CHAPTER 2
PUBERTY, HEALTH AND BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS
______________ and ______________ changes are the essence of adolesce...
______________ , but puberty produces marked ______________ in a relatively ______________
period of ______________ , due ...
maturing ______________ are perceived to be a source of more ______________ and
______________ for their parents.
Adolesce...
______________ as children, especially ______________ gain more ______________ and have more
opportunities to choose their...
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Chapter 2

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Chapter 2 Notes
Psychology 12
Los Angeles Valley College
Dr. Ali Ghassemi

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
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Chapter 2

  1. 1. CHAPTER 2 PUBERTY, HEALTH AND BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS ______________ and ______________ changes are the essence of adolescent development. They encompass a sequence of events that transforms a ______________ into an ______________ . The predictable ______________ metamorphosis offers little opportunity for deviation. ______________ is defined as a period of ______________ physical ______________ predominantly occurring during ______________ adolescence because of genetic predisposition (______________ ) Genetic inheritance dictates the need for the body to achieve specific functional ______________ , and influences ______________ curves by following ______________ pattern: 1) Maturity gradients —the ______________ and ______________ must be ______________ developmental step ahead of other ______________ (i.e., neural tube, myelin sheath, nerve endings) to provide the ______________ for the development of other body ______________ ; 2) Feedback regulation—the lymphatic system regulates ______________ secretions to make the ______________ structure functional. ______________ produced by ______________ are secreted directly into the ______________ and are circulated to influence cell growth; 3) Body mass—the ______________ structure influences the onset of ______________ spurts or ______________ (i.e., marked ______________ gains coincide with ______________ onset), health expectations identified by ______________ and ______________ gains are required before 4) the ______________ growth spurt begins. Hormones—reproductive systems become functional as ______________ and ______________ secreted by the ______________ glands and carried by the bloodstream influence the development of sex organs; The endocrine system through interaction between the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and gonads, ensures that hormonal stimulation prompts maturation and maintains reproductive capacity through a negative feedback system; the hypothalamus produces chemicals known as releasing factors, which the blood stream carries to the pituitary gland stimulating it to produce substances called gonadotropins, which stimulates the gonads. In late middle childhood, concentrations of these gonadotropins, which include follicle-stimulating hormones and luteinizing hormone, begin to increase. In turn these hormones induce the ovaries to produce female sex hormones and the testes to produce sperm in males and mature ova in females. The sex hormones produce by the gonads cause the pubertal changes in the body. The physical changes that occur during puberty affect every area of development. The ______________ of physiological changes in puberty is ______________ , but the ______________ of the changes ______________ from ______________ to ______________ . For example, the ______________ of ______________ maturation is consistent across adolescents, but the ______________ and time of ______________ is highly individual. Both sexes experience a ______________ spurt in ______________ and ______________ before ______________ maturation begins. Girls, as a group, ______________ and begin puberty a ______________ of years earlier than boys. The growth spurt in males does not occur until a ______________ of other ______________ changes have taken place, for example the full development of the ______________ . ______________ boys and girls are very similar
  2. 2. ______________ , but puberty produces marked ______________ in a relatively ______________ period of ______________ , due largely to dramatic changes in ______________ balance between ______________ and ______________ . When physical growth ______________ considerably, it signals the onset of ______________ , or ______________ . ______________ follows the peak velocity in height increase, so it has been attributed to critical body mass, percentage of body fat that signal readiness for puberty. The ______________ trend for the age at which ______________ begins has gradually ______________ during the twentieth century, but ______________ limits will prevail. Since 1900, children each ______________ have been growing ______________ at the rate of approximately ______________ centimeter and ______________ by half a ______________ . Between ______________ and ______________ , the age of ______________ averaged some ______________ or ______________ months earlier each ______________ , although the ______________ was greater in some decades compared to others. This trend is found across all ______________ nations. ______________ trend is likely due to an ______________ in ______________ , a decline in ______________ -retarding illnesses during the first 5 years of life and better ______________ care. Psychological changes that accompany adolescence include perceptions by ______________ , ______________ , and ______________ themselves. Adolescents become preoccupied with changes in ______________ image, with ______________ showing less ______________ than ______________ . Hormonal changes have an effect on adolescent ______________ , but ______________ factors are ______________ to ______________ times more influential than hormones. For example, adolescent ______________ report only mild ______________ responses to ______________ , especially if they are ______________ for the experience. ______________ maturation has particularly ______________ effects on ______________ and ______________ . ______________ maturing ______________ are more ______________ and begin ______________ earlier. ______________ maturing ______________ are considered more ______________ and ______________ , as well as more ______________ and self- ______________ . Meanwhile, ______________ maturation in ______________ is also associated with increase likelihood of ______________ in ______________ and lower ______________ , and a less ______________ body ______________ . In ______________ , ______________ maturation is associated with ______________ problems in ______________ . ______________ maturation provides opportunity for ______________ , and leads to greater ______________ with ______________ image for ______________ - rather than ______________ -maturing ______________ . ______________ maturing boys are more ______________ , ______________ and ______________ as adults. ______________ maturing girls are less ______________ to ______________ pressure, especially pressure to engage in ______________ conduct. ______________ maturing boys are considered ______________ , more ______________ and more ______________ seeking. Social context influences the complexity in interpreting outcomes of on-time and off-time pubertal events. For example, parents perceive less ______________ with ______________ maturing ______________ . In contrast, ______________
  3. 3. maturing ______________ are perceived to be a source of more ______________ and ______________ for their parents. Adolescence is a ______________ juncture in ______________ . On one hand adolescents reach a level of ______________ , ______________ and ______________ that they will never ______________ during the rest of their lives. And on the other hand many behaviors linked to ______________ habits and early ______________ in adults ______________ during adolescence. Health ______________ developed in ______________ seem to carry ______________ through ______________ . Adolescence is a ______________ junction in the ______________ of ______________ -related behaviors. Adolescents’ peak ______________ condition and feelings of ______________ may lead to the development of ______________ health habits. Experts are interested in decreasing health- ______________ behaviors and increasing health-______________ behaviors. The ______________ behavior that we want to ______________ through regular practice includes weight ______________ and physical ______________ . The ______________ behavior that we want to ______________ or ______________ includes eating ______________ high in ______________ and ______________ , ______________ , drinking too much ______________ , and eating too ______________ or too ______________ for our ______________ needs. Adolescents get too little ______________ and are perpetually ______________ . Adolescents also are prone to changes in the circadian timing (______________ ) during ______________ , resulting in the tendency to have ______________ onset of ______________ and difficulty ______________ . Adolescents need ______________ hours of sleep a ______________ . They also tend to want to stay up ______________ and get up ______________ in the morning. Because of ______________ start times, adolescents experience a sleep ______________ . Sleep is a necessity for success in school. . Poor sleep habits by adolescents are associated with poor self-reported school ______________ ; increased ______________ of ______________ sleepiness; greater use of ______________ , ______________ , and ______________ ; evening phase delay preference; and ______________ and ______________ mood. Most adolescents appear to not seek ______________ for their sleep difficulties, but are prone to use ______________ to help themselves sleep. Common elements of the human genome make it possible for our species to thrive. For example, the genotype contains all of the genetic material inherited from both parents; the phenotype reflects observed characteristics, far less than the genetic code transmits; Behavior genetics investigates the influence of nature and nurture on behavior. A ______________ study investigates the similarity between identical and fraternal twins. An ______________ study investigates ______________ of children and ______________ versus ______________ parents. Research designs using ______________ and ______________ twins, raised by ______________ or ______________ parents, help to determine the influence of ______________ characteristics and ______________ influence. Observable patterns are: 1) Passive genotype-environment correlations—environments that reflect ______________ preferences; for example, ______________ ability is in some measure affected by ______________ factors, and parents both ______________ on ______________ for this ability and create an ______________ in which this ______________ can be ______________ . The importance of passive effects
  4. 4. ______________ as children, especially ______________ gain more ______________ and have more opportunities to choose their own ______________ ; 2) Evocative genotype-environment correlations —the child’s inherited ______________ preferences; for example ______________ and ______________ adolescents receive different ______________ from others than do ______________ adolescents. ______________ teens receive different ______________ than ______________ teens. The importance of evocative effects ______________ throughout ______________ 3) Active (niche-picking) genotype-environment correlations—preferred environments identified by the child and in which the child chooses to participate; 4) Shared environmental influences—shared ______________ within the ______________ ; such as their parent’s ______________ , social ______________ and ______________ ; 5) Non-shared environmental influences—______________ experiences influencing ______________ variation; both within a ______________ and outside the ______________ , that are not shared by a ______________ . In summary, genetics and environment are mutually instrumental; one cannot be without the other.

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