AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010ASSUMPTIONS of the SOCIAL approach …1    All human behaviour occurs within a social...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010___________________________________________________________________________________...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010   1. What sampling method did Milgram use? Give one advantage and one disadvantage...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010___________________________________________________________________________________...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010        Label the shock        generator …0 volts                                  ...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-20105                                              6
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010...so how would you evaluate Milgram’s research? You could colour strengths in red ...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010Short Answer Questions – Core Studies 11)      In the Milgram study, participants w...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010Background to Piliavin ’ s StudyRead the following extract from the New York Times ...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010       Three explanations for lack of action - costs   Three explanations for helpi...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010…so previous research into altruism had been conducted in the lab and had suggested...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010  Using your text book to help you, label the diagram with of the study …   What ha...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010Piliavin: Core Studies – Section A Short Answer Questions1       Outline how one et...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010                  Rethinking the psychology of tyranny; the BBC prison studyContext...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010It is very easy to get us to feel that we belong to a group. Make a list here of so...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010Reicher & Haslam’s Aims       •       To repeat Zimbardo in an ethical way.        ...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010Guard Induction – what happened? What were they told? What rules and sanctions were...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010Independent      Variables               What do each of these key terms mean and h...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010       Findings& Conclusions – what do the following graphs tell us about the outco...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010           Reicher & Haslam (2006) Rethinking the psychology of tyranny; the BBC pr...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010Describe the procedure.                                         (8 marks)          ...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010Outline the main findings of Reicher & Haslam’s study.                (8 marks)What...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010                                Personalised Learning & Revision                   ...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010    3                  Make a set of revision cards with the details of the study o...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010                                                        Ch … ch … ch … changes …You...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010Section B Style Exam QuestionsIn the Core Studies exam, you could be asked a whole ...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010                                          27
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010Make a note here of how you are going to revise for the social approach. You should...
AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010___________________________________________________________________________________...
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Social approach work book

  1. 1. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010ASSUMPTIONS of the SOCIAL approach …1 All human behaviour occurs within a social context, this means that …______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Give an example from real life …______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________2 Our relationships with others affects our behaviour, this means that …____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Give an example from real life …____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________3 The situation we are in has an effect on our behaviour; we do not always act according to our own free will, this means that …______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Give an example from real life … 1
  2. 2. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Is obedience always or ever a good thing? Milgram’s Aim … Public Announcement WE WILL PAY YOU $4.00 FOR ONE HOUR OF YOUR TIME Persons needed for a study of memory We will pay five hundred New Haven men to help us complete a scientific study of memory and learning. This study is being done at Yale University. Each person who participates will be paid $4.00 (plus 50c carfare) for approximately 1 hours time. We need you for only one hour; there are no further obligations. You may choose the time you would like to come (evenings weekends or weekdays). No special training, education or experience is needed. We want: Factory workers Businessmen Construction workers City employees Clerks Salespeople Labourers Professionals White collar workers Barbers Telephone workers Others All persons must be between the ages of 20-50. High school and college students cannot be used. If you meet these requirements, fill in the coupon below and mail it to Professor Stanley Milgram, Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven. You will be notified later of the specific time and place of the study. We reserve the right to decline any application. You will be paid $4.00 (plus 50c carfare) as soon as you arrive at the laboratory. 2
