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Chapter 13

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Chapter 13-Problems of Youth
Psychology 12
Los Angeles Valley College
Dr. Ali Ghassemi

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Chapter 13

  1. 1. CHAPTER 13: Adolescent Problems Abnormal behavior is behavior that is ____________ , ____________ , and personally ____________ . We can use a bio-psycho-social approach to examine adolescent problems and identify many factors that interact. Biological factors relate to ____________ and ____________ factors, malfunctions of the ____________ ; treatment by ____________ therapy; Psychological factors are related to ____________ thoughts, ____________ turmoil, ____________ learning; Social factors are concerned with ____________ status, ____________ and ____________ influences; Bio-psycho-social is the combined influence of biological, psychological, and social factors; Developmental psychopathology defines ____________ (occur when individuals turn problems ____________ , such as ____________ , ____________ and ____________ ), and externalizing (occurs when individuals turn problems ____________ such as behaviors associated with juvenile ____________ ) issues. Adolescent problems are broad in spectrum, they have variable ____________ ; some are short ____________ , such as ____________ are typical of ____________ , ____________ is typical of young ____________ , and ____________ and ____________ typical of older ____________ ; also ____________ assets, such as ____________ support can impact adolescent problems, as well as ____________ assets, such as ____________ , which is ____________ in ____________ based on ____________ skill, close ____________ , and support from ____________ . Some children and adolescents ____________ over life’s ____________ . Drugs are used for ____________ , ____________ , ____________ , and ____________ reasons. Adolescents take drugs to help them ____________ to change, reduce ____________ , relieve ____________ , and ____________ from ____________ . Positive consequences are ____________ ; long-term consequences include drug ____________ , ____________ , and ____________ . Developing ____________ is associated with drug use, which is a condition in which a ____________ amount of a drug is needed to ____________ the same effect as a ____________ amount used to ____________ . Drug use also leads to Physical and psychological ____________ and change adolescent lives. Physical ____________ is accompanied by unpleasant ____________ symptoms when drug is ____________ . Psychological ____________ refers to strong ____________ and ____________ to ____________ the use of a drug for various ____________ reasons, such as feeling of ____________ -____________ and reduction of ____________ . ____________ is the most ____________ used drug by adolescents, and the ____________ leading ____________ in the United States (nearly ____________ ). The single ____________ cause of ____________ in adolescence is ____________ in motor vehicle accident, of which about ____________ involve ____________ . Although reports indicate a gradual decline, ____________ percent of adolescents report ____________ drinking in the last ____________ weeks. Alcohol use correlates with ____________ , negative ____________ influence such as ____________ sanctions, negative influence of ____________ relations, ____________ , and ____________ transitions. Stimulants, also called ____________ increase functioning of ____________ and ____________ . An example is ____________ , a natural ____________ found mainly in ____________ and found in ____________ . ____________ smoking is considered the greatest ____________ cause of ____________ and ____________ in the US. Despite its link to many diseases, ____________ remains a national problem. While most drugs follow a pattern of ____________ use in ____________ and gradual ____________ by young ____________ , ____________ doesn’t follow this pattern. Smoking remains ____________ , with insignificant ____________ in adulthood. Cocaine produces euphoria followed by depressive feelings; loss of control, compared to amphetamines the stimulating effects of cocaine last a shorter time but are more intense. Higher doses might cause psychotic symptoms, endangerment of a job, compulsive use and. could lead to anhedonia (inability to feel pleasure); Amphetamines increase ____________ activity and depending on the ____________ , ____________ and ____________ of use can cause a range of effects; create sense of increased ____________ and ____________ . ____________ is build rapidly. Dexedrine, Benzedrine (amphetamine), Methedrine
  2. 2. (methamphetamine); could lead to amphetamine ____________ (paranoid ____________ ); ____________ are ____________ engineered version of amphetamines, induces ____________ effects, ____________ , and brain ____________ with repeated use. Depressants, such as ____________ that are ____________ drugs, including ____________ , reduce ____________ (Valium & Xanax), ____________ include morphine and heroin, reduce ____________ activity, induces ____________ , reduce ____________ and ____________ ; they are highly ____________ . Hallucinogens—substances that ____________ or ____________ sensory ____________ ; LSD creates ____________ changes, ____________ , ____________ , rapid ____________ swings; marijuana produces ____________ or ____________ , impairs ____________ behavior and ____________ processes. Development typically includes the use of drugs (e.g., caffeine, alcohol, and cigarettes), but continued use to cope with ____________ has detrimental affects. Early use is usually associated with greater ____________ by adolescence. Lack of ____________ and ____________ -ridden homes are associated with ____________ drug use. Parents who set ____________ are likely to have children who do not use drugs. Early ____________ , ____________ -led and ____________ -based programs, with ____________ training, ____________ skills training, ____________ -wide ____________ efforts, and multi-____________ programs could lead to lower drug usage. Juvenile delinquency refers to ____________ behavior including ____________ offenses (performed