CHAPTER 13: Adolescent Problems
Abnormal behavior is behavior that is ____________ , ____________ , and personally ____________ .
We can use a bio-psycho-social approach to examine adolescent problems and identify many factors that
interact. Biological factors relate to ____________ and ____________ factors, malfunctions of the
____________ ; treatment by ____________ therapy; Psychological factors are related to ____________
thoughts, ____________ turmoil, ____________ learning; Social factors are concerned with
____________ status, ____________ and ____________ influences; Bio-psycho-social is the combined
influence of biological, psychological, and social factors; Developmental psychopathology defines
____________ (occur when individuals turn problems ____________ , such as ____________ ,
____________ and ____________ ), and externalizing (occurs when individuals turn problems
____________ such as behaviors associated with juvenile ____________ ) issues.
Adolescent problems are broad in spectrum, they have variable ____________ ; some are short
____________ , such as ____________ are typical of ____________ , ____________ is typical of young
____________ , and ____________ and ____________ typical of older ____________ ; also
____________ assets, such as ____________ support can impact adolescent problems, as well as
____________ assets, such as ____________ , which is ____________ in ____________ based on
____________ skill, close ____________ , and support from ____________ . Some children and
adolescents ____________ over life’s ____________ .
Drugs are used for ____________ , ____________ , ____________ , and ____________ reasons.
Adolescents take drugs to help them ____________ to change, reduce ____________ , relieve
____________ , and ____________ from ____________ . Positive consequences are ____________ ;
long-term consequences include drug ____________ , ____________ , and ____________ . Developing
____________ is associated with drug use, which is a condition in which a ____________ amount of a
drug is needed to ____________ the same effect as a ____________ amount used to ____________ .
Drug use also leads to Physical and psychological ____________ and change adolescent lives. Physical
____________ is accompanied by unpleasant ____________ symptoms when drug is ____________ .
Psychological ____________ refers to strong ____________ and ____________ to ____________ the
use of a drug for various ____________ reasons, such as feeling of ____________ -____________ and
reduction of ____________ .
____________ is the most ____________ used drug by adolescents, and the ____________ leading
____________ in the United States (nearly ____________ ). The single ____________ cause of
____________ in adolescence is ____________ in motor vehicle accident, of which about ____________
involve ____________ . Although reports indicate a gradual decline, ____________ percent of
adolescents report ____________ drinking in the last ____________ weeks. Alcohol use correlates with
____________ , negative ____________ influence such as ____________ sanctions, negative influence
of ____________ relations, ____________ , and ____________ transitions.
Stimulants, also called ____________ increase functioning of ____________ and ____________ . An
example is ____________ , a natural ____________ found mainly in ____________ and found in
____________ . ____________ smoking is considered the greatest ____________ cause of
____________ and ____________ in the US. Despite its link to many diseases, ____________ remains a
national problem. While most drugs follow a pattern of ____________ use in ____________ and gradual
____________ by young ____________ , ____________ doesn’t follow this pattern. Smoking remains
____________ , with insignificant ____________ in adulthood.
Cocaine produces euphoria followed by depressive feelings; loss of control, compared to amphetamines
the stimulating effects of cocaine last a shorter time but are more intense. Higher doses might cause
psychotic symptoms, endangerment of a job, compulsive use and. could lead to anhedonia (inability to
Amphetamines increase ____________ activity and depending on the ____________ , ____________
and ____________ of use can cause a range of effects; create sense of increased ____________ and
____________ . ____________ is build rapidly. Dexedrine, Benzedrine (amphetamine), Methedrine
(methamphetamine); could lead to amphetamine ____________ (paranoid ____________ );
____________ are ____________ engineered version of amphetamines, induces ____________ effects,
____________ , and brain ____________ with repeated use.
Depressants, such as ____________ that are ____________ drugs, including ____________ , reduce
____________ (Valium & Xanax), ____________ include morphine and heroin, reduce ____________
activity, induces ____________ , reduce ____________ and ____________ ; they are highly
Hallucinogens—substances that ____________ or ____________ sensory ____________ ; LSD creates
____________ changes, ____________ , ____________ , rapid ____________ swings; marijuana
produces ____________ or ____________ , impairs ____________ behavior and ____________
Development typically includes the use of drugs (e.g., caffeine, alcohol, and cigarettes), but continued use
to cope with ____________ has detrimental affects. Early use is usually associated with greater
____________ by adolescence. Lack of ____________ and ____________ -ridden homes are associated
with ____________ drug use. Parents who set ____________ are likely to have children who do not use
drugs. Early ____________ , ____________ -led and ____________ -based programs, with
____________ training, ____________ skills training, ____________ -wide ____________ efforts, and
multi-____________ programs could lead to lower drug usage.