  3. 3. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010 1. What sampling method did Milgram use? Give one advantage and one disadvantage of this method? (4)______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Is Milgram’s sample representative of the general population? Explain your answer. (2)___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. What problems might there be in paying participants? What steps did Milgram take to try to reduce this problem? (2)___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. What was the real and stated purpose of this study? Which ethical consideration does this raise? Why was it necessary to be unethical in this way? (4)___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3
  4. 4. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Procedure … Summarise Milgram’s procedure in your own words … _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________Experimenter Prods … ‘the experiment ‘although the shocks may requires you to be painful, there is no continue’ permanent, tissue ‘Please continue.’ damage Please go on’. ‘It is absolutely ‘You have no choice, you must essential that you go on continue’ What was the effect of these prods on the participant? ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 4 ___________________________________________________________________________________________
  5. 5. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010 Label the shock generator …0 volts 450volts…and finally try to sort out some findings and conclusions from Milgram’s famous study Finding Conclusion (Explain the finding …)65% of participants shockedlearners right to the end100% went to 300 volts (intenseshock) List 5 reasons which could explain why people obeyed in this experiment … 1 2 3 4 5
  6. 6. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-20105 6
  7. 7. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010...so how would you evaluate Milgram’s research? You could colour strengths in red andweaknesses in blue Milgram’s study Participants were seriously deceived - The sample was not challenged the existing view of many were caused a representative great deal of stress – human nature – the ethical issues – because it was self it has high were too great political impact selecting The study was a The study acts as laboratory experiment a warning to Milgram’s theory is therefore it was well society about its releases people controlled potential for evil – from responsibility for their actions it is useful ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY the study only – WHAT IS IT AND used American HOW DOES IT APPLY male participants TO MILGRAM? – therefore we cannot generalise 7
  8. 8. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010Short Answer Questions – Core Studies 11) In the Milgram study, participants were observed to experience a lot of tension, give one example of the kind ofbehaviour exhibited by the participants. (2)____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________2) Milgram suggested that the tension was caused by the conflicts caused by the study. Outline one of these conflicts.(2)____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________3) In the study by Milgram, how were the subjects recruited? (2)____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________4 Outline one advantage of recruiting subjects in this way? (2)____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________5) Milgram’s study was criticised for being unethical, although Milgram himself put up a strong defence of it. Outline twoexamples of how the ethics of this study could be defended. (4)________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________6) The findings were a surprise to the researchers. Give four factors which were thought to contribute to these high levelsof obedience. (4)________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8
  9. 9. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010Background to Piliavin ’ s StudyRead the following extract from the New York Times and answer the following questions.1 Do you think you would have reacted in a different way if you were in a similar situation?2 Try to identify at least three explanations for the onlookers lack of action in this article. These are called costs3 Try to identify at least three explanations for helping Kitty. These are called benefits.THE MURDER OF KITTY GENOVESE-At approximately 3:20 on the morning of March 13, 1964, twenty-eight-year-old Ms Catherine (Kitty) Genovese was returning to her home in anice middle-class area of Queens, NY, from her job as a bar manager. Sheparked her red Fiat in a nearby parking lot, turned-off the lights andstarted the walk to her second floor apartment some 35 yards away. Shegot as far as a streetlight when a man grabbed her. She screamed.Lights went on in the 10-floor apartment building nearby. She yelled, "Oh, my God, he stabbed me!Please help me!" Windows opened in the apartment building and a mans voice shouted, "Let that girlalone." The attacker looked up, shrugged and walked-off down the street. Ms Genovese struggled to getto her feet. Lights went back off in the apartments. The attacker came back and stabbed her again. Sheagain cried out, "Im dying! Im dying!" And again the lights came on and windows opened in many of thenearby apartments. The assailant again left and got into his car and drove away. Ms Genovese staggeredto her feet as a city bus drove by. It was now 3:35 a.m. The attacker returned once again. He found herin a doorway at the foot of the stairs and he stabbed her a third time -- this time with a fatalconsequence. It was 3:50 when the police received the first call. They responded quickly and within twominutes were at the scene. Ms Genovese was already dead. The only person to call, a neighbour of MsGenovese, revealed that he had phoned only after much thought and an earlier phone call to a friend. Hesaid, "I didnt want to get involved."THE NEW YORK TIMES, March 27, 1964, p. 38. 9
