Chapter 2<br />Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent<br />
Section 1<br />The Geography of Ancient Mesopotamia<br />
Mesopotamia<br />Region where Tigris & Euphrates Rivers flow<br />Name means: “land between two rivers”<br />Rivers: provi...
Fertile Soil<br />Rain & melting snow caused river flooding<br />Soil picked up from mts.<br />Rivers overflowed their ban...
An Arid Climate<br />Less than 10” of rain w/ hot summers<br />Arid Climate<br />Ancient people could still grow crops due...
Flood & Droughts<br />Floods were unpredictable<br />Extent of floods dependent on amount of rain & snow melt<br />Too lit...
Irrigation<br />6000 B.C.<br />People took steps to control water supply<br />Built earth walls to hold back water during ...
A Land of Few Resources<br />No forests for wood in Mesopotamia<br />Little stone and minerals<br />Reed & Brick Houses<br...
Trading for Resources<br />Obtained stone, wood, copper, and tin through trade<br />Traded for luxuries such as gold, ivor...
Section 2<br />The First Civilizations<br />
The Rise of Civilization<br />Villages grew larger & larger <br />Eventually became cities<br />Workers Organized to solve...
Sumerian City-States<br />Cities were:<br />Centers of trade, learning, & religion<br />Most people lived in countryside<b...
A Sumerian City<br />Narrow, winding streets; walls surrounded cities, w/ gates to let people in<br />Homes built of reeds...
The Ziggurat: Center of the City<br />Largest & most important structure in city<br />Center of temple complex<br />Like a...
Priests Become Leaders<br />Priests<br />Played political role & religious role<br />People went to them to ask the gods f...
New Leaders in Sumer<br />3000 B.C.<br />City-states were attacked because of their wealth<br />Some from far off lands<br...
Sumerian Society<br />Social Classes created<br />King & priests were part of upper class<br />Believed to have links to g...
Role of Women<br />Women were included in all social classes<br />Some were priestesses, owned land, worked as merchants a...
Sumerian Scientific Developments<br />Good at solving problems<br />Invented and developed knowledge to better their lives...
Written language<br />Invented writing to meet business needs<br />Merchants needed records of exchange<br />Also wanted t...
Section 3<br />Empires of the Fertile Crescent<br />
The First Empire Builders<br />3000 to 2000 B.C.<br />Kings fought over Sumer land<br />More land = more wealth and power ...
The Akkadian Empire<br />Sargon<br />2371 B.C. took control of region<br />1st creator of 1st empire (Akkadian Empire)<br ...
The Babylonian Empire & Hammurabi<br />Akkadian Empire fell apart due to attacks from outside people<br />Amorites invaded...
Hammurabi Code<br />Goal: justice to everyone in empire<br />Id wrongdoings & their punishment<br />Society should be run ...
Assyrians & Chaldeans<br />Assyria took control of F.C.<br />Built powerful army and set out to control neighboring lands<...
Assyria Crumbles<br />Medes & Chaldeans joined forces to defeat Assyrians<br />Burned capital of Nineveh to the ground<br />
A New Babylonian Empire<br />Chaldeans ruled former Assyrian empire<br />Capital was Babylon<br />Nebuchadnezzar II was em...
Persia Controls Southwest Asia<br />Medes<br />Controlled east of F.C.<br />Area bounded by mts. ranges<br />Perians<br />...
Cyrus Founds the Persian Empire<br />Cyrus took control of Medes Empire<br />Vision of conquering lands around Persia & un...
Darius Expands the Empire<br />Cambyses<br />Successor of Cyrus<br />Ruled through hard means<br />After his death rebelli...
Darius also built a Royal Road to help unite the empire<br />1,775 miles long<br />Royal messages sent along the road<br /...
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  • This is listed on the page where your slides are compiled as being chapter 5, but when I click it takes me to the page with chapter 2 on it. I was wondering if you had the Chapter 5 slide for India somewhere else or if you could upload it again.