Juvenile delinquency refers to ____________ behavior including ____________ offenses (performed by
____________ under a specific ____________ , include ____________ away, ____________ under age,
____________ or sexual ____________ ); and ____________ offense that are ____________ acts
(____________ or ____________ ).
Discussion about the treatment of adolescents in the ____________ system revolves around the
____________ at which adolescents should be treated as ____________ . The treatment of adolescents
between the age of 13 and 16 is difficult due to differences in developmental ____________ . When
many ____________ behaviors, such as ____________ , ____________ away, physical ____________ to
____________ or ____________ , ____________ of property, ____________ setting or ____________
and ____________ use occur over a 6-month period before the age of 15, the clinical diagnosis of
____________ disorder may be made.
About 10 percent of adolescents are arrested each year, and determinations of status are made. Violence
can be predicted by early involvement with drugs, easy access to weapons, involvement with antisocial
peers, and extent of attention to violent media
Slide 20: Intervention programs need to be ____________ and include the ____________ ,
____________ , ____________ , and the ____________ . Programs need to begin ____________; the
effect of interventions diminishes as children get ____________ . Verbal ____________ in the child is
important. A child who cannot verbally ____________ their ____________ and ____________ may be at
a ____________ risk for ____________ behavior. Teachers also need to model ____________
management strategies. The ____________ environment of the schools needs to foster ____________
and encourage norms against ____________ . ____________ and the ____________ need to regulate
highly violent ____________ . Exposure to violent ____________ may ____________ children, lead
them to believe everyone is ____________ , and that ____________ is an acceptable solution. Finally,
communities need to regulate adolescents’ access to ____________ .
Depression and suicide increase markedly during adolescence. Adolescents with ____________
depressive ____________ demonstrate ____________ and ____________ to the point that
____________ function is impaired over a period of ____________ weeks or ____________ .
Adolescent depression may be short-lived or long-term, but ____________ patterns seem to predict those
evident in ____________ . The rate of adolescent ____________ continues to be an ____________
statistic in a culture in which we believe that adolescents have ____________ they could possibly
____________ . Suicide is the ____________ leading cause of ____________ in adolescents. Although
____________ attempt suicide more often then ____________ , ____________ use more ____________
means and are therefore more likely to ____________ .
Risk factors for both depression and suicide include sexual orientation (rate of attempt is double among
gay/lesbian adolescents in comparison to heterosexual teens), genetic predisposition, family patterns of
the same behavior, poor family relationships, high parental control or expectations without emotional
support, and lack of peer support.
Eating disorders most troublesome to adolescents include obesity, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa.
Both ____________ and ____________ factors are involved in ____________ . ____________ has a
predetermining effect on stature and ____________ patterns, but ____________ influence can result in
poor body ____________ and excessive weight ____________ or ____________ because it can entice
adolescents to ____________ or to be ____________ , ____________ too little or too much in relation to
____________ intake, and encourage ____________ difficulties with ____________ or ____________ .
14% of 12 to 19 year olds are considered ____________ , which is at or about 95th percentile of body
mass index... There are ethnic variations, with ____________ American ____________ more obese than
____________ of other ethnicities and ____________ ____________ more obese than their counterparts
from other ethnic backgrounds. ____________ % of ____________ adolescents become ____________
As for causes for anorexia nervosa and bulimia, ____________ , ____________ , and ____________
factors have been proposed. The prototypical eating disorder case is a ____________ , ____________ or
____________ middle class ____________ residing either in ____________ or ____________
____________ . However we know eating disorders are reported among ____________ , as well as
____________ from other ____________ and ____________ backgrounds.
Anorexia nervosa is ____________ or ____________ to maintain 85% of expected ____________ for
____________ and ____________ . It is associated with intense ____________ of gaining
____________ , though they are ____________ . It mostly afflicts white adolescents or young adult
females. This disorder has the highest ____________ rate of all ____________ disorders and is
associated with 50-fold increase in relative risk of death from ____________ . With bulimia nervosa, the
individual alternates between eating ____________ amounts of food in a ____________ time, and
____________ for the added ____________ by ____________ or taking other extreme actions. Similar
to anorexia there is a ____________ with ____________ and have strong ____________ of becoming
____________ , with associated ____________ and ____________ . But since this behavior occurs
within a normal ____________ range, and it is often ____________ to detect.
Differences: People with Anorexia have ____________ body ____________ and are below normal
weight, those with bulimia have ____________ body ____________ and are typically average or above
average in weight. Research in ____________ modalities that has shown ____________ in adolescents is
scarce. Given that treatment ____________ for eating disorders is relatively ____________ in
____________ than in ____________ and that the potential for recovery ____________ significantly
after patients have been suffering from anorexia for more than 10 years, it is clear that effective
treatments targeting adolescent populations are critically needed.