SQL Server Security Basics     Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com        Copyright © by Application Developers Tra...
Objectives• Understand potential data threats and  how SQL Server’s design protects  against them• Learn about SQL Server ...
Agenda• Security Overview• Authentication• Authorization          Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com             C...
Security Overview• Relational data is a tempting target for  attackers• SQL Server 2008 provides plenty of  features to se...
The Threats• Identifying threats is a critical first step  • Type of data will probably influence security    measures• Some...
Security Design Philosophy• Trustworthy Computing memo, 2002• Four pillars of security design  • Secure by design  • Secur...
The Two Stages of Security• Similar to Windows security  • Authentication: who are you?  • Authorization: now that we know...
Key SQL Server SecurityTerms        Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com           Copyright © by Application Develo...
Key SQL Server SecurityTerms • Authentication          Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com             Copyright © ...
Key SQL Server SecurityTerms • Authentication • Authorization          Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com         ...
Key SQL Server SecurityTerms • Authentication • Authorization • Group          Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com ...
Key SQL Server SecurityTerms •   Authentication •   Authorization •   Group •   Impersonation            Learn More @ http...
Key SQL Server SecurityTerms •   Authentication •   Authorization •   Group •   Impersonation •   Login            Learn M...
Key SQL Server SecurityTerms •   Authentication                      • Permission •   Authorization •   Group •   Imperson...
Key SQL Server SecurityTerms •   Authentication                      • Permission •   Authorization                       ...
Key SQL Server SecurityTerms •   Authentication                      • Permission •   Authorization                       ...
Key SQL Server SecurityTerms •   Authentication                      •    Permission •   Authorization                    ...
Key SQL Server SecurityTerms •   Authentication                      •    Permission •   Authorization                    ...
Agenda• Security Overview• Authentication• Authorization           Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com             ...
Authentication• Process of verifying that a principal is who or  what it claims to be  • SQL Server has to uniquely identi...
Windows Integrated • SQL Server assumes a trust relationship with   Windows Server   • Windows does the heavy lifting for ...
Configuring SQL ServerSecurity Settings• Select either when install or later• Settings apply to all databases and  server o...
SQL Server Authentication• Client applications must provide login  credentials as part of connection string• Logins stored...
Windows and SQL ServerLogins• SQL Server logins are not stored in  Windows  • Disabled if you select Windows   authenticat...
Beware of the sa Login• System administrator login• Mapped to sysadmin fixed server role• Conveys full system administrator...
Password Policy andEnforcement• Before SQL Server 2005, no  enforcement of passwords for SQL  Server logins  • No minimum ...
Contained Databases• Not a security feature per se  • But introduces a new authentication   scheme• Solves problem of movi...
Contained Databases•   Can create a SQL user with a password•   Windows user in database•   Not associated with a login•  ...
Contained DatabasesAuthentication        Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com           Copyright © by Application D...
Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection  Request              Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com             ...
Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection  Request   Initial  catalog specified?              Learn More @ http://www.l...
Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection  Request   Initial  catalog specified? No               Server-level         ...
Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection  Request   Initial    Yes       Initial  catalog              catalog specifi...
Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection  Request   Initial    Yes       Initial  catalog              catalog specifi...
Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection  Request   Initial    Yes       Initial      Yes         Authent-  catalog   ...
Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection                                                          Matching  Request   ...
Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection                                                          Matching  Request   ...
Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection                                                          Matching    Yes  Req...
Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection                                                          Matching     Yes  Re...
Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection                                                          Matching     Yes    ...
Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection                                                          Matching     Yes    ...
Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection                                                          Matching     Yes    ...
Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection                                                          Matching     Yes    ...
Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection                                                          Matching     Yes    ...
Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection                                                          Matching     Yes    ...
Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection                                                          Matching     Yes    ...
Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection                                                          Matching     Yes    ...
Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection                                                          Matching     Yes    ...
Agenda• Security Overview• Authentication• Authorization           Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com             ...
Authorization• Principals: user or process allowed to  access securable objects• Securables: protected resource• Permissio...
Principals       Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com          Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
Principals • Windows-level principals   • Windows Domain Login   • Windows Group   • Windows Local Login • SQL Server-leve...
Principals• Scope of a principal determines scope of  permission• Principal can be a login, user, or role  • Roles are ana...
Fixed Server Roles• Cannot alter, even to add new ones, except  to add logins to a role• Server roles  •   System administ...
User-Defined Server Roles• Long awaited security feature  • Long have had user-defined database    roles  • But nothing at t...