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  1. 1. Chapter 2<br />Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent<br />
  2. 2. Section 1<br />The Geography of Ancient Mesopotamia<br />
  3. 3. Mesopotamia<br />Region where Tigris & Euphrates Rivers flow<br />Name means: “land between two rivers”<br />Rivers: provide water and means of travel<br />
  4. 4. Fertile Soil<br />Rain & melting snow caused river flooding<br />Soil picked up from mts.<br />Rivers overflowed their banks causing flooding and spreading of silt onto land (good for growing crops)<br />
  5. 5. An Arid Climate<br />Less than 10” of rain w/ hot summers<br />Arid Climate<br />Ancient people could still grow crops due to rivers and fertile soil<br />3500 B.C.<br />Widespread farming villages across Mesopotamia<br />
  6. 6. Flood & Droughts<br />Floods were unpredictable<br />Extent of floods dependent on amount of rain & snow melt<br />Too little rain & snow melt meant no flood<br />Would cause drought & people would starve<br />
  7. 7. Irrigation<br />6000 B.C.<br />People took steps to control water supply<br />Built earth walls to hold back water during floods<br />Built canals to carry water to the fields<br />Constant challenge to keep canals free from muddy silt <br />
  8. 8. A Land of Few Resources<br />No forests for wood in Mesopotamia<br />Little stone and minerals<br />Reed & Brick Houses<br />Used to build homes<br />Crumbled easily in bad weather & had to be repaired often<br />Brick Walls<br />Area was invaded easily because it was not surrounded by mts. or other natural barriers<br />Mesopotamia often conquered or stolen from<br />Built brick walls around their towns & villages<br />Sometimes 25 feet thick w/ guard towers and surrounded by open ditches or moats<br />
  9. 9. Trading for Resources<br />Obtained stone, wood, copper, and tin through trade<br />Traded for luxuries such as gold, ivory, ebony, and precious stones<br />Offered grain, dates, and other farm products<br />Could do this due to a surplus of crops<br />Jobs such as trading, digging canals, building walls, and farming were done over and over<br />Community leaders organized groups of people to do the work at the right time<br />
  10. 10. Section 2<br />The First Civilizations<br />
  11. 11. The Rise of Civilization<br />Villages grew larger & larger <br />Eventually became cities<br />Workers Organized to solve problems<br />Building & cleaning irrigation canals<br />Society & culture grew more complex<br />Changes led to civilization<br />1st 3300 B.C. in Sumer<br />
  12. 12. Sumerian City-States<br />Cities were:<br />Centers of trade, learning, & religion<br />Most people lived in countryside<br />Over time cities ruled surrounding lands & villages<br />Called a city-state<br />Sumer had 12 city-states<br />Babylon, Kish, Nippur, and Ur<br />Fertile land; farmers grew lots of food; supported larger populations<br />
  13. 13. A Sumerian City<br />Narrow, winding streets; walls surrounded cities, w/ gates to let people in<br />Homes built of reeds and mud or brick<br />Series of rooms arranged around a courtyard<br />
  14. 14. The Ziggurat: Center of the City<br />Largest & most important structure in city<br />Center of temple complex<br />Like a city hall (priests ran irrigation system & other important aspects of city life)<br />People paid for services with grain and other items<br />Priests controlled grain surplus & city-state’s wealth<br />
  15. 15. Priests Become Leaders<br />Priests<br />Played political role & religious role<br />People went to them to ask the gods for help<br />Sumerians believed in polytheism<br />Believed in many gods and goddesses<br />4 main gods: gods of the sky, winds, hills, and fresh water<br />Each city-state worshipped their own main god<br />Believed gods could prevent bad things from happening<br />Each god had many priests who worked to satisfy the gods & claimed to have influence with them<br />Because of this people accepted priests as leaders<br />
  16. 16. New Leaders in Sumer<br />3000 B.C.<br />City-states were attacked because of their wealth<br />Some from far off lands<br />During these times a powerful man was asked to rule them and protect the city<br />At 1st just in time of war; eventually full time<br />New leaders<br />Took over some of priests jobs<br />Maintained canals, managed grain surplus, & acted as judges<br />Eventually became a king of people<br />2375 B.C.<br />Sumer became a kingdom under one king<br />Priests were still important for pleasing the gods and keeping evil away<br />
  17. 17. Sumerian Society<br />Social Classes created<br />King & priests were part of upper class<br />Believed to have links to gods<br />Landowners, gov’t officials, & rich merchants were also part of upper class<br />Middle class<br />All other free people (farmers, artisans, etc.)<br />Lowest class<br />Slaves: had some rights; could conduct business, borrow money, & buy freedom<br />
  18. 18. Role of Women<br />Women were included in all social classes<br />Some were priestesses, owned land, worked as merchants and artisans, and raised children<br />
