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Children physical development in different ages.

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Lecture 2 Physical development.pptxssuser52b9c8

- 1. Children Physical Development in different ages
- 2. Plan of the lecture: 1. Criterion of Physical Development. 2. Principles and methods of estimation of physical development. 3. Semiotics of physical development disturbances. 4. Physical training and hardening of early age children. 5. Acceleration: definition, main hypothesis and mechanisms.
- 3. Physical Development it is dynamic process of growth and Biological maturation of child during other periods of childhood.
- 4. Physical Development it is increase height and weight, development different parts of body
- 5. Criterion of Physical Development: 1. Morphologic quality (anthropometric index) Weight Height Head circumference Chest circumference Abdomen circumference Arm-, femur-, cruse- circumference Index of proportional and well-fed index
- 6. Criterion of Physical Development: 2. Functional quality: Arterial blood pressure Vital respiratory capacity (breathing capacity) Dynamometry Pulse rate Respiratory rate
- 7. Factors Affecting Physical Growth: 1. Genetic factors. 2. Growth potential. (The smaller the child at birth, the smaller the child is likely to be in later years; the larger at birth, the larger the child is likely to be later) 3. Nutrition 4. Metabolic disorders. (Renal acidosis and glycogen storage development retard growth) 5. Chronic infections
- 8. Factors Affecting Physical Growth: 6. Severe chronic disease of the heart (congenital heart disease), lungs (asthma, bronchiectasis), liver (cirrhosis), kidneys (renal insufficiency), or pancreas (diabetes mellitus). These diseases retard growth.
- 9. Factors Affecting Physical Growth: 7. Endocrine disorders. Growth is regulated by complex mechanisms, such as growth hormone, somatotrophin and somatomedin. Thyroid deficiency retards the growth in height.
- 10. Factors Affecting Physical Growth: 8. Mental deficiency. This is often associated with defective physical growth, which may be extreme. 9. Unknown factors (and rare form of dwarfism).
- 11. Factors of environment and social factors: 1. Nutrition of mother during pregnancy and lactation 2. Nutrition of child 3. Routine (regimen) of day (sleep and rest) 4. Unsatisfactory socioeconomic factors 5. Physical training 6. Prophylactic actions (hardening, swimming) 7. Natural factors.
- 12. The Methods of estimation Physical Growth and Development: 1. Compare with formula’s results. 2. Calculate different indexes. 3. Method of percentiles.
- 13. The Height of Fetus. First 5 lunar months Height of Fetus (cm)= n2 For example, Fetus in 4 month has the Height = 4 2 = 16 cm From the 6th lunar month Height of Fetus (cm)= 5 •n n –number of lunar month_______ For example, Fetus in 6 month has the Height = 5 x 6 = 30 cm.
- 14. The Height of maturity of newborn 46- 56 cm (mean 50-52cm) The boys has average height 50,7 cm The girls has average height 50,2 cm The premature of newborn has height < 45 cm
- 15. The length of body measure with height-meter measuring gauge Auxanometer Use at home Auxanometer newborn baby Auxanometer Adult child
- 16. DYNAMICS OF INFANT’S LENGTH (HEIGHT) during the 1st year Baby lie on the table I quarter (1-3 month) + 3 cm (add) / per month = summary 9 cm, II quarter (4-6 month) + 2,5 cm / per month= summary 7,5 cm, III quarter (7- 9 month) + 2 cm / per month= summary 6 cm, IV quarter (10-12 month) + 1,5 or 1 cm / per month= summary 3 – 4,5 cm. Summary for the 1st year = l + 25 or 27 cm, l - height after labor (average 50 cm) (average = 75 cm in 1 year)
- 17. Formula of calculating of height the children – till 4 year: L (cm) = 100 – 8 (4-n) – older 4 year: L (cm) = 100+ 6 (n-4) The height is doubled to 4 years The height is treble to 11-14 years
- 18. The first acceleration of height: Boys – in 4-5 years Girls – in 6-7 years After them rate of growth slow to minimum Boys - 9.5 years Girls- 8.5 years The second acceleration of height : Girls – in 8.5 to 10 –11.5 years Boys – in 13.5 –15.5 years
- 19. The cessation of growth of boys to 17.75 years, of girls to 16.25 years
- 20. The MASS (WEIGHT) The mass of maturity of newborn more 2500g, the mean 3200-3500g The fetus with mass 3500-4000g named “LARGE FETUS” More 4200g – “GIANT FETUS” The premature of newborn has weight < 2500g baby balance nappy
- 21. After delivery there is loss of the weight. This is physiologic loss of weight at birth Babies commonly lose 5-7% of their body weight in the first 2-3 days (24-48 hours) after birth.
- 22. Physiologic loss of weight at birth This change in weight is due to loss of water: respiration, gastrointestinal tract (meconium- primary stool), kidney (urine), little quantity of the mother milk (colostrums), etc.