Fixed Database Roles• Control authorization within a database• Configure each database individually• Database roles   •   d...
The Public Role• Every database user assigned to this  role• Be very careful about granting  permissions• Normally restric...
The dbo (Database Owner)Role• Mapped to sysadmin fixed server role• Not related to db_owner role          Learn More @ http...
User-Defined Database Roles• Standard role• Application role           Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com          ...
Securable Objects• Protected resource that you can control  access to• Physical object or action           Learn More @ ht...
Securable Objects       Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com          Copyright © by Application Developers Training...
Securable Objects  Server  Database  Endpoint  Remote Binding  Route  Server Role  SQL Server  Login              Learn Mo...
Securable Objects  Server  Database                   Database  Endpoint                   Application Role  Remote Bindin...
Securable Objects  Server  Database                   Database  Endpoint                   Application Role               ...
Learn More!       Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com          Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
Learn More!• This is an excerpt from a larger course. Visit  www.learnnowonline.com for the full details!           Learn ...
Learn More!• This is an excerpt from a larger course. Visit  www.learnnowonline.com for the full details!           Learn ...
Learn More!• This is an excerpt from a larger course. Visit  www.learnnowonline.com for the full details!• Learn more abou...
Learn More!• This is an excerpt from a larger course. Visit  www.learnnowonline.com for the full details!• Learn more abou...
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SQL Server Security Basics

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Understand potential data threats and how SQL Server’s design protects against them.

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  • SQL Server Security Basics

    1. 1. SQL Server Security Basics Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    2. 2. Objectives• Understand potential data threats and how SQL Server’s design protects against them• Learn about SQL Server and Windows integrated authentication• See how SQL Server provides an authorization system to control access to data and objects Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    3. 3. Agenda• Security Overview• Authentication• Authorization Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    4. 4. Security Overview• Relational data is a tempting target for attackers• SQL Server 2008 provides plenty of features to secure your data and server • Need to understand the threats • Match countermeasures to the threats Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    5. 5. The Threats• Identifying threats is a critical first step • Type of data will probably influence security measures• Sometimes the best way to protect data is to never put it in a database• Typical threats • Theft of data • Data vandalism • Protecting data integrity • Illegal storage• Understand threats to protect against them Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    6. 6. Security Design Philosophy• Trustworthy Computing memo, 2002• Four pillars of security design • Secure by design • Secure by default • Secure in deployment • Secure through communications• “It’s just secure” • Implications throughout the product • SQL Server is reasonably secure out of the box • Your job is to keep it secure Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    7. 7. The Two Stages of Security• Similar to Windows security • Authentication: who are you? • Authorization: now that we know who you are, what can you do? Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    8. 8. Key SQL Server SecurityTerms Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    9. 9. Key SQL Server SecurityTerms • Authentication Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    10. 10. Key SQL Server SecurityTerms • Authentication • Authorization Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    11. 11. Key SQL Server SecurityTerms • Authentication • Authorization • Group Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    12. 12. Key SQL Server SecurityTerms • Authentication • Authorization • Group • Impersonation Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    13. 13. Key SQL Server SecurityTerms • Authentication • Authorization • Group • Impersonation • Login Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    14. 14. Key SQL Server SecurityTerms • Authentication • Permission • Authorization • Group • Impersonation • Login Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    15. 15. Key SQL Server SecurityTerms • Authentication • Permission • Authorization • Principal • Group • Impersonation • Login Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    16. 16. Key SQL Server SecurityTerms • Authentication • Permission • Authorization • Principal • Group • Privilege • Impersonation • Login Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    17. 17. Key SQL Server SecurityTerms • Authentication • Permission • Authorization • Principal • Group • Privilege • Impersonation • Role • Login Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    18. 18. Key SQL Server SecurityTerms • Authentication • Permission • Authorization • Principal • Group • Privilege • Impersonation • Role • Login • User Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    19. 19. Agenda• Security Overview• Authentication• Authorization Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    20. 20. Authentication• Process of verifying that a principal is who or what it claims to be • SQL Server has to uniquely identify principals in order to authorize• Two paths to authentication • Windows authentication • SQL Server authentication• Authentication modes • Mixed Mode Authentication • Windows Only Authentication Mode Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    21. 21. Windows Integrated • SQL Server assumes a trust relationship with Windows Server • Windows does the heavy lifting for authentication • The SQL Server checks permissions on the principal • Advantages • Single user login • Auditing features • Simplified login management • Password policies • Changes only take effect when user connects Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    22. 22. Configuring SQL ServerSecurity Settings• Select either when install or later• Settings apply to all databases and server objects in an instance of SQL Server• Changing modes after installation may or may not cause problems • Windows to Mixed • Mixed to Windows Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    23. 