious pharaohs which created an empire
  • 74. *She ruled from 1472- 1458 BCE *Encouraged trade with eastern Mediterranean lands along the coast of Africa *
  • 75. *He was a great military general and stretched Egypt's borders to their greatest extent evet *
  • 76. * *Ruled between 1279 BCE to 1213 BCE *Pushed Egyptian control northward again as far as Syria *He was famous for many battles.
  • 77.
  • 78.
  • 79. * *Egypt Battles With its Neighbors *During Ramses II *Egypt fought fierce battles against the Hittites *Signed a peace treaty *It is the first peace treaty every signed that actually survived
  • 80. * *Egypt Declines *After 1100 BCE Egypt declines *Other Empires begin to attack it * Assyrians and Persians conquered the Nile Region *In 332 BCE the last Egyptian dynasty ended when the Greeks conquered it *Romans then conquered it
  • 81.
  • 82.
  • 83.
  • 85. * *Intro *It is important to know that Religion was one of the foundations of Egyptian society
  • 86. * • During the Old Kingdom •He was the head god •He was the Sun God • During the Middle Kingdom •He was known by Amon- Re •He was the great god and lord of all gods •Gave the right of Pharaohs to rule
  • 87. * *Osiris and Isis *This god and goddess is what most people related to *According to myth *Osiris ruled Egypt until his younger brother Set became jealous and killed him *He was cut into pieces and tossed all over Egypt *Isis saved him and brought him back to life *Osiris became the god of the dead *He was also the god of the Nile * Remember what the Nile represented? *Isis had special appeal for women *Taught women how to grind corn, spin flax, etc.
  • 88.
  • 89.
  • 90.
  • 91. *
  • 92. *
  • 93. * *A Pharaoh Tries to Reshape Religion *Amenhotep IV (1380 BCE) *He devoted his life to worship Aton a minor god *He took the name of Akhenaton and ordered priests to worship only Anton *He was radical but he was very hated
  • 94. *
  • 95. * *Intro *Osiris and Isis were very important because they promised an afterlife
  • 96. * *Proving Oneself to Osiris *Each soul had to pass a test to win eternal life *They would cross a lake of fire to the Hall of Osiris *If they were deemed worthy they would pass into the afterlife, if not, the Eater of the Dead would take their souls!!!! MUAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAAH
  • 97.
  • 98.
  • 99. * *Preparing the Dead for the Afterlife *What do you think the Egyptians believed about the afterlife? *They thought it would be much like Earth *This is why they would burry their dead with everything they would need for eternity *Mummification- the preservation of dead bodies by embalming them and wrapping them in cloth
  • 100.
  • 101.
  • 102.
  • 103. * *Evidence Found in the Tomb of Tutankhamen *During the New Kingdom *Many Pharaohs were buried in a desolate valley known as the Valley of the Kings *Tombs were filled with riches
  • 104. * The son in law of Akhenaton was left untouched for more then 3,000 years, its treasures provided a lot of information.
  • 105.
  • 106. * *Introduction *Egypt has their own class system *Pharaoh *Royal Family *Government official and priests *Merchants, scribes, artisans *Peasants
  • 107. * *Most people were farmers *For the majority of the year, most people farmed the land *On off seasons, peasants were expected to serve the pharaoh to build palaces, temples, and tombs
  • 108. * *Changes in Social Structure *New Kingdom *Social classes changed during the time of trade and warfare *Trade * Offered a growing merchant class *War * Brought riches from foreign places
  • 109. * *Egyptian women enjoyed higher status *Women could inherit property, enter buisness deals, buy and sell goods, go to court, obtain divorces *Women work was not confined to the home *They could produce perfume *Become doctors
  • 110. * *Keeping Written Records *They had multiple writing systems *Hieroglyphics * A system in which symbols or pictures represent objects, concepts or sounds * It was used to record important information *Development of papyrus- a plant that grow along the banks of the Nile. *Paper was not discovered until 100AD in China
  • 111.
  • 112. * *Clues of the Rosetta Stone *After ancient Egypt's decline the meaning of ancient hieroglyphs were lost *Jean Champollion *Discovered the Rosetta Stone- a flat black stone that presents the same passed carved in hieroglyphics, demotic script and Greek *He was able to decipher- figure out the meaning- or passages
  • 113.
  • 114. * *Furthering Science and Mathematics *There was a deep belief in magic, but what do you think happened because of Mummification? *They learned a lot about anatomy. *Doctors were skilled professionals *They knew about symptoms *Prescribed medicine *Astronomy *They studied the heavens and mapped out constellations *They developed a 12 month calandar that added 5 days to the end of the year *Math *This developed due to practical problems *They developed Geometry
  • 115. * *Egyptian Arts *There is a rich legacy of Egyptian Art *Statues *Tombs *Temple Carvings *Sculptures often remained unchanged or undamaged *Egyptian Literature *Includes hymns and prayers to gods, proverbs and love poems *Victories in battle as well
  • 116.
  • 117.
  • 118.
  • 121. * *About 4000 years ago the ancient Israelites developed the religion of Judaism
  • 122. * *Monotheism *Belief in one God *While the surrounding peoples worshiped many gods, the belief in a one and ultimate God emerged *Each event that happened to the Israelites was reflected a a divine plan *Torah- the sacred text of the Hebrew Bible. It is the first 5 books
  • 123. * *Intro *Abraham *According to the Torah, a man named Abraham lived near Ur in Mesopotamia. About 2000 BC he left with his family and herd.
  • 124.
  • 125. * *God Makes a Covenant with the Israelites *A Covenant is a promise or agreement *The Covenant included two things *There would be a special relationship that God would have with Abraham and his Descendants. *Canaan would one day belong to the Israelites * This became known as the promised land
  • 126. * *Moses *Later renewed God's covenant *Freed the Israelite slaves from the Egyptians
  • 127.
  • 128. * *The Kingdom of Israel Established *In 1000 BC David united the tribes under one banner and was a wise second king of Judaism. *Solomon was David's son *Built the 1st holy temple in Jerusalem
  • 129.
  • 130.
  • 131. * *Israel Suffers Division and Conquest *After Solomon died, people revolted *There was high labor and high taxes *The Split *The North Kingdom of Israel' *Conquered by the Assyrians in 722 BCE *The South Kingdom of Judah *Conquered by the Babylonians in 536 BCE * The Babylonians carried them off to their home (Babylonian Captivity) * Eventually they were allowed to leave after 50 years
  • 132. * *Intro *Law was always central to the ancient Israelites *There was no separation between religious law and civil law *Society was patriarchal *Men held the greatest legal and moral authority
  • 133. * *The Ten Commandments as a guide *What are the tend commandments? *Teaching an Ethical Worldview *Spiritual leaders emerged to interpret God's will *Prophets *Were these spiritual leaders *They taught morality, social justice, protection for the weak and poor *Kings were also not above the law
  • 134. * *Jews maintain their beliefs over time and place *Diaspora *The scattering of Jews across the world *After the Babylonian captivity, many went abroad *They developed close communities that stuck out in society *They stayed relatively pure and not influenced by other traditions
  • 135. * *Why is Judaism important to study at least a little *It is a major religion because it is fundamental to both Christianity and Islam *It has changed the world