by ____________ under a specific ____________ , include ____________ away, ____________ under age, ____________ or sexual ____________ ); and ____________ offense that are ____________ acts (____________ or ____________ ). Discussion about the treatment of adolescents in the ____________ system revolves around the ____________ at which adolescents should be treated as ____________ . The treatment of adolescents between the age of 13 and 16 is difficult due to differences in developmental ____________ . When many ____________ behaviors, such as ____________ , ____________ away, physical ____________ to ____________ or ____________ , ____________ of property, ____________ setting or ____________ and ____________ use occur over a 6-month period before the age of 15, the clinical diagnosis of ____________ disorder may be made. About 10 percent of adolescents are arrested each year, and determinations of status are made. Violence can be predicted by early involvement with drugs, easy access to weapons, involvement with antisocial peers, and extent of attention to violent media Slide 20: Intervention programs need to be ____________ and include the ____________ , ____________ , ____________ , and the ____________ . Programs need to begin ____________; the effect of interventions diminishes as children get ____________ . Verbal ____________ in the child is important. A child who cannot verbally ____________ their ____________ and ____________ may be at a ____________ risk for ____________ behavior. Teachers also need to model ____________ management strategies. The ____________ environment of the schools needs to foster ____________ and encourage norms against ____________ . ____________ and the ____________ need to regulate highly violent ____________ . Exposure to violent ____________ may ____________ children, lead them to believe everyone is ____________ , and that ____________ is an acceptable solution. Finally, communities need to regulate adolescents’ access to ____________ . Depression and suicide increase markedly during adolescence. Adolescents with ____________ depressive ____________ demonstrate ____________ and ____________ to the point that ____________ function is impaired over a period of ____________ weeks or ____________ . Adolescent depression may be short-lived or long-term, but ____________ patterns seem to predict those evident in ____________ . The rate of adolescent ____________ continues to be an ____________ statistic in a culture in which we believe that adolescents have ____________ they could possibly ____________ . Suicide is the ____________ leading cause of ____________ in adolescents. Although ____________ attempt suicide more often then ____________ , ____________ use more ____________ means and are therefore more likely to ____________ .
  3. 3. Risk factors for both depression and suicide include sexual orientation (rate of attempt is double among gay/lesbian adolescents in comparison to heterosexual teens), genetic predisposition, family patterns of the same behavior, poor family relationships, high parental control or expectations without emotional support, and lack of peer support. Eating disorders most troublesome to adolescents include obesity, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa. Both ____________ and ____________ factors are involved in ____________ . ____________ has a predetermining effect on stature and ____________ patterns, but ____________ influence can result in poor body ____________ and excessive weight ____________ or ____________ because it can entice adolescents to ____________ or to be ____________ , ____________ too little or too much in relation to ____________ intake, and encourage ____________ difficulties with ____________ or ____________ . 14% of 12 to 19 year olds are considered ____________ , which is at or about 95th percentile of body mass index... There are ethnic variations, with ____________ American ____________ more obese than ____________ of other ethnicities and ____________ ____________ more obese than their counterparts from other ethnic backgrounds. ____________ % of ____________ adolescents become ____________ adults. As for causes for anorexia nervosa and bulimia, ____________ , ____________ , and ____________ factors have been proposed. The prototypical eating disorder case is a ____________ , ____________ or ____________ middle class ____________ residing either in ____________ or ____________ ____________ . However we know eating disorders are reported among ____________ , as well as ____________ from other ____________ and ____________ backgrounds. Anorexia nervosa is ____________ or ____________ to maintain 85% of expected ____________ for ____________ and ____________ . It is associated with intense ____________ of gaining ____________ , though they are ____________ . It mostly afflicts white adolescents or young adult females. This disorder has the highest ____________ rate of all ____________ disorders and is associated with 50-fold increase in relative risk of death from ____________ . With bulimia nervosa, the individual alternates between eating ____________ amounts of food in a ____________ time, and ____________ for the added ____________ by ____________ or taking other extreme actions. Similar to anorexia there is a ____________ with ____________ and have strong ____________ of becoming ____________ , with associated ____________ and ____________ . But since this behavior occurs within a normal ____________ range, and it is often ____________ to detect. Differences: People with Anorexia have ____________ body ____________ and are below normal weight, those with bulimia have ____________ body ____________ and are typically average or above average in weight. Research in ____________ modalities that has shown ____________ in adolescents is scarce. Given that treatment ____________ for eating disorders is relatively ____________ in ____________ than in ____________ and that the potential for recovery ____________ significantly after patients have been suffering from anorexia for more than 10 years, it is clear that effective treatments targeting adolescent populations are critically needed.

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