23. SQL Server Authentication• Client applications must provide login credentials as part of connection string• Logins stored in SQL Server• Windows authentication stronger • But must use SQL Server authentication with old versions of Windows, non- Windows systems Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    24. 24. Windows and SQL ServerLogins• SQL Server logins are not stored in Windows • Disabled if you select Windows authentication• Mixed mode is much more flexible • But less secure Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    25. 25. Beware of the sa Login• System administrator login• Mapped to sysadmin fixed server role• Conveys full system administrator privileges• Cannot modify or delete• Must use a strong password!• Use only as access of last resort• NEVER use sa for database access through client applications Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    26. 26. Password Policy andEnforcement• Before SQL Server 2005, no enforcement of passwords for SQL Server logins • No minimum strength • No expiration policy• SQL Server now hooks into Windows password policy • Windows Server 2003, Vista, and later versions • NetValidatePasswordPolicy API method Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    27. 27. Contained Databases• Not a security feature per se • But introduces a new authentication scheme• Solves problem of moving databases • Past: move database plus external dependencies • Contained databases solves associated problems Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    28. 28. Contained Databases• Can create a SQL user with a password• Windows user in database• Not associated with a login• Authenticate against contained database • Get a token for that database only • Security boundary is tightly scoped• If authentication fails at database, doesn’t fall back to duplicate login, if Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    29. 29. Contained DatabasesAuthentication Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    30. 30. Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection Request Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    31. 31. Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection Request Initial catalog specified? Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    32. 32. Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection Request Initial catalog specified? No Server-level authentication Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    33. 33. Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection Request Initial Yes Initial catalog catalog specified? contained? No Server-level authentication Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    34. 34. Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection Request Initial Yes Initial catalog catalog specified? contained? No No Server-level authentication Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    35. 35. Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection Request Initial Yes Initial Yes Authent- catalog catalog ication specified? contained? type? No No Server-level authentication Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    36. 36. Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection Matching Request user in database ? SQL Server Initial Yes Initial Yes Authent- catalog catalog ication specified? contained? type? No No Server-level authentication Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    37. 37. Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection Matching Request user in database ? SQL Server No Initial Yes Initial Yes Authent- catalog catalog ication specified? contained? type? No No Server-level authentication Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    38. 38. Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection Matching Yes Request user in Password database match? ? SQL Server No Initial Yes Initial Yes Authent- catalog catalog ication specified? contained? type? No No Server-level authentication Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    39. 39. Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection Matching Yes Request user in Password database match? ? SQL Server No No Initial Yes Initial Yes Authent- catalog catalog ication Authentication specified? contained? type? failure No No Server-level authentication Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    40. 40. Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection Matching Yes Yes Request user in Password database match? ? SQL Server No No Initial Yes Initial Yes Authent- Permis- catalog catalog ication Authentication sion in specified? contained? type? failure database ? No No Server-level authentication Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    41. 41. Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection Matching Yes Yes Request user in Password database match? ? SQL Server No No Initial Yes Initial Yes Authent- No Permis- catalog catalog ication Authentication sion in specified? contained? type? failure database ? No No Server-level authentication Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    42. 42. Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection Matching Yes Yes Request user in Password database match? ? SQL Server No No Initial Yes Initial Yes Authent- No Permis- catalog catalog ication Authentication sion in specified? contained? type? failure database ? No No Windows Matching login or group? Server-level authentication Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    43. 43. Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection Matching Yes Yes Request user in Password database match? ? SQL Server No No Initial Yes Initial Yes Authent- No Permis- catalog catalog ication Authentication sion in specified? contained? type? failure database ? No No Windows Matching login or group? No Server-level authentication Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    44. 44. Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection Matching Yes Yes Request user in Password database match? ? SQL Server No No Initial Yes Initial Yes Authent- No Permis- catalog catalog ication Authentication sion in specified? contained? type? failure database ? No No Windows Matching Matching Yes principal login or in group? database ? No Server-level authentication Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    45. 45. Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection Matching Yes Yes Request user in Password database match? ? SQL Server No No Initial Yes Initial Yes Authent- No Permis- catalog catalog ication Authentication sion in specified? contained? type? failure database ? No No No Windows Matching Matching Yes principal login or in group? database ? No Server-level authentication Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    46. 46. Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection Matching Yes Yes Request user in Password database match? ? SQL Server No No Initial Yes Initial Yes Authent- No Permis- catalog catalog ication Authentication sion in specified? contained? type? failure database ? No No No Windows Matching Matching Yes principal Yes login or in group? database ? No Server-level authentication Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    47. 47. Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection Matching Yes Yes Request user in Password database match? ? SQL Server No No Initial Yes Initial Yes Authent- No Permis- Yes catalog catalog ication Authentication sion in specified? contained? type? failure database ? No No No Windows Matching Matching Yes principal Yes login or in group? database ? No Server-level Database authentication authentication Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    48. 48. Contained DatabasesAuthentication Connection Matching Yes Yes Request user in Password database match? ? SQL Server No No Initial catalog Yes Initial catalog Yes Authent- ication * Authentication No Permis- sion in Yes specified? contained? type? failure database ? No No No Windows Matching Matching Yes principal Yes login or in group? database ? No Server-level Database authentication authentication Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    49. 49. Agenda• Security Overview• Authentication• Authorization Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    50. 50. Authorization• Principals: user or process allowed to access securable objects• Securables: protected resource• Permissions: type of access Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    51. 51. Principals Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    52. 52. Principals • Windows-level principals • Windows Domain Login • Windows Group • Windows Local Login • SQL Server-level principals • SQL Server Login • SQL Server Login mapped to a certificate • SQL Server login mapped to a Windows login • SQL Server Login mapped to an asymmetric key • Database-level principals • Application Role • Database Role • Database User • Database User mapped to a certificate • Database User mapped to a Windows login • Database User mapped to an asymmetric key • Public Role Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    53. 53. Principals• Scope of a principal determines scope of permission• Principal can be a login, user, or role • Roles are analogous to Windows groups • Users in role inherit role’s permissions • Simplify security management• Types of roles • Fixed server roles • User-defined server roles • Fixed database roles • User-defined database roles Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    54. 54. Fixed Server Roles• Cannot alter, even to add new ones, except to add logins to a role• Server roles • System administrator • Bulk insert administrator • Database creator • Disk administrator • Process administrator • Server administrator • Setup administrator • Security administrator Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    55. 55. User-Defined Server Roles• Long awaited security feature • Long have had user-defined database roles • But nothing at the server level• Used to be, only way to grant some permissions was through a fixed server role• SQL Server 2012 solves these problems Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    56. 56. Fixed Database Roles• Control authorization within a database• Configure each database individually• Database roles • db_accessadmin • db_backupoperator • db_datareader • db_datawriter • db_ddladmin • db_denydatareader • db_denydatawriter • db_owner • db_securityadmin Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    57. 57. The Public Role• Every database user assigned to this role• Be very careful about granting permissions• Normally restrict permissions for this role Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    58. 58. The dbo (Database Owner)Role• Mapped to sysadmin fixed server role• Not related to db_owner role Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    59. 59. User-Defined Database Roles• Standard role• Application role Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    60. 60. Securable Objects• Protected resource that you can control access to• Physical object or action Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    61. 61. Securable Objects Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    62. 62. Securable Objects Server Database Endpoint Remote Binding Route Server Role SQL Server Login Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    63. 63. Securable Objects Server Database Database Endpoint Application Role Remote Binding Assembly Route Asymmetric Key Server Role Certificate SQL Server Database user Login Fixed Database Role Full-Text Catalog Message Type Schema Service Service Contract Symmetric Key Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    64. 64. Securable Objects Server Database Database Endpoint Application Role Schema Remote Binding Assembly Default Route Asymmetric Key Function Server Role Certificate Procedure SQL Server Database user Query Stats Login Fixed Database Queue Role Rule Full-Text Synonym Catalog Table Message Type Trigger Schema Type Service View Service Contract XML Schema Symmetric Key Collection Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    65. 65. Learn More! Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    66. 66. Learn More!• This is an excerpt from a larger course. Visit www.learnnowonline.com for the full details! Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    67. 67. Learn More!• This is an excerpt from a larger course. Visit www.learnnowonline.com for the full details! Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    68. 68. Learn More!• This is an excerpt from a larger course. Visit www.learnnowonline.com for the full details!• Learn more about about SQL Server on SlideShare Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company
    69. 69. Learn More!• This is an excerpt from a larger course. Visit www.learnnowonline.com for the full details!• Learn more about about SQL Server on SlideShare  A Tour of SQL Server Learn More @ http://www.learnnowonline.com Copyright © by Application Developers Training Company

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