- 23. Full-term babies usually regain their birth weight 2 variant: 1) Regain weight within 7 to 10 days “Ideal” type, by Buden – 25% children. Birth weight 7- 10 days 2-3 days
- 24. Full-term babies usually regain their birth weight 2 variant: 2) Regain weight within 12-15 days “Slowing” type, by Piss – 75% children. Birth weight 12-15days 3-4 days 5-6 days
- 25. FORMULA OF MASS CALCULATING Dynamics of infant’s weight (M - Mass) during the 1st year. From 1 to 6 months: M (g) = m + 800·n For example: Baby,4 month has the mass = 3000 g + 800·4 = 6200g mass at birth average 3000 g, n – month
- 26. FORMULA OF MASS CALCULATING From 7 to 12 months: M (g) = m + 800·6 + 400 ·(n-6 ) m- mass at birth, n – month For example, Baby,6 month has the mass = 3000 g + 800·6 + 400 = 8200g mass at birth average 3000 g
- 27. Formula of calculating of weight the children older 1 year • from 2 to 10 years: M (kg) = 10 kg + 2n For example, Baby,6 years has the mass = 10 kg + 2·6 = 22 kg
- 28. Formula of calculating of weight the children older 1 year • older 10 years: M (kg) = 30 kg + 4· (n – 10 ) M – mass, n – years For example, Baby,12 years has the mass = 30 kg + 4·(12-10) = 38 kg
- 29. Term newborn: • head circumference 34 –36 cm • The doctor will take the measurement at the point where the head is at its largest circumference: measuring tape take at the point frontal tuber, above the ears and around of the head, to the back, where the neck meets the cranium.
- 30. THE HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE (HC) The head circumference of newborn 34-36 cm In 6 month HC amount 43 cm FORMULA OF HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE CALCULATING • Till 6 month HC(cm) = 43 cm -(take away) 1,5 · (multiply) ( 6 - n ) For example, Baby,4 month The HC = 43 cm – 1,5 · (6-4) = 40 cm
- 31. FORMULA OF HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE CALCULATING • Older 6 month HC(cm) = 43 cm + (add) 0,5 · ( n - 6 ) Where 43 cm - head circumference in 6 month, n - month For example, Baby,9 month The HC = 43 cm + 0,5 · (9-6) = 44,5 cm
- 32. FORMULA OF HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE CALCULATING • From 1to 5 years: HC (cm) =(amount) 50 – (take away) 1 cm · (multiply) ( 5 - n ) n - years For example, Child, 4 years The HC = 50 cm -1cm · (5-4) = 48 cm
- 33. FORMULA OF HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE CALCULATING • Older 5 years to 12 years: HC (cm) = 50 + 0,6cm ·( n - 5 ) For example, Child, 8 years The HC = 50 cm + 0, 6cm · (8-4) = 52,4 cm n - years To the 1-st year head circumference =46-47 cm • to 5 years- 50cm • to 10 years- 55cm
- 34. THE CHEST CIRCUMFERENCE (ChC) The chest circumference of newborn 32-34 cm To 4 months the head circumference = chest circumference FORMULA OF CHEST CIRCUMFERENCE CALCULATING • Till 6 month ChC (cm) = 45 cm – 2 · ( 6-n ) Where 45 cm - chest circumference in 6 month, n - month For example, Baby,3 month The ChC = 45 cm - 2 · (6-3) = 39 cm
- 35. FORMULA OF CHEST CIRCUMFERENCE CALCULATING • Older 6 month ChC (cm) = 45 cm + 0,5 · ( n-6 ) Where 45 cm - chest circumference in 6 month, n - month For example, Baby, 8 month The ChC = 45 cm + 0,5 · (8-6) = 46 cm
- 36. FORMULA OF CHEST CIRCUMFERENCE CALCULATING • From 1to 10 years: ChC (cm) = 63 – 1,5 cm · ( 10 - n ) Where 63 cm - chest circumference in 10 years, n - years For example, Child , 8 Years The ChC = 63 cm - 1,5 · (10-8) = 60 cm
- 37. FORMULA OF CHEST CIRCUMFERENCE CALCULATING • Older 10 years: ChC (cm) = 63cm + 3 cm ·( n-10 ) Where 63 cm - chest circumference in 10 years, n - years For example, Child , 12 Years The ChC = 63 cm + 3 cm · (12-10) = 69 cm To the 1-st year ChC = 47-48 cm, • to 5 years- 55cm, • to 10 years- 63 cm
- 38. BODY PROPORTIONS OF THE CHILDREN • The Mass-height coefficient (index) for maturity infants: Normal newborn = 55 – 65 Baby with Hypotrophy has index less 55 Mass height
- 39. Indexes of proportions (by Arisman) = Ch C- ½ height • First year children: from +13,5 to +10 • 2-3 years old children: from +9 to +6 • 6-7 years old children: from +4 to +2.
- 40. Index well-fed (by Chulitskaya) = 3 circumference of arm + circumference of thigh + circumference of leg – Height • Normal newborn = 25, • children 2-3 years old = 20, • children 6-7 years old = 15-10.
- 41. Method of percentiles. • There is mean normal results- this is 50-th percentile. • The 25 – 75-th percentile are normal too – average physical development. • The 10 –25-th percentile - lower average. • The 75 – 90-th percentile – above (higher) average. • The 3-10-th percentile – low physical development. • The 90-97-th percentile – higher physical development. • Less the 3-d percentile and higher the 97-th percentile – pathology (endocrine)
- 44. Causes of pathology of Physical Development 1. Endocrine (growth hormone deficiency) 2. Genetic syndromes (Down’s, Turner’s, Marfan’s) 3. Chronic diseases (GIT, heart disease, hepatitis) 4. Metabolic diseases (phenylketonuria) 5. Skeletal diseases (bone dysplasias, rickets) 6. Nutrition (malnutrition) 7. Constitutional slow/ tall growth 8. Psychological 9. Chronic exogenous intoxication (fluorine, lead)
- 45. Term newborn: • The hart rates > 100/ min (120 –140 / min). • The pediatrist counts up heart rate at the newborn baby
- 46. • respiratory rates > 40/ min, cry of the neonate is vigorous. Normal newborns spends 80% of the time in sleeping. • Thermoregulation is stabile. Term newborn: The pediatrist counts up Respiratory rate at the newborn baby
- 47. Reflexive action of the newborn child
- 49. Grasp Reflex