  10. 10. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010 Three explanations for lack of action - costs Three explanations for helping - benefits 1 2 3 Key idea to remember: What is the Social Approach to Psychology? What do social psychologists study? How does this study fit with this approach? Darley & Latane (1968) conducted a lab experiment in which participants were asked to converse with a fellow participants (really a confederate) across and intercom. Whilst having their conversation, the confederate faked an epileptic fit and the participants’ reactions were observed. The researchers found that when participants thought that others had witnessed the fir, they acted to seek help for him far less readily.Latane & Rodin (1969) conducted a follow up study which seeminglyconfirmed this finding. In this experiment, a participant was placedin a waiting room, sometimes alone and sometimes with others. Whilstwaiting they would hear the noise of a woman fall and cry out in theadjoining room. The researchers found that participants were muchslower in offering assistance when others were present than whenthey were alone. Both of these are lab experiments, what are the strengths and weaknesses ofthis method? 10
  11. 11. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010…so previous research into altruism had been conducted in the lab and had suggested that therewas a tendency for helping behaviour to drop when more people were present and there two mainreasons for this … Diffusion of responsibility Pluralistic ignorance Key Term Give an example of how this might work in the real world Diffusion of responsibility occurs in a crowd setting when people believe that the responsibility for intervention is shared between everyone present – and this is less weighted on the individual themselves. Pluralistic ignorance describes how people delude one another into remaining calm and inactive eg people may perceive an emergency as a non emergency, because everyone around them is calm and inactive. Describe Piliavin’s sample … How many were there? Who were they? What kind of sampling method is this 11
  12. 12. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010 Using your text book to help you, label the diagram with of the study … What happens in the adjacent area? What happens in the critical area? Describe the victim …Describe the observers … Make a note here of Piliavin ’s findings &n conclusions, use page 116 of you text book to help you … Finding Conclusion Cane victim received help 95% of the time, the drunk victim got help 50% of the time … 90% of the helpers were … There was tendency for same race helping especially in the condition There was diffusion of responsibility, this was from previous research in labs 12
  13. 13. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010Piliavin: Core Studies – Section A Short Answer Questions1 Outline how one ethical guideline was broken by Piliavin. (2)____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________2 Outline one way in which ethical guidelines were upheld by Piliavin. (2)____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________3 Identify two details that were recorded by the observers in the subway Samaritan study. (2)____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________4 Give one finding from the subway Samaritan study. (2)____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________5 The study by Piliavin et al took social psychology out of the laboratory and into the field.a) Give one reason why diffusion of responsibility was found in laboratory studies but not in the Piliavin fieldstudy. (2)____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________6) Piliavin’s study refers to “diffusion of responsibility”. What does this term mean? (2)____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 13
  14. 14. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010 Rethinking the psychology of tyranny; the BBC prison studyContext , Background to the Study … What kind of behaviour would you expect from each of these people?Psychologists call expectations of behaviour social roles – make sure you have a good definition of socialroles here … Social roles are …… but our social roles change according to the situation we find ourselves in. Can you think of anyexamples?What has happened to the social roles for these people?When we lose our own identity and become part of the group, psychologists call this deindividuation,that means we take on the roles of the group, our behaviour changes. Can you think of any otherexamples? Deindividuation means … 14
  15. 15. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010It is very easy to get us to feel that we belong to a group. Make a list here of some of the groups youhave belonged to in the past or belong to now …Guides, scouts, football team, netball team, friendship group …We like to be part of a group and we identify ourselves with them, the team we support, the band welike etc. Psychologists call this Social Identity Theory … which was investigated by Tajfel in a famousexperiment … and also in another famous experiment blue eyes, brown eyes…But perhaps the most famous of all of these experiments is by Zimbardo, it is called the Stanford PrisonExperiment … Zimbardo believed that our behaviour can be explained by the situation we find ourselvesin and by the social roles we play … he thought this was very dangerous and could lead to very cruelbehaviour towards others.Watch the video clip and make a note here of any examples you can of the following:-Taking on a social role …Wearing a uniform …Social identity theory (identifying with a group)Deindividuation (becoming part of the crowd) Homework … Make sure you understand the three key terms:- social roles, deindividuation, Social Identity Theory – these are the background to Reicher & Haslam’s study. Using these key terms, describe the background to Reicher & Haslam’s study for 6 marks 15
  16. 16. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010Reicher & Haslam’s Aims • To repeat Zimbardo in an ethical way. • To analyse conditions that lead individuals to identify with their group • To analyse conditions that lead individuals to criticise their roles within their group • To analyse the importance of power in group behaviourParticipants • 15 males selected from 332 who replied to advertisements in the press, chosen after screening, there were only 14 participants, the 15th came later, randomly allocated to the role of either guard or prisoner – 5 guards and 10 prisoners. The set had lockable 3 person cells. • psychometric tests to make sure they were well-balanced and mentally healthy • a full weekend assessment by clincal psychologists. • medical and character references and police checks. • The final 15 were chosen from a short-list of 27 to ensure diversity of age, class and ethnicity.Ethics • submitted for scrutiny by BPS ethics committee • participants clinical, medical & background screened and all gave INFORMED consent • monitored by clinical psychologists throughout • paramedic on duty throughout • security guards present to intervene if needed • monitored by 5 person ethics committee who were able to terminate the study at any timeProcedureA mock prison was created by the BBC in a television studio, with 3 lockable cells. The plan was that it would lastfor 10 days and would be recorded on TV. However, it was not ‘reality TV’ – it would only be broadcast in 4 onehour programmes. 16