  19. 19. Sumerian Scientific Developments<br />Good at solving problems<br />Invented and developed knowledge to better their lives<br />Early Inventions:<br />The plow: helped farmers<br />The wheel: transport goods & used to make pottery faster<br />Mathematics:<br />Developed arithmetic to keep records of crops and trade goods<br />Number system based on 60<br />
  20. 20. Written language<br />Invented writing to meet business needs<br />Merchants needed records of exchange<br />Also wanted to label goods<br />Marked outside of containers with pictographs<br />Pictographs:<br />1st showed actual objects<br />Later stood for ideas & sounds<br />Eventually stopped using pictures & used wedge-shaped symbols<br />Wedge-shaped writing called cuneiform<br />Writing System was complex<br />600 different symbols; took years to learn; few people were able to read and write<br />Scribes: people to specialized in writing<br />Professional record keepers<br />Writing later used to write about wars, floods, & reigns of kings<br />
  21. 21. Section 3<br />Empires of the Fertile Crescent<br />
  22. 22. The First Empire Builders<br />3000 to 2000 B.C.<br />Kings fought over Sumer land<br />More land = more wealth and power to king<br />No single king was able to control all of Mesopotamia<br />
  23. 23. The Akkadian Empire<br />Sargon<br />2371 B.C. took control of region<br />1st creator of 1st empire (Akkadian Empire)<br />Eventually ruled lands from Persian Gulf through Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean Sea<br />Area known as Fertile Crescent: rich soil and water made area good for farming<br />Empires<br />Important because they change the way people live<br />May bring peace, encourage trade, include people from several cultures (ideas, technology, & customs)<br />
  24. 24. The Babylonian Empire & Hammurabi<br />Akkadian Empire fell apart due to attacks from outside people<br />Amorites invaded Sumer & set capital in Babylon<br />Hammurabi ruled Empire<br />Created a code of law to control the lands & that people had to follow<br />He reviewed all existing laws and drew up a single law & displayed it on a huge pillar in Babylon<br />
  25. 25. Hammurabi Code<br />Goal: justice to everyone in empire<br />Id wrongdoings & their punishment<br />Society should be run by the rule of law & apply to everyone<br />People have right to know laws and the punishment for not following them<br />
  26. 26. Assyrians & Chaldeans<br />Assyria took control of F.C.<br />Built powerful army and set out to control neighboring lands<br />A Powerful Empire<br />Used latest inventions for war<br />Iron swords, iron-tipped spears, battering rams, ladders,& dug tunnels<br />Ashurbanipal<br />Ruled during height of Assyrian Empire<br />Assyrians governed land by appoint governor to rule each land<br />Sent tribute to Assyrian emperor<br />Pay for protection give by Assyrian army<br />Fail to pay & army destroyed cities in governors land & people where exiled<br />
  27. 27. Assyria Crumbles<br />Medes & Chaldeans joined forces to defeat Assyrians<br />Burned capital of Nineveh to the ground<br />
  28. 28. A New Babylonian Empire<br />Chaldeans ruled former Assyrian empire<br />Capital was Babylon<br />Nebuchadnezzar II was emperor<br />Rebuilt city of Babylon<br />Added artificial mts. covered with trees and plants; appeared to be floating gardens<br />Chaldeans were cruel rulers<br />Destroyed Hebrews’ sacred temple in Jerusalem<br />Held thousands of Hebrews captive<br />
  29. 29. Persia Controls Southwest Asia<br />Medes<br />Controlled east of F.C.<br />Area bounded by mts. ranges<br />Perians<br />Nomads from Central Asia<br />Created tiny kingdoms & thrived through trade<br />Grew in power and threatened for control<br />
  30. 30. Cyrus Founds the Persian Empire<br />Cyrus took control of Medes Empire<br />Vision of conquering lands around Persia & uniting to form one empire<br />Conquered Anatolia, lands once controlled by Assyrians & Chaldeans<br />Needed way to control lands filled w/ different people<br />Set up a policy of toleration<br />Allowed people to keep their customs & beliefs<br />Worship their own gods, speak their language, & practice their own way of life<br />Had to pay tribute though<br />Fewer revolts & people lived in peace<br />
  31. 31. Darius Expands the Empire<br />Cambyses<br />Successor of Cyrus<br />Ruled through hard means<br />After his death rebellions broke out<br />Darius<br />Strong leader who came to power & dealt with rebellions<br />Looked to expand boundaries<br />Expanded as far east as India (2,800 miles)<br />New policies for huge empire<br />Empire divided into 20 provinces<br />Each had local gov’t<br />Satraps (governors) carried out orders in provinces and collected taxes<br />Military commander for each satrap<br />Had spies (king’s eyes and ears) to be sure satraps followed orders<br />
  32. 32. Darius also built a Royal Road to help unite the empire<br />1,775 miles long<br />Royal messages sent along the road<br />Mail and military troops also used road<br />Darius set up a code of law based on Hammurabi’s model & minted coins (promoted business and made it easy to pay taxes)<br />Planned a march against Egyptian rebels<br />But died before that happened<br />Son Xerxes dealt with Egypt<br />

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