  17. 17. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010Guard Induction – what happened? What were they told? What rules and sanctions were to be used?Prisoner induction – what were they wearing? What happened to them when they arrived? 17
  18. 18. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010Independent Variables What do each of these key terms mean and how were they tested?Permeability of rolesLegitimacy of rolesCognitive alternativesDependent What do each of these key terms mean and how were they tested?VariablesSocial variables: social identification, awareness of alternatives, authoritarian attitudesOrganisational variables: compliance with the rulesClinical variables:depression, stress 18
  19. 19. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010 Findings& Conclusions – what do the following graphs tell us about the outcomes of the study?1 Group identity – social identification2 Compliance3. Authoritarianism 19
  20. 20. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010 Reicher & Haslam (2006) Rethinking the psychology of tyranny; the BBC prison experimentBackground / Context (6 marks) • Previous research had suggested that we take on social roles; sometimes when we are part of a group we lose our individual identity and become deindividuated • Social Identity Theory suggests that we take on the behaviour of the group we belong to and sometimes this behaviour can be cruel depending on the situation we find ourselves in • SIT was investigated by Tajfel in his ingroup/outgroup experiments but most famous was Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment which showed how we conform to social roles and can become cruel to othersWhat was the aim of Reicher & Haslam’ study? (2 marks)Describe the research method used in Reicher & Haslam’s study. (6 marks)Describe the sample used and outline one strength & one limitation of it. (6 marks)Describe the design and outline one strength and one limitation of it. (6 marks) 20
  21. 21. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010Describe the procedure. (8 marks) 21
  22. 22. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010Outline the main findings of Reicher & Haslam’s study. (8 marks)What conclusions did Reicher & Haslam come to? (8 marks) Strengths WeaknessesHow does this study relate to the social approach? 22
  23. 23. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010 Personalised Learning & Revision Tips for Reicher & Haslam1. Read the study really carefully in your text book pages 104 – 119. You will need to read it more than once.2. Make a note of any key terms or words you do not understand. Make a set of matching card like this … Social roles Behaviours expected of a person occupying a certain position in a group Use these cards to test yourself on the key terms. You should include:- social roles tyranny deindividuation social identity theory permeability legitimacy cognitive alternatives compliance psychometrics self efficacy situational hypothesis repeated measures time series approach commune 23
  24. 24. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010 3 Make a set of revision cards with the details of the study on them.4 Try making a cartoon version of the study with captions underneath to explain what ishappening in each picture or write a poem or song about the study, anything to help you toremember … 24
  25. 25. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010 Ch … ch … ch … changes …You could be asked to make changes or improvements to the studies and to say what effect these changes might have on the result. Try tocomplete the following table about the 3 studies in the social approach Study What change would you make What would be the effect of the change? MILGRAM PILIAVINREICHER & HASLAM 25
  26. 26. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010Section B Style Exam QuestionsIn the Core Studies exam, you could be asked a whole question on any of these studies inSection B. These are the sort of questions in this section …Choose one of the following studies and answer the questions below … Milgram Piliavin Reicher & Haslam1. What was the aim of the study? (2 marks)2. Describe the sample used and outline one limitation of it. (6 marks)3. Describe the controls used in this study and explain why they were used. (6 marks)4. Describe how observational data was used in this study. (6 marks)5. Describe another way Piliavin et al could have investigated their aim and outline how this could have affected their results. (8 marks)6. Outline the results of this study. (8 marks) (36 marks)Section C Style Exam QustionsIn the Core Studies exam, you could be asked a question on the Social Approach in Psychology.The question could look something like this:- a) Outline one assumption of the social approach in psychology. (2) b) Describe how the developmental approach could explain obedience. (4) c) Describe one similarity and one difference between any two social studies. (6) d) Discuss strengths and weaknesses of the social approach using any examples from the social approach studies. (12) 26
  27. 27. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010 27
  28. 28. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010Make a note here of how you are going to revise for the social approach. You should try tolist 3 different ways of revising for each of the different section of the exam … Section A – Short Answer Questions Section B – Detailed Questions on One of the studies Section C – Question on the Whole Approach …________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 28
  29. 29. AS Social Psychology Workbook 2009-2010____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 29

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